The New York Times
The New York Times is an American newspaper based in New York City with worldwide influence and readership. Founded in 1851, the paper has won more than any other newspaper; the Times is ranked 17th in the world by circulation and 2nd in the U. S; the paper is owned by The New York Times Company, publicly traded and is controlled by the Sulzberger family through a dual-class share structure. It has been owned by the family since 1896. G. Sulzberger, the paper's publisher, his father, Arthur Ochs Sulzberger Jr. the company's chairman, are the fourth and fifth generation of the family to helm the paper. Nicknamed "The Gray Lady", the Times has long been regarded within the industry as a national "newspaper of record"; the paper's motto, "All the News That's Fit to Print", appears in the upper left-hand corner of the front page. Since the mid-1970s, The New York Times has expanded its layout and organization, adding special weekly sections on various topics supplementing the regular news, editorials and features.
Since 2008, the Times has been organized into the following sections: News, Editorials/Opinions-Columns/Op-Ed, New York, Sports of The Times, Science, Home and other features. On Sunday, the Times is supplemented by the Sunday Review, The New York Times Book Review, The New York Times Magazine and T: The New York Times Style Magazine; the Times stayed with the broadsheet full-page set-up and an eight-column format for several years after most papers switched to six, was one of the last newspapers to adopt color photography on the front page. The New York Times was founded as the New-York Daily Times on September 18, 1851. Founded by journalist and politician Henry Jarvis Raymond and former banker George Jones, the Times was published by Raymond, Jones & Company. Early investors in the company included Edwin B. Morgan, Christopher Morgan, Edward B. Wesley. Sold for a penny, the inaugural edition attempted to address various speculations on its purpose and positions that preceded its release: We shall be Conservative, in all cases where we think Conservatism essential to the public good.
We do not believe that everything in Society is either right or wrong. In 1852, the newspaper started a western division, The Times of California, which arrived whenever a mail boat from New York docked in California. However, the effort failed. On September 14, 1857, the newspaper shortened its name to The New-York Times. On April 21, 1861, The New York Times began publishing a Sunday edition to offer daily coverage of the Civil War. One of the earliest public controversies it was involved with was the Mortara Affair, the subject of twenty editorials in the Times alone; the main office of The New York Times was attacked during the New York City Draft Riots. The riots, sparked by the beginning of drafting for the Union Army, began on July 13, 1863. On "Newspaper Row", across from City Hall, Henry Raymond stopped the rioters with Gatling guns, early machine guns, one of which he manned himself; the mob diverted, instead attacking the headquarters of abolitionist publisher Horace Greeley's New York Tribune until being forced to flee by the Brooklyn City Police, who had crossed the East River to help the Manhattan authorities.
In 1869, Henry Raymond died, George Jones took over as publisher. The newspaper's influence grew in 1870 and 1871, when it published a series of exposés on William Tweed, leader of the city's Democratic Party—popularly known as "Tammany Hall" —that led to the end of the Tweed Ring's domination of New York's City Hall. Tweed had offered The New York Times five million dollars to not publish the story. In the 1880s, The New York Times transitioned from supporting Republican Party candidates in its editorials to becoming more politically independent and analytical. In 1884, the paper supported Democrat Grover Cleveland in his first presidential campaign. While this move cost The New York Times a portion of its readership among its more progressive and Republican readers, the paper regained most of its lost ground within a few years. After George Jones died in 1891, Charles Ransom Miller and other New York Times editors raised $1 million dollars to buy the Times, printing it under the New York Times Publishing Company.
However, the newspaper was financially crippled by the Panic of 1893, by 1896, the newspaper had a circulation of less than 9,000, was losing $1,000 a day. That year, Adolph Ochs, the publisher of the Chattanooga Times, gained a controlling interest in the company for $75,000. Shortly after assuming control of the paper, Ochs coined the paper's slogan, "All The News That's Fit To Print"; the slogan has appeared in the paper since September 1896, has been printed in a box in the upper left hand corner of the front page since early 1897. The slogan was a jab at competing papers, such as Joseph Pulitzer's New York World and William Randolph Hearst's New York Journal, which were known for a lurid and inaccurate reporting of facts and opinions, described by the end of the century as "yellow journalism". Under Ochs' guidance, aided by Carr
Edward Thomas Hardy is an English actor and producer. After studying method acting at the Drama Centre London, Hardy made his film debut in Ridley Scott's Black Hawk Down and has since appeared in such films as Star Trek: Nemesis, RocknRolla, Warrior, Tinker Tailor Soldier Spy, Locke, The Drop, The Revenant, for which he received a nomination for the Academy Award for Best Supporting Actor. In 2015, Hardy portrayed "Mad" Max Rockatansky in Mad Max: both Kray twins in Legend, he has appeared in three Christopher Nolan films: Inception, The Dark Knight Rises as Bane, Dunkirk as an RAF fighter-pilot. He starred as Eddie Brock / Venom in the antihero film Venom. Hardy's television roles include the HBO war drama miniseries Band of Brothers, the BBC historical drama miniseries The Virgin Queen, Bill Sikes in the BBC’s miniseries Oliver Twist, ITV's Wuthering Heights, the Sky 1 drama series The Take, the BBC historical crime drama series Peaky Blinders, he created, co-produced, took the lead in the eight-part historical fiction series Taboo on BBC One and FX.
Hardy has performed on both American stages. He was nominated for the Laurence Olivier Award for Most Promising Newcomer for his role as Skank in the production of In Arabia We'd All Be Kings, was awarded the 2003 London Evening Standard Theatre Award for Outstanding Newcomer for his performances in both In Arabia We'd All Be Kings and for his role as Luca in Blood, he starred in the production of The Man of Mode and received positive reviews for his role in the play The Long Red Road. Hardy is an ambassador for the Prince's Trust, he was appointed Commander of the Order of the British Empire in the 2018 Birthday Honours for services to drama. Edward Thomas Hardy was born on 15 September 1977 in Hammersmith, the only child of artist and painter Anne and novelist and comedy writer Edward "Chips" Hardy, his mother is of Irish descent. Hardy was brought up in London, he studied at Tower House School, Reed's School, Duff Miller Sixth Form College. He studied at Richmond Drama School and the Drama Centre London, a part of Central Saint Martins.
He has named Gary Oldman as his "hero", adding that he imitated scenes from the actor while at drama school. In 1998, Hardy won The Big Breakfast's Find Me a Supermodel competition at age 21. Hardy joined Drama Centre London in September 1998, was taken out early after winning the part of US Army Private John Janovec in the award-winning HBO-BBC miniseries Band of Brothers, he made his feature film debut in Ridley Scott's war thriller Black Hawk Down. During this time, Hardy had a brief stint as a rapper and hip hop producer with his friend Edward Tracy, with whom he recorded a mixtape called Falling On Your Arse In 1999 that remained unreleased until 2018. In 2002, Hardy gained some heavy international exposure as the Reman Praetor Shinzon, a clone of USS Enterprise Captain Jean-Luc Picard in Star Trek: Nemesis; the following year, he appeared in the film Dot the i, travelled to North Africa for Simon: An English Legionnaire, a story of the French Foreign Legion. He returned to the United Kingdom to feature in the horror film LD 50 Lethal Dose.
Hardy was awarded the 2003 London Evening Standard Theatre Award for Outstanding Newcomer for his performances in Blood and In Arabia We'd All Be Kings performed at the Royal Court Theatre and Hampstead Theatre. He was nominated for a 2004 Laurence Olivier Award for Most Promising Newcomer of 2003 in a Society of London Theatre Affiliate for his performance as Skank in the aforementioned production of In Arabia We'd All Be Kings. Hardy appeared with Emilia Fox in the BBC miniseries The Virgin Queen as Robert Dudley, a childhood friend of Elizabeth I. Dudley's character has been described as an ambiguous young man, torn between the affection of his wife, his love for Elizabeth and his own ambitions. Hardy featured in the BBC Four adaptation of the 1960s science fiction series A for Andromeda. In 2007, he appeared in BBC Two's drama based on Stuart: A Life Backwards, he played the lead role of Stuart Shorter, a homeless man, subjected to years of abuse and whose death was a suicide. The same year he played Bill Sikes in the BBC miniseries Oliver Twist, an adaptation of Charles Dickens’ novel that aired on PBS Masterpiece Classic in the US.
In February 2008, he played a drug-addicted rapist in the British horror-thriller WΔZ. In September 2008, he appeared in RocknRolla. Though a sequel to RocknRolla, titled The Real RocknRolla, has been rumoured to be in production, in which Hardy will reprise the role of Handsome Bob, filming has yet to commence on the project. In 2008, Hardy starred in the film Bronson, about the real-life English prisoner Charles Bronson, who has spent most of his adult life in solitary confinement. For the film, he put on three stone. In June 2009, Hardy starred in Martina Cole's four-part TV drama The Take on Sky One, as a drugs and alcohol fuelled gangster; the role gained him a Best Actor nomination at the 2009 Crime Thriller Awards. In August 2009, he appeared in ITV's Wuthering Heights, playing the role of Heathcliff, the classic love character who falls in love with his childhood friend Cathy. In early 2010, Hardy starred in The Long Red Road at the Goodman Theatre in Chicago; the play was written by Bre
Luc Besson is a French film director and producer. He directed or produced the films Subway, The Big Blue, Nikita. Besson is associated with the Cinéma du look film movement, he has been nominated for a César Award for Best Director and Best Picture for his films Léon: The Professional and The Messenger: The Story of Joan of Arc. He won Best French Director for his sci-fi action film The Fifth Element, he wrote and directed the 2014 sci-fi thriller film Lucy and the 2017 space opera film Valerian and the City of a Thousand Planets. In 1980, he founded his own production company, Les Films du Loup, Les Films du Dauphin, which were superseded in 2000 by his co-founding EuropaCorp film company with his longtime collaborator, Pierre-Ange Le Pogam; as writer, director, or producer, Besson has so far been involved in the creation of more than 50 films. Besson was born to parents who both worked as Club Med scuba-diving instructors. Influenced by this milieu, as a child Besson planned to become a marine biologist.
He spent much of his youth travelling with his parents to tourist resorts in Italy and Greece. The family returned to France when Besson was 10, his parents promptly divorced and each remarried. "Here there is two families, I am the only bad souvenir of something that doesn't work," he said in the International Herald Tribune. "And if I disappear everything is perfect. The rage to exist comes from here. I have to do something! Otherwise I am going to die." At the age of 17, Besson had a diving accident. He worked on the first drafts of Le Grand Bleu while still in his teens. Out of boredom, Besson started writing stories, including the background to what he developed as The Fifth Element, one of his most popular movies; the film is inspired by the French comic books. Besson directed and co-wrote the screenplay of this science fiction thriller with the screenwriter Robert Mark Kamen. At 18, Besson returned to his birthplace of Paris. There he took odd jobs in film to get a feel for the industry, he worked as an assistant to directors including Patrick Grandperret.
Besson directed three short films, a commissioned documentary, several commercials. After this, he moved to the United States for three years, but returned to Paris, where he formed his own production company, he first changed it to Les Films du Dauphin. In the early 1980s, Besson met Éric Serra and asked him to compose the score for his first short film, L'Avant dernier, he used Serra as a composer for other films of his. Since the late 20th century, Besson has written and produced numerous action movies, including the Taxi and The Transporter series, the Jet Li films Kiss of the Dragon and Unleashed/Danny the Dog, his English-language films Taken, Taken 2 and Taken 3, all starring Liam Neeson, have been major successes, with Taken 2 becoming the largest-grossing export French film. Besson produced the promotional movie for the Paris bid for the 2012 Summer Olympics. Besson won Best French Director for his film The Fifth Element, he was nominated for Best Director and Best Picture César Awards for his films Léon: The Professional and The Messenger: The Story of Joan of Arc.
French actor Jean Reno has appeared in several films by Besson, including Le dernier combat, The Big Blue, Léon: The Professional. Critics cite Besson as a pivotal figure in the Cinéma du look movement, a specific visual style produced from the 1980s into the early 1990s. Subway, The Big Blue and Nikita are all considered to be of this stylistic school; the term was coined by critic Raphaël Bassan in a 1989 essay in La Revue du Cinema n° 449. A partisan of the experimental cinema and friend of the New Wave directors, Bassan grouped Besson with Jean-Jacques Beineix and Leos Carax as three directors who shared the style of "le look." These directors were described critically as favouring style over substance, spectacle over narrative. Besson, along with most of the filmmakers so categorised, was uncomfortable with the label in light of the achievements of their forebears: France's New Wave. "Jean-Luc Godard and François Truffaut were rebelling against existing cultural values and used cinema as a means of expression because it was the most avant-garde medium at the time," said Besson in a 1985 interview in The New York Times.
"Today, the revolution is occurring within the industry and is led by people who want to change the look of movies by making them better, more convincing and pleasurable to watch. "Because it's becoming difficult to break into this field, we have developed a psychological armor and are ready to do anything in order to work", he added in this same interview. "I think our ardor alone is going to shake the pillars of the moviemaking establishment."Besson directed a biopic of Aung San Suu Kyi called The Lady, released in the fall of 2011. He worked on Lockout, released in April 2012. Many of Besson's films have achieved popular, if not critical, success. One such release was Le Grand Bleu. "When the film had its premiere on opening night at the 1988 Cannes Film Festival, it was mercilessly drubbed, but no matter. "Embraced by young people who kept returning to see it again, the movie sold 10 million tickets and became what the French call a'film générationnel,' a defining moment in th
HBO is an American premium cable and satellite television network owned by the namesake unit Home Box Office, Inc. a division of AT&T's WarnerMedia. The program which featured on the network consists of theatrically released motion pictures and original television shows, along with made-for-cable movies and occasional comedy and concert specials. HBO is the oldest and longest continuously operating pay television service in the United States, having been in operation since November 8, 1972. In 2016, HBO had an adjusted operating income of US$1.93 billion, compared to the US$1.88 billion it accrued in 2015. HBO has 130 million subscribers worldwide as of 2016; the network provides seven 24-hour multiplex channels, including HBO Comedy, HBO Latino, HBO Signature, HBO Family. It launched the streaming service HBO Now in April 2015 and has over 2 million subscribers in the United States as of February 2017; as of July 2015, HBO's programming is available to 36,493,000 households with at least one television set in the United States, making it the second largest premium channel in the United States.
In addition to its U. S. subscriber base, HBO distributes content in at least 151 countries, with 130 million subscribers worldwide. HBO subscribers pay for an extra tier of service that includes other cable- and satellite-exclusive channels before paying for the channel itself. However, a regulation imposed by the Federal Communications Commission requires that cable providers allow subscribers to get just "limited" basic cable and premium services such as HBO, without subscribing to expanded service. Cable providers can require the use of a converter box—usually digital—in order to receive HBO. HBO provides its content through digital media. HBO maintains near-ubiquitous distribution in hotels across the United States through agreements with DirecTV, Echostar, SONIFI Solutions, Satellite Management Services, Inc. Telerent Leasing Corporation, Total Media Concepts and World Cinema as well as cable providers that maintain hospitality service arrangements with individual hotels and local franchises of national hotel/motel chains.
Since June 2018, through a content partnership with Enseo, HBO Go is distributed to some Marriott International hotels around the U. S.. Many HBO programs have been syndicated to other networks and broadcast television stations, a number of HBO-produced series and films have been released on DVD. Since HBO's more successful series air on over-the-air broadcasters in other countries, HBO's programming has the potential of being exposed to a higher percentage of the population of those countries compared to the United States; because of the cost of HBO, many Americans only view HBO programs through DVDs or in basic cable or broadcast syndication—months or years after these programs have first aired on the network—and with editing for both content and to allow advertising, although several series have filmed alternate "clean" scenes intended for syndication runs. In 1965, Charles Dolan—who had done pioneering work in the commercial use of cables and had developed Teleguide, a closed-circuit tourist information television system distributed to hotels in the New York metropolitan area—won a franchise to build a cable television system in the Lower Manhattan section of New York City.
The new system, which Dolan named "Sterling Information Services", became the first urban underground cable televisi
Cable News Network is an American news-based pay television channel owned by WarnerMedia News & Sports, a division of AT&T's WarnerMedia. CNN was founded in 1980 by American media proprietor Ted Turner as a 24-hour cable news channel. Upon its launch, CNN was the first television channel to provide 24-hour news coverage, was the first all-news television channel in the United States. While the news channel has numerous affiliates, CNN broadcasts from the Time Warner Center in New York City, studios in Washington, D. C. and Los Angeles. Its headquarters at the CNN Center in Atlanta is only used for weekend programming. CNN is sometimes referred to as CNN/U. S. to distinguish the American channel from CNN International. As of August 2010, CNN is available in over 100 million U. S. households. Broadcast coverage of the U. S. channel extends to over 890,000 American hotel rooms, as well as carriage on subscription providers throughout Canada. As of July 2015, CNN is available to about 96,374,000 pay-television households in the United States.
Globally, CNN programming airs through CNN International, which can be seen by viewers in over 212 countries and territories. The Cable News Network was launched at 5:00 p.m. Eastern Time on June 1, 1980. After an introduction by Ted Turner, the husband and wife team of David Walker and Lois Hart anchored the channel's first newscast. Burt Reinhardt, the executive vice president of CNN at its launch, hired most of the channel's first 200 employees, including the network's first news anchor, Bernard Shaw. Since its debut, CNN has expanded its reach to a number of cable and satellite television providers, several websites, specialized closed-circuit channels; the company has 42 bureaus, more than 900 affiliated local stations, several regional and foreign-language networks around the world. The channel's success made a bona-fide mogul of founder Ted Turner and set the stage for conglomerate Time Warner's eventual acquisition of the Turner Broadcasting System in 1996. A companion channel, CNN2, was launched on January 1, 1982 and featured a continuous 24-hour cycle of 30-minute news broadcasts.
The channel, which became known as CNN Headline News and is now known as HLN focused on live news coverage supplemented by personality-based programs during the evening and primetime hours. The first Persian Gulf War in 1991 was a watershed event for CNN that catapulted the channel past the "Big Three" American networks for the first time in its history due to an unprecedented, historical scoop: CNN was the only news outlet with the ability to communicate from inside Iraq during the initial hours of the Coalition bombing campaign, with live reports from the al-Rashid Hotel in Baghdad by reporters Bernard Shaw, John Holliman and Peter Arnett; the moment when bombing began was announced on CNN by Shaw on January 16, 1991, as follows: This is Bernie Shaw. Something is happening outside.... Peter Arnett, join me here. Let's describe to our viewers what we're seeing... The skies over Baghdad have been illuminated.... We're seeing bright flashes going off all over the sky. Unable to broadcast live pictures from Baghdad, CNN's coverage of the initial hours of the Gulf War had the dramatic feel of a radio broadcast – and was compared to legendary CBS news anchor Edward R. Murrow's gripping live radio reports of the German bombing of London during World War II.
Despite the lack of live pictures, CNN's coverage was carried by television stations and networks around the world, resulting in CNN being watched by over a billion viewers worldwide. The Gulf War experience brought CNN some much sought-after legitimacy and made household names of obscure reporters. In 2000, media scholar and director of the Center for the Study of Popular Television at Syracuse University, Robert Thompson, stated that having turned 20, CNN was now the "old guard." Shaw, known for his live-from-Bagdhad reporting during the Gulf War, became CNN's chief anchor until his retirement in 2001. Others include then-Pentagon correspondent Wolf Blitzer and international correspondent Christiane Amanpour. Amanpour's presence in Iraq was caricatured by actress Nora Dunn as ruthless reporter Adriana Cruz in the 1999 film Three Kings. Time Warner-owned sister network HBO produced a television movie, Live from Baghdad, about CNN's coverage of the first Gulf War. Coverage of the first Gulf War and other crises of the early 1990s led officials at the Pentagon to coin the term "the CNN effect" to describe the perceived impact of real time, 24-hour news coverage on the decision-making processes of the American government.
CNN was the first cable news channel. Anchor Carol Lin was on the air to deliver the first public report of the event, she broke into a commercial at 8:49 a.m. Eastern Time that morning and said:This just in. You are looking at a disturbing live shot there; that is the World Trade Center, we have unconfirmed reports this morning that a plane has crashed into one of the towers of the World Trade Center. CNN Center right now is just beginning to work on this story calling our sources and trying to figure out what happened, but something devastating happening this morning there on the south end of the island of Manhattan; that is once again, a picture of one of the towers of the World Trade Center. Sean Murtagh, CNN vice president of finance and administration, was the first network employe
The Shining (film)
The Shining is a 1980 horror film produced and directed by Stanley Kubrick and co-written with novelist Diane Johnson. The film is based on Stephen King's 1977 novel The Shining; the Shining is about Jack Torrance, an aspiring writer and recovering alcoholic, who accepts a position as the off-season caretaker of the isolated historic Overlook Hotel in the Colorado Rockies. Wintering over with Jack are his wife Wendy Torrance and young son Danny Torrance. Danny possesses "the shining", psychic abilities that enable him to see into the hotel's horrific past; the hotel's cook, Dick Hallorann has this and is able to telepathically communicate with Danny. The hotel killed his family and himself. After a winter storm leaves the Torrances snowbound, Jack's sanity deteriorates due to the influence of the supernatural forces that inhabit the hotel, placing his wife and son in danger. Production took place exclusively at EMI Elstree Studios with sets based on real locations. Kubrick worked with a small crew which allowed him to do many takes, sometimes to the exhaustion of the actors and staff.
The new Steadicam was used in several scenes, giving the film an innovative and immersive look and feel. Because of inconsistencies, ambiguities and differences from the book, there has been much speculation into the meanings and actions in the film. There were several versions for theatrical releases, each being shorter than the prior, with about 27 minutes cut. Although contemporary responses from critics were mixed, assessment became more favorable in following decades, it is now regarded as one of the greatest horror films made; the Shining is acclaimed by today's critics, has become a staple of pop culture. In 2018, the film was selected for preservation in the United States National Film Registry by the Library of Congress as being "culturally or aesthetically significant." Former schoolteacher-turned-writer Jack Torrance arrives at the remote Overlook Hotel, isolated in the Rocky mountains and far from town, to be interviewed for the position of winter caretaker. The hotel, built on the site of a Native American burial ground, closes during the snowed-in months.
Once hired, Jack plans to use the hotel's solitude to write. Manager Stuart Ullman tells Jack about the hotel's history since its 1907 construction, but he warns him about its receiving reputation from a tragedy in the winter of 1970, where a previous caretaker, Charles Grady developed cabin fever and killed his family and himself. Despite the troubling story, Jack is excited when he gets the job. In Boulder, Jack's son, has a terrifying premonition about the hotel, viewing a cascade of blood emerging from an elevator door, falls into a trance. Jack's wife, tells a doctor that Danny has an imaginary friend named Tony, that Jack has given up drinking because he dislocated Danny's shoulder following a binge; the family is given a tour. Head chef Dick Hallorann surprises Danny by telepathically offering him ice cream. Hallorann explains to Danny that he and his grandmother shared this telepathic ability, which he calls "shining". Danny asks if there is anything to be afraid of in the hotel room 237.
Hallorann tells Danny that the hotel has a "shine" to it along with many memories, not all of which are good. He tells Danny to stay away from room 237. A month passes. Wendy learns that the phone lines are out due to the heavy snowfall, Danny has frightening visions. Jack frustrated, starts behaving strangely and becomes prone to violent outbursts. Danny's curiosity about room 237 overcomes him. Wendy finds Jack screaming during a nightmare while asleep at his typewriter. After she awakens him, Jack says he dreamed that he killed Danny. Danny arrives and is visibly traumatized with a bruise on his neck, causing Wendy to accuse Jack of abusing him. Jack meets a ghostly bartender named Lloyd. Lloyd serves him bourbon whiskey. Wendy tells Jack that Danny told her a "crazy woman in one of the rooms" attempted to strangle him. Jack investigates room 237, stumbles upon the ghost of a naked, zombie-like woman, but tells Wendy that he saw nothing. Wendy and Jack argue over whether Danny should be removed from the hotel and a furious Jack returns to the Gold Room, now filled with ghosts attending a ball.
While attending the ball, he meets with a waiter. After an awkward post-introductory argument about whether Grady was or was not the caretaker of the hotel, Grady tells Jack that he must "correct" his wife and child and that Danny has reached out to Hallorann using his "talent". Meanwhile, Hallorann flies back to Colorado. Danny starts calling out "redrum" and goes into another trance, referring to himself as "Tony". While searching for Jack, Wendy discovers he has been typing pages of a repetitive manuscript: "all work and no play makes Jack a dull boy", she begs Jack to leave the hotel with Danny, but he threatens her before she knocks him unconscious with a baseball bat. She drags him into the kitchen and locks him in the pantry, but she and Danny are both trapped at the hotel: Jack has disabled the hotel's two-way radio and snowcat. Meanwhile, Jack converses through the pantry door with Grady, who frees him. Danny writes "R
In clothing, a suit is a set of garments made from the same cloth consisting of at least a jacket and trousers. Lounge suits, which originated in Britain as country wear, are the most common style of Western suit. Other types of suit still worn today are the dinner suit, part of black tie, which arose as a lounging alternative to dress coats in much the same way as the day lounge suit came to replace frock coats and morning coats; this article discusses elements of informal dress code. The variations in design and cloth, such as two- and three-piece, or single- and double-breasted, determine the social and work suitability of the garment. Suits are worn, as is traditional, with a collared shirt and necktie; until around the 1960s, as with all men's clothes, a hat would have been worn when the wearer was outdoors. Suits come with different numbers of pieces: a two-piece suit has a jacket and the trousers; as with most clothes, a tailor made the suit from his client's selected cloth. The suit was custom made to the measurements and style of the man.
Since the Industrial Revolution, most suits are mass-produced, and, as such, are sold as ready-to-wear garments. Suits are sold in four ways: bespoke, in which the garment is custom-made by a tailor from a pattern created from the customer's measurements, giving the best fit and free choice of fabric; the word suit derives from the French suite, meaning "following", from some Late Latin derivative form of the Latin verb sequor = "I follow", because the component garments follow each other and have the same cloth and colour and are worn together. As a suit covers all or most of the wearer's body, the term "suit" was extended to a single garment that covers all or most of the body, such as boilersuits and diving suits and spacesuits; the current styles were founded in the industrial revolution during the late 18th century that changed the elaborately embroidered and jewelled formal clothing into the simpler clothing of the British Regency period, which evolved to the stark formality of the Victorian era.
It was in the search for more comfort that the loosening of rules gave rise in the late 19th century to the modern lounge suit. Brooks Brothers is credited with first offering the "ready-to-wear" suit, a suit, sold manufactured and sized, ready to be tailored, it was Haggar Clothing that first introduced the concept of suit separates in the US, the concept of separately sold jackets and trousers, which are found in the marketplace today. There are many possible variations in the choice of the style, the garments and the details of a suit; the silhouette of a suit is its outline. Tailored balance created from a canvas fitting allows a balanced silhouette so a jacket need not be buttoned and a garment is not too tight or too loose. A proper garment is shaped from the neck to the chest and shoulders to drape without wrinkles from tension. Shape is the essential part of tailoring that takes hand work from the start; the two main cuts are 1) double-breasted suits, a conservative design with two columns of buttons, spanned by a large overlap of the left and right sides.
Good tailoring anywhere in the world is characterised by tapered sides and minimal shoulder, whereas rack suits are padded to reduce labour. More casual suits are characterised by less construction and tailoring, much like the sack suit is a loose American style. There are 3 ways to make suits: Ready made and altered "sizes" or precut shapes; the acid test of authentic tailoring standards is the wrinkle. Rumples can be pressed out. For interim fittings, "Rock Of Eye", drawing and cutting inaccuracies are overcome by the fitting. Suits are made in a variety of fabrics, but most from wool; the two main yarns produce woollens. These can be woven in a number of ways producing flannel, tweed and fresco among others; these fabrics all have different weights and feel, some fabrics have an S number describing the fineness of the fibres measured by average fibre diameter, e.g. Super 120.