The Carlyle Group
The Carlyle Group is an American multinational private equity, alternative asset management and financial services corporation. It specializes in corporate private equity, real assets, global credit, investments. In 2015, Carlyle was the world's largest private equity firm by capital raised over the last five years, according to the PEI 300 index. Founded in 1987 in Washington, D. C. by William E. Conway Jr. Daniel A. D'Aniello, David Rubenstein, the company today has more than 1,575 employees in 31 offices on six continents. On May 3, 2012, Carlyle completed a $700 million initial public offering and began trading on the NASDAQ stock exchange. Carlyle's corporate private equity business has been one of the largest investors in leveraged buyout transactions over the decade 2004–2014, Carlyle has invested in Booz Allen Hamilton, Dex Media, Dunkin' Brands, Freescale Semiconductor, Getty Images, HCR Manor Care, Kinder Morgan, United Defense, other companies; the firm is organized into four business segments: Corporate Private Equity – Management of Carlyle's family of private equity funds investing in leveraged buyout and growth capital transactions through a range of geographically focused investment funds.
Carlyle's Corporate Private Equity division manages a series of leveraged buyout and growth capital investment funds with specific geographic or industry focuses. Carlyle invests in the following industries: aerospace, defense & government services, consumer & retail, financial services, health care, real estate and business services, telecommunications & media, transportation. Carlyle’s Corporate Private Equity segment advises 23 buyout and 10 growth capital funds, with $75 billion in Assets Under Management as of March 31, 2018. Carlyle's Real Assets segment advises 11 U. S. and internationally- focused real estate funds, two infrastructure funds, two power funds, an international energy fund, four Legacy Energy funds. The segment includes nine funds advised by NGP; the Real Assets segment had about $44 billion in AUM as of March 31, 2018. Carlyle’s Global Credit segment advises 53 funds that pursue investment opportunities across distressed & special situations, direct lending, energy credit, loans & structured credit and opportunistic credit.
The Global Credit segment had about $34 billion in AUM as of March 31, 2018. Carlyle’s Investment Solutions segment advises global private equity and real estate fund of funds programs and related co-investment and secondary activities across 209 fund vehicles; the Investment Solutions segment had about $49 billion AUM as of March 31, 2018. AlpInvest Partners is one of the largest private equity investment managers globally with over €38 billion under management as of March 31, 2018, invested alongside more than 250 private equity firms. Founded in 1999, AlpInvest has been the exclusive manager of private equity investments for the investment managers of two of the world's largest pension funds Stichting Pensioenfonds ABP and Stichting Pensioenfonds Zorg en Welzijn, both based in the Netherlands. In 2011, Carlyle acquired AlpInvest and has integrated the business, including its leading fund-of-funds and secondary platforms expanding Carlyle's global asset management business. AlpInvest pursues investment opportunities across the entire spectrum of private equity including: large buyout, middle-market buyout, venture capital, growth capital, mezzanine and sustainable energy investments.
AlpInvest has offices in New York City and Hong Kong with about 150 people, of whom more than 80 are investment professionals. Carlyle's real estate fund of funds group is called Metropolitan, which provides investors with access to multi-manager real estate funds and solutions with more than 85 fund managers in the United States, Europe and Latin America. Metropolitan constructs and manages U. S. non-U. S. and global real estate portfolios, which include primary and secondary fund interests as well as co-investments. Carlyle was founded in 1987 as an investment banking boutique by five partners with backgrounds in finance and government: William E. Conway, Jr. Stephen L. Norris, David M. Rubenstein, Daniel A. D'Aniello and Greg Rosenbaum; the founding partners named the firm after the Carlyle Hotel in New York City where Norris and Rubenstein had planned the new investment business. Rubenstein, a Washington-based lawyer, had worked in the Carter Administration. Norris and D'Aneillo had worked together at Marriott Corporation.
Rosenbaum left in the first year and Norris departed in 1995. Rubenstein, Conway and D'Aneillo remain active in the business. Carlyle was founded with $5 million of financial backing from T. Rowe Price, Alex. Brown & Sons, First Interstate Equities, the Richard King Mellon family. In the late 1980s, Carlyle raised capital deal-by-deal to pursue leveraged buyout investments, including a failed takeover battle for Chi-Chi's; the firm raised its first dedicated buyout fund with $100 million of investor commitments in 1990. In its early years, Carlyle advised in transactions including, in 1991, a $500 million investment in Citigroup by Prince Al-Waleed bin Talal
Collegeville is a borough in Montgomery County, Pennsylvania, a suburb of Philadelphia on the Perkiomen Creek. Collegeville was incorporated in 1896, it is the location of Ursinus College, opened in 1869. The population was 5,089 at the 2010 census; the area, present day Collegeville was part of the original William Penn purchase of "All the land lying on the Pahkehoma" in 1684. In 1799, Perkiomen Bridge was constructed using funds raised from a special lottery approved by the Pennsylvania Legislature; when the first post office in this area was established in 1847, it was called Perkiomen Bridge. In 1832, the first school for primary and secondary students was established and it was renamed Freeland Public School in 1844. In 1848, Henry A. Hunsicker built the "Freeland Seminary of Perkiomen Bridge." Village around the school became known as Freeland. In 1851, Abraham Hunsicker established the Pennsylvania Female College near present day Glenwood Avenue. Ten years in 1861, the post office was moved and renamed Freeland.
When the trains first arrived in the area in 1868, there was a debate about naming of the station. The local citizens had acquired notoriety when they had burned down the toll booth on the Perkiomen Bridge and thrown the gate into the river; the rail company avoided any troubles by naming it "Collegeville". Ursinus College was founded a year in 1869, thus the name "Collegeville" precedes the establishment of Ursinus College and it is named after the other 4 year liberal arts college which closed in 1880. Collegeville was incorporated as Borough in 1896; the Perkiomen Bridge and Perkiomen Bridge Hotel are listed on the National Register of Historic Places. Collegeville is located at 40°11′8″N 75°27′30″W. According to the United States Census Bureau, the borough has a total area of 1.6 square miles, of which, 1.6 square miles of it is land and 0.1 square miles of it is water. Collegeville and the surrounding area are growing; the borough of Collegeville is home to Ursinus College, as well as many local businesses.
Outside the borough, Pfizer's pharmaceutical division and Dow Chemical share a global research and development campus. There is a GlaxoSmithKline research and development facility; the Providence Town Center, an open-air shopping and restaurant mall, is located just outside Collegeville. Collegeville is the home of the Church House of the Pennsylvania Southeast Conference of the United Church of Christ; as of the 2010 census, the population of the borough was 89.4% White, 4.0% Black or African American, 0.2% Native American, 3.8% Asian, 1.9% were two or more races. 2.4% of the population were of Hispanic or Latino ancestry. As of the census of 2000, there were 8,032 people, 1,408 households, 1,010 families residing in the borough; the racial makeup of the borough was 61.83% White, 31.19% African American, 0.10% Native American, 2.13% Asian, 0.01% Pacific Islander, 3.93% from other races, 0.81% from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 5.13% of the population. The 2000 census included the population of State Correctional Institution - Graterford, located in nearby Skippack Township.
There were 1,408 households, out of which 38.3% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 61.9% were married couples living together, 7.2% had a female householder with no husband present, 28.2% were non-families. 21.4% of all households were made up of individuals, 5.7% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.67 and the average family size was 3.17. In the borough the population was spread out, with 12.9% under the age of 18, 17.6% from 18 to 24, 42.9% from 25 to 44, 21.4% from 45 to 64, 5.2% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 35 years. For every 100 females there were 240.2 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 275.6 males. The median income for a household in the borough was $77,499, the median income for a family was $90,733. Males had a median income of $40,185 versus $39,236 for females; the per capita income for the borough was $23,080. About 1.0% of families and 2.0% of the population were below the poverty line, including none of those under age 18 and 2.1% of those age 65 or over.
Collegeville has a city manager form of government with a seven-member borough council. The current mayor is Aidsand Wright-Riggins; the borough is part of the Fourth Congressional District, the 150th State House District and the 44th State Senate District. State Correctional Institution – Phoenix is a state prison of the Pennsylvania Department of Corrections in Skippack Township. Collegeville is part of the Perkiomen Valley School District. Residents are zoned to South Elementary School, Middle School East, Perkiomen Valley High School. There is one private parochial school, Holy Cross Regional Catholic School, which serves Grades K-8. Pope John Paul II High School in Royersford is the area Catholic high school; the borough is home to Ursinus College. Montgomery County Community College provides community college services; the Montgomery County Library & Information Network Consortium operates area bookmobiles, physical libraries serving the Collegeville area include the Perkiomen Valley Library at Schwenksville, the Lower Providence Community Library in Eagleville, the Royersford Free Public Library, the Norristown public library, the Phoenixville Public L
Cable-Satellite Public Affairs Network is an American cable and satellite television network, created in 1979 by the cable television industry as a nonprofit public service. It televises many proceedings of the United States federal government, as well as other public affairs programming; the C-SPAN network includes the television channels C-SPAN, C-SPAN2, C-SPAN3, the radio station WCSP-FM, a group of websites which provide streaming media and archives of C-SPAN programs. C-SPAN's television channels are available to 100 million cable and satellite households within the United States, while WCSP-FM is broadcast on FM radio in Washington, D. C. and is available throughout the U. S. on SiriusXM via Internet streaming, globally through apps for iOS, BlackBerry, Android devices. The network televises U. S. political events live and "gavel-to-gavel" coverage of the U. S. Congress, as well as occasional proceedings of the Canadian and British Parliaments and other major events worldwide, its coverage of political and policy events is unmoderated, providing the audience with unfiltered information about politics and government.
Non-political coverage includes historical programming, programs dedicated to non-fiction books, interview programs with noteworthy individuals associated with public policy. C-SPAN is a private, non-profit organization funded by its cable and satellite affiliates, it does not have advertisements on any of its networks, radio stations, or websites, nor does it solicit donations or pledges; the network operates independently, neither the cable industry nor Congress has control of its programming content. Brian Lamb, C-SPAN's chairman and former chief executive officer, first conceived the concept of C-SPAN in 1975 while working as the Washington, D. C. bureau chief of the cable industry trade magazine Cablevision. It was a time of rapid growth in the number of cable television channels available in the United States, Lamb envisioned a cable-industry financed nonprofit network for televising sessions of the U. S. Congress and other public affairs event and policy discussions. Lamb shared his idea with several cable executives.
Among them were Bob Rosencrans, who provided $25,000 of initial funding in 1979, John D. Evans, who provided the wiring and access to the headend needed for the distribution of the C-SPAN signal. C-SPAN was launched on March 19, 1979, in time for the first televised session made available by the House of Representatives, beginning with a speech by then-Tennessee representative Al Gore. Upon its debut, only 3.5 million homes were wired for C-SPAN, the network had just three employees. The second C-SPAN channel, C-SPAN2, followed on June 2, 1986 when the U. S. Senate permitted itself to be televised. C-SPAN3, the most recent expansion channel, began full-time operations on January 22, 2001, shows other public policy and government-related live events on weekdays along with weekend historical programming. C-SPAN3 is the successor of a digital channel called C-SPAN Extra, launched in the Washington D. C. area in 1997, televised live and recorded political events from 9:00 a.m. to 6:00 p.m. Eastern Time Monday through Friday.
C-SPAN Radio began operations on October 9, 1997, covering similar events as the television networks and simulcasting their programming. The station broadcasts on WCSP in Washington, D. C. is available on XM Satellite Radio channel 120 and is streamed live at c-span.org. It was available on Sirius Satellite Radio from 2002 to 2006. Lamb semi-retired in March 2012, coinciding with the channel's 33rd anniversary, gave executive control of the network to his two lieutenants, Rob Kennedy and Susan Swain. On January 12, 2017, the online feed for C-SPAN1 was interrupted and replaced by a feed from the Russian television network RT America for 10 minutes. C-SPAN announced that they were troubleshooting the incident and were "operating under the assumption that it was an internal routing issue." C-SPAN celebrated its 10th anniversary in 1989 with a three-hour retrospective, featuring Lamb recalling the development of the network. The 15th anniversary was commemorated in an unconventional manner as the network facilitated a series of re-enactments of the seven historic Lincoln-Douglas debates of 1858, which were televised from August to October 1994, have been rebroadcast from time to time since.
Five years the series American presidents: Life Portraits, which won a Peabody Award, served as a year-long observation of C-SPAN's 20th anniversary. In 2004, C-SPAN celebrated its 25th anniversary, by which time the flagship network was viewed in 86 million homes, C-SPAN2 was in 70 million homes and C-SPAN3 was in eight million homes. On the anniversary date, C-SPAN repeated the first televised hour of floor debate in the House of Representatives from 1979 and, throughout the month, 25th anniversary features included "then and now" segments with journalists who had appeared on C-SPAN during its early years. Included in the 25th anniversary was an essay contest for viewers to write in about how C-SPAN has influenced their life regarding community service. For example, one essay contest winner wrote about how C-SPAN's non-fiction book programming serves as a resource in his charitable mission to record non-fiction audio books for people who are blind. To commemorate 25 years of taking viewer telephone calls, in 2005, C-SPAN had a 25-hour "call-in marathon", from 8:00 pm.
Eastern Time on Friday, October 7, concluding at 9:00 pm. Eastern Time on Saturday, October 8; the network had a viewer essay contest, the winner of, invited to co-host an hour of the broadcast from C-SPAN's Capitol
New-York Historical Society
The New-York Historical Society is an American history museum and library located in New York City at the corner of 77th Street and Central Park West on the Upper West Side of Manhattan. The society was founded in 1804 as New York's first museum, it presents exhibitions, public programs, research that explore the rich history of New York and the nation. The New-York Historical Society Museum & Library has been at its present location since 1908; the granite building was designed by Sawyer in a classic Roman Eclectic style. A renovation of the landmark building was completed in November 2011 that made it more open to the public, provided space for an interactive children's museum, accomplished other changes to enhance access to its collections. Louise Mirrer has been the president of the Historical Society since 2004, she was Executive Vice Chancellor for Academic Affairs of the City University of New York. Beginning in 2005, the museum presented a groundbreaking two-year exhibit on Slavery in New York, its largest theme exhibition in 200 years on a topic which it had never addressed before.
It included an art exhibit by artists invited to use museum collections in their works. The Society focuses on the developing city center in Manhattan. Another historical society, the Long Island Historical Society was founded in Brooklyn in 1863; the New-York Historical Society holds an extensive collection of historical artifacts, works of American art, other materials documenting the history of the United States and New York. It presents researched exhibitions on a variety of topics and periods in American history, such as George Washington, Alexander Hamilton, Slavery in New York, The Hudson River School, Abraham Lincoln, Ulysses S. Grant, Tiffany designer Clara Driscol, the history of the Constitution; the Historical Society offers an extensive range of curriculum-based school programs and teacher resources, provides academic fellowships and organizes public programs for adults to foster lifelong learning and a deep appreciation of history. The New-York Historical Society's museum is the oldest in New York City and predates the founding of the Metropolitan Museum of Art by nearly 70 years.
Its art holdings comprise more than 1.6 million works. Among them are a world-class collection of Hudson River School paintings, including major works by Thomas Cole and Frederic Edwin Church; the Historical Society holds an important collection of paintings and drawings by marine artist James Bard. The museum holds much of sculptor Elie Nadelman's legendary American folk art collection, including furniture and household accessories such as lamps, textiles and ceramic objects, as well as paintings, weathervanes, sculptural woodcarvings, chalkware; the Historical Society's holdings in artifacts and decorative arts include George Washington's camp bed from Valley Forge, the desk at which Clement Clarke Moore wrote "A Visit from Saint Nicholas", one of the world's largest collections of Tiffany lamps and glasswork, a collection of more than 550 late nineteenth-century American board games. Its research library contains more than three million books, maps, newspapers, music sheets, prints and architectural drawings.
Among its collections are far-ranging materials relating to the founding and early history of the nation including the first documentary evidence of the phrase "United States of America". The Society operates a website showing many images from its collection. In 2015 it announced the digitization and posting of over a thousand negatives by photographer Robert L. Bracklow from the late 19th and early 20th centuries; the Historical Society was founded on November 20, 1804 through the efforts of John Pintard. He was for some years secretary of the American Academy of Fine Arts, as well as the founder of New York's first savings bank, he was among the first to agitate for a free school system. The first meeting comprised 11 of the city's most prominent citizens, including Mayor DeWitt Clinton. At the meeting, a committee was selected to draw up a constitution, by December 10, the Historical Society was organized. According to the Historical Society's first catalogue, printed in 1813, the museum held 4,265 books, as well as 234 volumes of United States documents, 119 almanacs, 130 titles of newspapers, 134 maps, 30 miscellaneous views.
It had collected the start of a manuscript collection, several oil portraits and 38 engraved portraits. The Historical Society suffered under heavy debt during its early decades. In 1809, it organized a celebration of the 200th anniversary of the arrival of Henry Hudson in New York Harbor. Inspired by the event, the Historical Society petitioned and obtained an endowment fro
American Jews, or Jewish Americans, are Americans who are Jews, whether by religion, ethnicity or nationality. The current Jewish community in the United States consists of Ashkenazi Jews, who descend from diaspora Jewish populations of Central and Eastern Europe and comprise about 90-95% of the American Jewish population. Most American Ashkenazim are US-born, with a dwindling number of now elderly earlier immigrants, as well as some more recent foreign-born immigrants. During the colonial era, prior to the mass immigration of Ashkenazim and Portuguese Jews represented the bulk of America's small Jewish population, while their descendants are a minority today, they along with an array of other Jewish communities represented the remainder of American Jews, including other more recent Sephardic Jews, Mizrahi Jews, various other ethnically Jewish communities, as well as a smaller number of converts to Judaism; the American Jewish community manifests a wide range of Jewish cultural traditions, encompassing the full spectrum of Jewish religious observance.
Depending on religious definitions and varying population data, the United States has the largest or second largest Jewish community in the world, after Israel. In 2012, the American Jewish population was estimated at between 5.5 and 8 million, depending on the definition of the term, which constitutes between 1.7% and 2.6% of the total U. S. population. Jews have been present in the Thirteen Colonies since the mid-17th century. However, they were small in number, with at most 200 to 300 having arrived by 1700; those early arrivers were Sephardic Jewish immigrants, of Western Sephardic ancestry, but by 1720 Ashkenazi Jews from Central and Eastern Europe predominated. The English Plantation Act 1740 for the first time permitted Jews to become British citizens and emigrate to the colonies. Despite some being denied the ability to vote or hold office in local jurisdictions, Sephardic Jews became active in community affairs in the 1790s, after achieving political equality in the five states where they were most numerous.
Until about 1830, South Carolina had more Jews than anywhere else in North America. Large-scale Jewish immigration commenced in the 19th century, when, by mid-century, many German Jews had arrived, migrating to the United States in large numbers due to antisemitic laws and restrictions in their countries of birth, they became merchants and shop-owners. There were 250,000 Jews in the United States by 1880, many of them being the educated, secular, German Jews, although a minority population of the older Sephardic Jewish families remained influential. Jewish migration to the United States increased in the early 1880s, as a result of persecution and economic difficulties in parts of Eastern Europe. Most of these new immigrants were Yiddish-speaking Ashkenazi Jews, most of whom arrived from the poor diaspora communities of the Russian Empire and the Pale of Settlement, located in modern-day Poland, Belarus and Moldova. During the same period, great numbers of Ashkenazi Jews arrived from Galicia, at that time the most impoverished region of the Austro-Hungarian empire with a heavy Jewish urban population, driven out by economic reasons.
Many Jews emigrated from Romania. Over 2,000,000 Jews landed between the late 19th century and 1924, when the Immigration Act of 1924 restricted immigration. Most settled in the New York metropolitan area, establishing the world's major concentrations of Jewish population. In 1915 the circulation of the daily Yiddish newspapers was half a million in New York City alone, 600,000 nationally. In addition thousands more subscribed to the numerous weekly papers and the many magazines. At the beginning of the 20th century, these newly arrived Jews built support networks consisting of many small synagogues and Landsmanshaften for Jews from the same town or village. American Jewish writers of the time urged assimilation and integration into the wider American culture, Jews became part of American life. 500,000 American Jews fought in World War II, after the war younger families joined the new trend of suburbanization. There, Jews became assimilated and demonstrated rising intermarriage; the suburbs facilitated the formation of new centers, as Jewish school enrollment more than doubled between the end of World War II and the mid-1950s, while synagogue affiliation jumped from 20% in 1930 to 60% in 1960.
More recent waves of Jewish emigration from Russia and other regions have joined the mainstream American Jewish community. Americans of Jewish descent have been disproportionately successful in many fields and aspects over the years; the Jewish community in America has gone from a lower class minority, with most studies putting upwards of 80% as manual factory laborers prior to World War I and with the majority of fields barred to them, to the consistent richest or second richest ethnicity in America for the past 40 years in terms of average annual salary, with high concentrations in academia and other fields, today have the highest per capita income of any ethnic group in the United States, at around double the average income of non-Jewish Americans. In 2016, Modern Orthodox Jews had a median household income of $158,000, while Open Orthodox Jews had a median household income at $185,000. Scholars debate whether the favorable historical experience for Jews in the United States has been such a unique experience as to validate American exceptionalism.
SmartMoney was The Wall Street Journal's magazine of personal business. The finance magazine launched in 1992 by Dow Jones & Company, its first editor was Norman Pearlstine. In 2010, Hearst sold its stake to Dow Jones; the September 2012 edition was the last paper edition. Its content was merged into MarketWatch in 2013. SmartMoney's target market is affluent professional and managerial business people needing personal finance information. Regular topics include ideas for saving and spending, as well as coverage of technology and lifestyle subjects including travel, wine and food. Norman Pearlstine —chief content officer of Bloomberg L. P. James B. Stewart —New York Times columnist Gerri Willis —CNN anchor
Council on Foreign Relations
The Council on Foreign Relations, founded in 1921, is a United States nonprofit think tank specializing in U. S. foreign policy and international affairs. It is headquartered in New York City, with an additional office in Washington, D. C, its membership, which numbers 4,900, has included senior politicians, more than a dozen secretaries of state, CIA directors, lawyers and senior media figures. The CFR meetings convene government officials, global business leaders and prominent members of the intelligence and foreign-policy community to discuss international issues. CFR publishes the bi-monthly journal Foreign Affairs, runs the David Rockefeller Studies Program, which influences foreign policy by making recommendations to the presidential administration and diplomatic community, testifying before Congress, interacting with the media, publishing on foreign policy issues. Towards the end of World War I, a working fellowship of about 150 scholars called "The Inquiry" was tasked to brief President Woodrow Wilson about options for the postwar world when Germany was defeated.
This academic band, including Wilson's closest adviser and long-time friend "Colonel" Edward M. House, as well as Walter Lippmann, met to assemble the strategy for the postwar world; the team produced more than 2,000 documents detailing and analyzing the political and social facts globally that would be helpful for Wilson in the peace talks. Their reports formed the basis for the Fourteen Points, which outlined Wilson's strategy for peace after war's end; these scholars traveled to the Paris Peace Conference, 1919 and participated in the discussions there. As a result of discussions at the Peace Conference, a small group of British and American diplomats and scholars met on May 30, 1919 at the Hotel Majestic in Paris and decided to create an Anglo-American organization called "The Institute of International Affairs", which would have offices in London and New York. Due to the isolationist views prevalent in American society at the time, the scholars had difficulty gaining traction with their plan, turned their focus instead to a set of discreet meetings, taking place since June 1918 in New York City, under the name "Council on Foreign Relations."
The meetings were headed by the corporate lawyer Elihu Root, who had served as Secretary of State under President Theodore Roosevelt, attended by 108 “high-ranking officers of banking, manufacturing and finance companies, together with many lawyers.” The members were proponents of Wilson's internationalism, but were concerned about "the effect that the war and the treaty of peace might have on postwar business." The scholars from the inquiry saw an opportunity here to create an organization that brought diplomats, high-level government officials and academics together with lawyers and industrialists to engineer government policy. On July 29, 1921 they filed a certification of incorporation forming the Council on Foreign Relations. In 1922 Edwin F. Gay, former dean of the Harvard Business School and director of the Shipping Board during the war, spearheaded the Council's efforts to begin publication of a magazine that would be the "authoritative" source on foreign policy, he gathered $125,000 from the wealthy members on the council, via sending letters soliciting funds to "the thousand richest Americans".
Using these funds, the first issue of Foreign Affairs was published in September 1922, within a few years had gained a reputation as the "most authoritative American review dealing with international relations". In the late 1930s, the Ford Foundation and Rockefeller Foundation began contributing large amounts of money to the Council. In 1938 they created various Committees on Foreign Relations, which became governed by the American Committees on Foreign Relations in Washington, D. C. throughout the country, funded by a grant from the Carnegie Corporation. Influential men were to be chosen in a number of cities, would be brought together for discussions in their own communities as well as participating in an annual conference in New York; these local committees served to influence local leaders and shape public opinion to build support for the Council's policies, while acting as "useful listening posts" through which the Council and U. S. government could "sense the mood of the country". Beginning in 1939 and lasting for five years, the Council achieved much greater prominence within the government and the State Department, when it established the confidential War and Peace Studies, funded by the Rockefeller Foundation.
The secrecy surrounding this group was such that the Council members who were not involved in its deliberations were unaware of the study group's existence. It was divided into four functional topic groups: economic and financial and armaments, political; the security and armaments group was headed by Allen Welsh Dulles who became a pivotal figure in the CIA's predecessor, the Office of Strategic Services. The CFR produced 682 memoranda for the State Department, marked classified and circulated among the appropriate government departments. A critical study found that of 502 government officials surveyed from 1945 to 1972, more than half were members of the Council. During the Eisenhower administration 40% of the top U. S. foreign policy officials were CFR members. During the Kennedy administration, this number rose to 51%, peaked at 57% under the Johnson administration. In an anonymous piece called "The Sources of Soviet Conduct" that appeared in Foreign Affairs in 1947, CFR study group member George Kennan coined the term "containment".