Sir John Major is a British politician who served as Prime Minister of the United Kingdom and Leader of the Conservative Party from 1990 to 1997. He served as Foreign Secretary and Chancellor of the Exchequer in the Thatcher Government from 1989 to 1990, was the Member of Parliament for Huntingdon from 1979 until his retirement in 2001. Since the death of Margaret Thatcher in 2013, Major has been the oldest living former Prime Minister. Born in St Helier, Major grew up in Brixton, he worked as an insurance clerk, at the London Electricity Board, before becoming an executive at Standard Chartered. He was first elected to the House of Commons at the 1979 general election as the Member of Parliament for Huntingdon, he served as a Parliamentary Private Secretary, Assistant Whip and as a Minister for Social Security. In 1987, he joined the Cabinet as Chief Secretary to the Treasury, was promoted to Foreign Secretary two years later. Just three months in October 1989, he was appointed Chancellor of the Exchequer, where he presented the 1990 budget.
Major became Prime Minister after Thatcher's reluctant resignation in November 1990. He presided over British participation in the Gulf War in March 1991, negotiated the Maastricht Treaty in December 1991, he went on to lead the Conservatives to a record fourth consecutive electoral victory, winning the most votes in British electoral history with over 14,000,000 votes at the 1992 general election, albeit with a reduced majority in the House of Commons. Shortly after this though a staunch supporter of the Exchange Rate Mechanism, his government became responsible for British exit from the ERM after Black Wednesday on 16 September 1992; this event led to a loss of confidence in Conservative economic policies and Major was never able to achieve a lead in opinion polls again. Despite the eventual revival of economic growth amongst other successes such as the beginnings of the Northern Ireland peace process, by the mid-1990s, the Conservative Party was embroiled in scandals involving various MPs.
Criticism of Major's leadership reached such a pitch that he chose to resign as party leader in June 1995, challenging his critics to either back him or challenge him. By this time, the Labour Party had abandoned its socialist ideology and moved to the centre under the leadership of Tony Blair and won a large number of by-elections depriving Major's government of a parliamentary majority in December 1996. Major went on to lose the 1997 general election five months in one of the largest electoral defeats since the Great Reform Act of 1832. Major was succeeded by William Hague as Leader of the Conservative Party in June 1997, he went on to retire from active politics, leaving the House of Commons at the 2001 general election. In 1999, a BBC Radio 4 poll ranked. Major was born on 29 March 1943 at St Helier Hospital and Queen Mary's Hospital for Children in St Helier, the son of Gwen Major and former music hall performer Tom Major-Ball, sixty-three years old when Major was born, he was christened "John Roy Major" but only "John Major" was recorded on his birth certificate.
He used his middle name until the early 1980s. Major grew up in Longfellow Road, Worcester Park, where he attended primary school at Cheam Common and from 1954, he attended Rutlish School, a grammar school in the London Borough of Merton. In 1955, with his father's garden ornaments business in decline, the family moved to Brixton; the following year, Major watched his first debate in the House of Commons, where Harold Macmillan presented his only Budget as Chancellor of the Exchequer, has attributed his political ambitions to that event. He credited a chance meeting with former Prime Minister Clement Attlee on the King's Road shortly afterwards. Major left school just before his 16th birthday in 1959 with three O-levels in History, English Language and English Literature, he gained three more O-levels by correspondence course, in the British Constitution and Economics. Major's first job was as a clerk in the London based insurance brokerage firm Pratt & Sons in 1959. Disliking this job, he resigned.
Major joined the Young Conservatives in Brixton at this time. Major was nineteen years old when his father died, at the age of eighty-two on 27 March 1962, his mother died eight and a half years in September 1970, at the age of sixty-five. After Major became Prime Minister, it was misreported that his failure to get a job as a bus conductor resulted from his failing to pass a maths test, he had been passed over owing to his height. After a period of unemployment, Major started working at the London Electricity Board in 1963, where incidentally his successor as Prime Minister, Tony Blair worked when he was young, he decided to undertake a correspondence course in banking. Major took up a post as an executive at the Standard Chartered Bank in May 1965 and he rose through the ranks, he was sent to work in Jos, Nigeria, by the bank in 1967 and he nearly died in a car accident there. Major was interested in politics from an early age. Encouraged by fellow Conservative Derek Stone, he started giving speeches on a soap-box in Brixton Market.
He stood as a candidate for Lambeth London Borough Council at the age of 21 in 1964, was elected in the Conservative landslide in 1968. While on the Council he was Chairman of the Housing Committee, being responsible for overseeing the building of several large council housing estates, he lost his seat in 1971. Major was an active Young Conserv
Shadow Secretary of State for Communities and Local Government
Shadow Secretary of State for Communities, Local Government is a position with the UK Opposition's Shadow Cabinet. The position has existed in many iterations, first as Environment and the Regions in 1997 after the Government's reorganisation; the portfolio shifted among government departments for many years until resting on its current name in 2006. Under Michael Howard, the arrangement was different. There was a Shadow Secretary of State for Local and Devolved Government Affairs in Shadow Cabinet who supervised a Shadow Local Government Secretary and a Shadow Regions Secretary outside of it; the current Shadow Communities Secretary, as of June 2017, is Andrew Gwynne. Following the 2018 British cabinet reshuffle, Theresa May added Housing in England to the portfolio. However, the Shadow Cabinet of Jeremy Corbyn, has a Shadow Communities Secretary, along with a separate Shadow Secretary of State for Housing, as Corbyn has indicated that if Labour form the next government, they will create a separate government department for housing
Michael Howard, Baron Howard of Lympne, is a British politician who served as Leader of the Conservative Party and Leader of the Opposition from November 2003 to December 2005. He held cabinet positions in the governments of Margaret Thatcher and John Major, including Secretary of State for Employment, Secretary of State for the Environment and Home Secretary. Howard was born in Swansea, he studied at Peterhouse, following which he joined the Young Conservatives. In 1964, he was called to the Bar and became a Queen's Counsel in 1982, he first became a Member of Parliament at the 1983 general election, representing the constituency of Folkestone and Hythe. This led to him being promoted and Howard became Minister for Local Government in 1987. Under the premiership of John Major, he served as Secretary of State for Employment, Secretary of State for the Environment and Home Secretary. Following the Conservative Party's landslide defeat at the 1997 general election, he unsuccessfully contested the leadership, subsequently held the posts of Shadow Foreign Secretary and Shadow Chancellor of the Exchequer.
In November 2003, following the Conservative Party's vote of no confidence in Iain Duncan Smith, Howard was elected to the leadership unopposed. At the 2005 general election, the Conservatives gained 33 new seats in Parliament, including five from the Liberal Democrats. Following the election, Howard resigned as leader and was succeeded by future Prime Minister David Cameron. Howard chose to not seek re-election at the 2010 general election and entered the House of Lords as Baron Howard of Lympne, he has been supportive of the Eurosceptic pressure group Leave Means Leave. Howard was born Michael Hecht in Swansea, he is the son of Bernat Hecht, born in Romania and came to Britain in 1939. His mother, lived in Wales from the age of 6 months. Both of Howard's parents were from Jewish families; when Howard was six, his parents became naturalised as British subjects, his surname was changed following the parents' naturalisation with the new surname Howard. Howard passed his eleven-plus exam in 1952 and attended Llanelli Boys' Grammar School.
He joined the Young Conservatives at age 15. He obtained eight O-levels, A-levels, gaining a place at Peterhouse at Cambridge University, he was President of the Cambridge Union Society in 1962. After taking a 2:1 in the first part of the economics tripos, he switched to law and graduated with a 2:2 in 1962, he was one of a cluster of Conservative students at Cambridge University around this time, sometimes referred to as the "Cambridge Mafia", many of whom held high government office under Margaret Thatcher and John Major. Howard was called to the Bar at the Inner Temple in 1964 and specialised in employment and planning law, he continued his career at the Bar, becoming a practising Queen's Counsel in 1982. In the late 1960s Howard gained promotion within the Bow Group, becoming Chairman in April 1970. At the Conservative Party conference in October 1970, he made a notable speech commending the government for attempting to curb trade union power and called for state aid to strikers' families to be reduced or stopped altogether, a policy which the Thatcher government pursued over a decade later.
In the 1970s, Howard was a leading advocate of British membership of the Common Market and served on the board of the cross-party Britain in Europe group. Howard was named as co-respondent in the high-profile divorce case of 1960s model Sandra Paul, they subsequently married in 1975. They have a son born in 1976 and a daughter born in 1977. At the 1966 and 1970 general elections, Howard unsuccessfully contested the safe Labour seat of Liverpool Edge Hill. C. which he has held since childhood. In June 1982, Howard was selected to contest the constituency of Folkestone and Hythe in Kent after the sitting Conservative MP, Sir Albert Costain, decided to retire. Howard won the seat at the 1983 general election. Howard gained quick promotion, becoming Parliamentary Under-Secretary of State at the Department of Trade and Industry in 1985 with responsibility for regulating the financial dealings of the City of London; this junior post became important, as he oversaw the Big Bang introduction of new technology in 1986.
After the 1987 general election, he became Minister for Local Government. Following a proposal from backbench MP David Wilshire, he accepted the amendment which would become Section 28 and defended its inclusion. Howard guided the 1988 Local Government Finance Act through the House of Commons; the act brought in Margaret Thatcher's new system of local taxation known as the Community Charge but universally nicknamed the "poll tax". Howard supported the tax and won Thatcher's respect for minimising the rebellion against it within the Conservative Party. After a period as Minister for Water and Planning in 1988–89, during which he was responsible for implementing water privatisation in England and Wales, Howard was promoted to the Cabinet as Secretary of State for Employment in January 1990 following the resignation of Norman Fowler, he subsequently guided through legislation abolishing the closed shop, campaigned vigorously for Thatcher in the first ballot of the 1990 Conservative Party leadership contest, although he told her a day before she resigned that he fel
George Young, Baron Young of Cookham
George Samuel Knatchbull Young, Baron Young of Cookham, known as Sir George Young, 6th Baronet, from 1960 to 2015, is a British Conservative Party politician who served as a Member of Parliament from 1974 to 2015, having represented North West Hampshire since 1997 and Ealing Acton prior to that. He has served in Cabinet on three occasions: as Secretary of State for Transport from 1995 to 1997, he stood down from the Commons at the 2015 election and was created a life peer, as Baron Young of Cookham, of Cookham in the Royal County of Berkshire, on 29 September 2015. He sits on the Conservative benches in the House of Lords, where he has served as a junior whip since July 2016. Young was born in Oxford in 1941 into a prominent English family, the elder son of Sir George Peregrine "Gerry" Young, 5th Baronet and Elisabeth Knatchbull-Hugessen, his paternal ancestors include Admiral Sir George Young, an admiral in the Royal Navy and father of the first Baronet. Sir Brian Young, director-general of the Independent Television Authority, was his cousin.
Young's father was a diplomat. Upon his father's death in 1960, George succeeded to the baronetcy created in 1813. Young is a great-great-grandson of 6th Earl Beauchamp. Young was educated at St. Aubyns Preparatory School in Rottingdean, Eton College, Christ Church, where he read Philosophy and Economics, graduating in 1963, he was active in student politics while at Oxford, holding various offices in the Oxford University Conservative Association and being elected to the Standing Committee of the Oxford Union. After graduating, he worked for a while at the merchant bank Hill Samuel, at the National Economic Development Office from 1966 to 1967, he spent two years as Kobler Research Fellow at the University of Surrey, where he completed an MPhil. From 1969 to 1974, Young was an economic advisor to the Post Office Corporation. Young was elected as a councillor in the London Borough of Lambeth from 1968 to 1971 together with his wife and the future British Prime Minister John Major, he represented the ward of Clapham Town, served on the Housing Committee.
He and other Lambeth councillors worked as refuse collectors at weekends during a strike. Young lost his seat on Lambeth Council in 1971. In 1970, Young was elected to the Greater London Council as one of four Members for the London Borough of Ealing, he served on the GLC from 1970 to 1973, where he was vice-chairman of the Strategic Planning Authority. He did not seek re-election to the GLC in 1973, having been selected as the Conservative candidate for the Acton constituency, he was one of the local government ministers who abolished the GLC in 1986. Young was elected to parliament at the February 1974 general election as MP for Acton with a majority of 1,300, defeating the sitting Labour Party MP, Nigel Spearing. Young was re-elected as MP for Acton at the October 1974 general election with a majority of 808, he continued to represent Acton for the next 23 years, until the seat was abolished in boundary changes. He was selected for the safe Conservative seat of North West Hampshire prior to the 1997 general election to replace the retiring MP Sir David Mitchell.
Young was elected with a majority of 11,551, served as the MP for North West Hampshire until his retirement in 2015. From 1976 to 1979 Young served as an opposition whip; when the Conservative Party won the 1979 general election, he was appointed Parliamentary Under-Secretary of State at the Department of Health and Social Security. From 1981 to 1986, Young served as the Parliamentary Under-Secretary of State at the Department for the Environment. On the backbenches from 1986 to 1990, Young was among the leaders of the rebellion within the Conservative Party against the implementation of the poll tax. Shortly before leaving office in 1990, Prime Minister Margaret Thatcher brought Young back into government as a whip as part of her attempts to reunite the party; when John Major became Prime Minister in November 1990, he gave Young the role of Minister for Housing and Planning. Shortly after, during an interview for BBC Radio 4's Today programme in June 1991, Young described the homeless as "the people you step over when you come out of the opera".
In 1992 when asked during parliamentary discussions of the Armley Asbestos Disaster for financial assistance in surveying local housing in the Armley area for residual asbestos, Young responded that the government would not provide financial assistance to the home owners or the council to pay for decontamination as this "would not be a justifiable use of public funds". Young served as Financial Secretary to the Treasury from 1994 to 1995, in Cabinet as Secretary of State for Transport from 1995 to 1997, he was appointed a privy counsellor in 1993. Following the Conservative Party's defeat in 1997, Young was appointed Shadow Defence Secretary by the new party leader, William Hague. In 1998, Young became Shadow Leader of the House of Commons. In 1999, he was given additional responsibilities as Spokesman for Constitutional Affairs, he was a member of the Modernisation Select
David Howell, Baron Howell of Guildford
David Arthur Russell Howell, Baron Howell of Guildford, is a British Conservative politician and economic consultant. Having been successively Secretary of State for Energy and for Transport under Margaret Thatcher, Howell has more been a Minister of State in the Foreign Office from the election in 2010 until the reshuffle of 2012, he has served as Chair of the House of Lords International Relations Committee since May 2016. Along with William Hague, Sir George Young and Kenneth Clarke, he is one of the few Cabinet ministers from the 1979–97 governments who continued to hold high office in the party, being its deputy leader in the House of Lords until 2010, his daughter, Frances, is married to the former Chancellor of the George Osborne. Howell is the son of Colonel Arthur Howard Eckford Howell, grandson of Lieutenant Colonel Ernest Alfred Russell Howell, his wife Beryl Stuart Bowater, daughter of Sir Frank Henry Bowater, 1st Baronet and Ethel Anita Fryar. Howell’s father, an army officer with the Royal Artillery, for many years lived at 5 Headfort Place, London.
He was decorated with the awards of the Territorial Decoration and Companion of the Distinguished Service Order. Howell was educated at Eton College, before entering King's College, where he graduated in 1959 with a 1st Class Master of Arts in Economics, he went to work in HM Treasury joining the Treasury Economic Section from 1959 to 1960. In 1960 he wrote the book Principles to Practice, published jointly, spent four years as a journalist, leader writer and special correspondent on The Daily Telegraph, he succeeded Geoffrey Howe as editor of Crossbow from 1962 to 1964 before he unsuccessfully contested the constituency of Dudley in the 1964 general election. He became Director of the Conservative Political Centre between 1964 and 1966 writing and publishing the pamphlet The Conservative Opportunity. Two years in 1966, he was elected MP for the safe seat of Guildford in Surrey, for the Conservative Party, a seat he held until retiring at the 1997 general election. On 6 June 1997 he was made a life peer as Baron Howell of Guildford, of Penton Mewsey, in the County of Hampshire.
Howell, a junior minister in the Edward Heath Government, served as Lord Commissioner of Treasury between 1970 and 1971 and Parliamentary Secretary for the Civil Service Department between 1970 and 1972, played a key role in the establishment of the Central Policy Review Staff, a "central capability" policy unit based in the Cabinet Office. He held the offices of Under-Secretary for Employment, Under-Secretary for Northern Ireland, Minister of State for Northern Ireland and Minister of State for Energy; when Margaret Thatcher was elected in 1979, she made Howell her first Secretary of State for Energy and moved him to Transport in the reshuffle of September 1981 and until 1983. His time at the Ministry of Transport saw the commissioning and publication of the controversial Serpell Report into Britain's Railways; the report which emerged included proposals which would have reduced the rail network in Britain and met with an hostile reaction. Although these proposals were not pursued the episode caused considerable political problems for the Government and contributed to Thatcher dropping Howell from the Cabinet.
He wrote the book Freedom and Capital, published 1981. In 1979 he was sworn into the Privy Council, he wrote the book Blind Victory: a study in income and power, published 1986. In 1987 he became chairman of the Select Committee on Foreign Affairs, he wrote the book The Edge of Now: new questions for democracy in the network age, published in 2000. In 2007 he published ‘Out of the Energy Labyrinth’ and in 2013 ‘Old Links and New Ties: Power and Persuasion in the Age of Networks’,mainly on the Commonwealth. In 2016 he published ‘Empires in Collision. From 2005 to 2014 he was President ‘of the British Institute of Energy Economics, chairman of the Windsor Energy Group since 2003, he was decorated with the award of Grand Cordon of the Order of the Sacred Treasure of Japan in 2001. In the House of Lords, he was Deputy Leader of the Opposition from 2005 to 2010. On the election of the Coalition government he was recommended to Foreign Secretary by the Prime Minister as an enthusiastic advocate of HS2, the only conservative in the government with the relevant ministerial experience.
In September 2012 In the September 2012 reshuffle, having served two years as agreed, he was asked by the Prime Minister to stand down to provide a Foreign Office place for Baroness Warsi. ‘ Lord Howell was Opposition Spokesperson for Foreign and Commonwealth Affairs from 2000 to 2010. He is now Chairman of the new House of Lords International relations Committee’. Lord Howell is Chairman of The Commonwealth Societies Association. Howell has long been an active supporter of the Commonwealth lobbying its many members from the business council and Eminent Persons Group; the Commonwealth with strong connections to Africa and African nations economic groups seeks to promote Britain's role as a friend and trading partner of countries across the region, to alleviate poverty-stricken areas. On 29 September 2011 Lord Howell chaired and important meeting of the Eminent Persons Group at the Royal Commonwealth Institute in London with Heads of Government and State being present. Britain took an active part in coming to the rescue in responding to Darfur Crisis in which thousands were victims in the desert civil war of pestilence and destitution.
Lord Howell has been a pow
Shadow Secretary of State for Environment, Food and Rural Affairs
Shadow Secretary of State for Environment and Rural Affairs is a position with the UK Opposition's Shadow Cabinet that deals with issues surrounding the environment and food and rural affairs. The position existed as Shadow Secretary of State for the Environment until 1997, when it was renamed Environment and the Regions to match the Government's reorganisation, it changed to its current name in 2001 for the same reason. Under Michael Howard, the arrangement was different. There was a Shadow Environment Secretary outside Shadow Cabinet and under the direction of the Shadow Secretary of State for Environment and Transport. Following the resignation of Rachael Maskell, Sue Hayman was appointed to the position by Jeremy Corbyn
Trinity Hall, Cambridge
Trinity Hall is a constituent college of the University of Cambridge, England. It is the fifth-oldest college of the university, having been founded in 1350 by William Bateman, Bishop of Norwich. Trinity Hall was known for teaching Law. Notable alumni include theoretical physicists Stephen Hawking and Nobel Prize winner David Thouless, Australian Prime Minister Stanley Bruce, Canadian Governor General David Johnston, philosopher Marshall McLuhan, Charles Howard, 1st Earl of Nottingham; the devastation caused by the Black Death plague of the 1340s included the loss of nearly half of the English population. The site that Bateman chose was the original site of Gonville Hall, founded three years earlier, but was financially struggling. Bateman's clerical aim for the Hall is reflected in the foundation of 1350, when he stated that the college's aim was "the promotion of divine worship and of canon and civil science and direction of the commonwealth and of our church and diocese of Norwich." This led the college to be strong in legal studies, a tradition that has continued over the centuries.
At first all colleges in Cambridge were known as'Halls' or'Houses' and later changed their names from'Hall' to'College'. However, when Henry VIII founded Trinity College, Cambridge next door, it became clear that Trinity Hall would continue being known as a Hall; the new foundation's name may have been a punishment for the college's master, Stephen Gardiner, who had opposed the king's remarriage and had endured much of the college's land being removed. It is incorrect to call it Trinity Hall College, although Trinity Hall college is speaking, accurate. A similar situation had existed once before when Henry VI founded King's College despite the existence of King's Hall. King's Hall was incorporated in the foundation of Trinity College in 1546. Trinity Hall, in addition to having a chapel had joint usage of the Church of St John Zacharias with Clare Hall, until the church was demolished to enable the construction of King's in the 15th century. After this, the college was granted usage of the nearby Church of St Edward and Martyr on Peas Hill, a connection which remains to this day.
The college site on the River Cam was obtained from Bateman's purchase of a house from John de Crauden, Prior of Ely, to house the monks during their study, with Front Court being built within the college's first few decades. The chapel was licensed in 1352 and was built by August 1366, when Pope Urban V granted the Master and Fellows permission to celebrate Mass in the college. In 1729-1730, Sir Nathaniel Lloyd, the college master, redecorated the chapel in what, despite subsequent enlargements, remains an intimate style, forming the smallest of the University's chapels. Lloyd removed some of the more prominent graves to the ante-chapel, while digging a vault for his own burial, decorated the interior walls with wainscoting and the ceiling with stucco representations of past masters' crests; the chapel was extended to the east by a few feet in 1864, during which the medieval piscina was rediscovered and rendered accessible by a small door in the wainscoting. The current chapel painting is Maso da San Friano's Salutation, depicting Mary's visit to Elizabeth, from the opening of the Gospel of Luke, which replaced an earlier painting by Giacomo Stella in 1957.
Like the chapel, the college's dining hall was rebuilt by Sir Nathaniel Lloyd along similar lines, with the panelling replaced throughout and the medieval beams replaced by fine baroque carvings. Although the hall was enlarged in the 19th century, it is still one of the smallest and most intimate dining halls in the University; the college library was built in the late 16th century, with the permission of Elizabeth I and during the mastership of Thomas Preston, is now principally used for the storage of the college's manuscripts and rare books. The new Jerwood Library overlooking the river was opened by Lord Howe in 1999, stores the college's modern book collection; the college owns properties in the centre of Cambridge, on Bateman Street and Thompson's Lane, on its Wychfield site next to Fitzwilliam College, where most of the college's sporting activity takes place. Trinity Hall has active Junior and Senior Combination Rooms for undergraduate and senior members of the college community respectively.
The Middle Combination Room is located in Front Court, while the Junior Combination Room is adjacent to the college bar in North Court. Both the MCR and JCR have active committees and organize popular socials for their members across the term. Trinity Hall's oldest and largest society, the Boat Club was founded in 1827, has had a long and distinguished history; the college won all but one of the events in the 1887 Henley Royal Regatta, making it the most successful Cambridge college in Henley's history. The current boathouse, built in 1905 in memory of Henry Latham, is on the River Cam, a short walk from the college; the current Master is the Revd. Jeremy Morris, he took up the role on 1 October 2014. The current Dean is the Revd. Dr. Stephen Plant; the ro