Biblioteca Nacional de España
The Biblioteca Nacional de España is a major public library, the largest in Spain, one of the largest in the world. It is located on the Paseo de Recoletos; the library was founded by King Philip V in 1712 as the Palace Public Library. The Royal Letters Patent that he granted, the predecessor of the current legal deposit requirement, made it mandatory for printers to submit a copy of every book printed in Spain to the library. In 1836, the library's status as Crown property was revoked and ownership was transferred to the Ministry of Governance. At the same time, it was renamed the Biblioteca Nacional. During the 19th century, confiscations and donations enabled the Biblioteca Nacional to acquire the majority of the antique and valuable books that it holds. In 1892 the building was used to host the Historical American Exposition. On March 16, 1896, the Biblioteca Nacional opened to the public in the same building in which it is housed and included a vast Reading Room on the main floor designed to hold 320 readers.
In 1931 the Reading Room was reorganised, providing it with a major collection of reference works, the General Reading Room was created to cater for students and general readers. During the Spanish Civil War close to 500,000 volumes were collected by the Confiscation Committee and stored in the Biblioteca Nacional to safeguard works of art and books held until in religious establishments and private houses. During the 20th century numerous modifications were made to the building to adapt its rooms and repositories to its expanding collections, to the growing volume of material received following the modification to the Legal Deposit requirement in 1958, to the numerous works purchased by the library. Among this building work, some of the most noteworthy changes were the alterations made in 1955 to triple the capacity of the library's repositories, those started in 1986 and completed in 2000, which led to the creation of the new building in Alcalá de Henares and complete remodelling of the building on Paseo de Recoletos, Madrid.
In 1986, when Spain's main bibliographic institutions - the National Newspaper Library, the Spanish Bibliographic Institute and the Centre for Documentary and Bibliographic Treasures - were incorporated into the Biblioteca Nacional, the library was established as the State Repository of Spain's Cultural Memory, making all of Spain's bibliographic output on any media available to the Spanish Library System and national and international researchers and cultural and educational institutions. In 1990 it was made an Autonomous Entity attached to the Ministry of Culture; the Madrid premises are shared with the National Archaeological Museum. The Biblioteca Nacional is Spain's highest library institution and is head of the Spanish Library System; as the country's national library, it is the centre responsible for identifying, preserving and disseminating information about Spain's documentary heritage, it aspires to be an essential point of reference for research into Spanish culture. In accordance with its Articles of Association, passed by Royal Decree 1581/1991 of October 31, 1991, its principal functions are to: Compile and conserve bibliographic archives produced in any language of the Spanish state, or any other language, for the purposes of research and information.
Promote research through the study and reproduction of its bibliographic archive. Disseminate information on Spain's bibliographic output based on the entries received through the legal deposit requirement; the library's collection consists of more than 26,000,000 items, including 15,000,000 books and other printed materials, 4,500,000 graphic materials, 600,000 sound recordings, 510,000 music scores, more than 500,000 microforms, 500,000 maps, 143,000 newspapers and serials, 90,000 audiovisuals, 90,000 electronic documents, 30,000 manuscripts. The current director of the Biblioteca Nacional is Ana Santos Aramburo, appointed in 2013. Former directors include her predecessors Glòria Pérez-Salmerón and Milagros del Corral as well as historian Juan Pablo Fusi and author Rosa Regàs. Given its role as the legal deposit for the whole of Spain, since 1991 it has kept most of the overflowing collection at a secondary site in Alcalá de Henares, near Madrid; the Biblioteca Nacional provides access to its collections through the following library services: Guidance and general information on the institution and other libraries.
Bibliographic information about its collection and those held by other libraries or library systems. Access to its automated catalogue, which contains close to 3,000,000 bibliographic records encompassing all of its collections. Archive consultation in the library's reading rooms. Interlibrary loans. Archive reproduction. Biblioteca Digital Hispánica, digital library launched in 2008 by the Biblioteca Nacional de España List of libraries in Spain Media related to Biblioteca Nacional de España at Wikimedia Commons Official site Official web catalog
Buenos Aires is the capital and largest city of Argentina. The city is located on the western shore of the estuary of the Río de la Plata, on the South American continent's southeastern coast. "Buenos Aires" can be translated as "fair winds" or "good airs", but the former was the meaning intended by the founders in the 16th century, by the use of the original name "Real de Nuestra Señora Santa María del Buen Ayre". The Greater Buenos Aires conurbation, which includes several Buenos Aires Province districts, constitutes the fourth-most populous metropolitan area in the Americas, with a population of around 15.6 million. The city of Buenos Aires is the Province's capital. In 1880, after decades of political infighting, Buenos Aires was federalized and removed from Buenos Aires Province; the city limits were enlarged to include the towns of Flores. The 1994 constitutional amendment granted the city autonomy, hence its formal name: Autonomous City of Buenos Aires, its citizens first elected a chief of government in 1996.
Buenos Aires is considered an'alpha city' by the study GaWC5. Buenos Aires' quality of life was ranked 91st in the world, being one of the best in Latin America in 2018, it is the most visited city in South America, the second-most visited city of Latin America. Buenos Aires is a top tourist destination, is known for its preserved Eclectic European architecture and rich cultural life. Buenos Aires held the 1st Pan American Games in 1951 as well as hosting two venues in the 1978 FIFA World Cup. Buenos Aires hosted the 2018 the 2018 G20 summit. Buenos Aires is a multicultural city, being home to multiple religious groups. Several languages are spoken in the city in addition to Spanish, contributing to its culture and the dialect spoken in the city and in some other parts of the country; this is because in the last 150 years the city, the country in general, has been a major recipient of millions of immigrants from all over the world, making it a melting pot where several ethnic groups live together and being considered one of the most diverse cities of the Americas.
It is recorded under the archives of Aragonese that Catalan missionaries and Jesuits arriving in Cagliari under the Crown of Aragon, after its capture from the Pisans in 1324 established their headquarters on top of a hill that overlooked the city. The hill was known to them as Bonaira, as it was free of the foul smell prevalent in the old city, adjacent to swampland. During the siege of Cagliari, the Catalans built a sanctuary to the Virgin Mary on top of the hill. In 1335, King Alfonso the Gentle donated the church to the Mercedarians, who built an abbey that stands to this day. In the years after that, a story circulated, claiming that a statue of the Virgin Mary was retrieved from the sea after it miraculously helped to calm a storm in the Mediterranean Sea; the statue was placed in the abbey. Spanish sailors Andalusians, venerated this image and invoked the "Fair Winds" to aid them in their navigation and prevent shipwrecks. A sanctuary to the Virgin of Buen Ayre would be erected in Seville.
In the first foundation of Buenos Aires, Spanish sailors arrived thankfully in the Río de la Plata by the blessings of the "Santa Maria de los Buenos Aires", the "Holy Virgin Mary of the Good Winds", said to have given them the good winds to reach the coast of what is today the modern city of Buenos Aires. Pedro de Mendoza called the city "Holy Mary of the Fair Winds", a name suggested by the chaplain of Mendoza's expedition – a devotee of the Virgin of Buen Ayre – after the Sardinian Madonna de Bonaria. Mendoza's settlement soon came under attack by indigenous people, was abandoned in 1541. For many years, the name was attributed to a Sancho del Campo, said to have exclaimed: How fair are the winds of this land!, as he arrived. But Eduardo Madero, in 1882 after conducting extensive research in Spanish archives concluded that the name was indeed linked with the devotion of the sailors to Our Lady of Buen Ayre. A second settlement was established in 1580 by Juan de Garay, who sailed down the Paraná River from Asunción.
Garay preserved the name chosen by Mendoza, calling the city Ciudad de la Santísima Trinidad y Puerto de Santa María del Buen Aire. The short form "Buenos Aires" became the common usage during the 17th century; the usual abbreviation for Buenos Aires in Spanish is Bs. As, it is common as well to refer to it as "B. A." or "BA". While "BA" is used more by expats residing in the city, the locals more use the abbreviation "Baires", in one word. Seaman Juan Díaz de Solís, navigating in the name of Spain, was the first European to reach the Río de la Plata in 1516, his expedition was cut short when he was killed during an attack by the native Charrúa tribe in what is now Uruguay. The city of Buenos Aires was first established as Ciudad de Nuestra Señora Santa María del Buen Ayre after Our Lady of Bonaria on 2 February 1536 by a Spanish expedition led by Pedro de Mendoza; the settlement founded by Mendoza was located in what is today the San Telmo district of Buenos Aires, south of the city centre. More attacks by the indigenous
1900 is a 1976 Italian epic historical drama film directed by Bernardo Bertolucci and featuring an international ensemble cast including Robert De Niro, Gérard Depardieu, Dominique Sanda, Francesca Bertini, Laura Betti, Stefania Casini, Ellen Schwiers, Sterling Hayden, Alida Valli, Romolo Valli, Stefania Sandrelli, Donald Sutherland, Burt Lancaster. Set in Bertolucci's ancestral region of Emilia, the film chronicles the lives and friendship of two men – the landowning Alfredo Berlinghieri and the peasant Olmo Dalcò – as they witness and participate in the political conflicts between fascism and communism that took place in Italy in the first half of the 20th century; the film premiered out of competition at the 1976 Cannes Film Festival. With a runtime of 317 minutes in its original version, 1900 is known for being one of the longest commercially released films made. Due to its length, the film was presented in two parts when released in many countries, including Italy and West Germany, Belgium, Sweden and Japan.
In other countries, such as the United States, a singular, edited-down version of the film was released. Since the film is regarded as a cult classic, the film received special edition home video releases from Paramount and other distributors worldwide; the film's restored version premiered out of competition at the 74th Venice International Film Festival in 2017. Born on the day of the death of renowned composer Giuseppe Verdi – 27 January 1901 – Alfredo Berlinghieri and Olmo Dalcò come from opposite ends of the social spectrum. Alfredo is from a family of landowners led by his populist grandfather, while Olmo is an illegitimate peasant. Olmo's grandfather, Leo, is the foreman and peasants' strong man who verbally and spiritually carries out a duel of wits with the elder Alfredo; as Alfredo is somewhat rebellious and despises the falseness of his family, in particular his weak but abusive and cynical father Giovanni, he befriends Olmo, raised as a socialist. The two are friends throughout their childhood, despite the social differences of their families.
Olmo enlists with the Italian army in 1917 during World War I and goes off to fight while Alfredo learns how to run his family's large plantation under the guidance of his father. Olmo returns from the war over a year and his friendship with Alfredo continues. However, Alfredo's father has hired Attila Mellanchini as his foreman. Taken with fascism, Attila incorporates his new belief system in his dealings with the Berlinghieri workers. Several are killed by Attila himself; as the new padrone of the plantation, Alfredo does little to halt Attila's actions. During the late 1920s, the intimacy and lack thereof in their respective relationships with others is highlighted in their love lives. Alfredo marries a gorgeous, demure woman while Olmo marries Anita, who like him shares in the enthusiasm of the cause of workers' rights. Alfredo's wife, sinks into alcoholism when confronted with the reality of the emptiness of her relationship with Alfredo. Anita, a strong and independent spirit dies tragically in childbirth, bringing another member into the community.
As Olmo takes on his fateful role of leader among the poor farmers and their families, he clashes with Attila. The power, shifts after World War II in 1945, the ruling class is at the mercy of the jovial and bitter peasants in the agricultural estate; as padrone, Alfredo is captured by a teenage peasant boy carrying a rifle. Attila is captured when he and his wife, try to flee the region. Attila is stabbed, non-fatally, several times by women wielding pitchforks and is imprisoned in the Berlinghieri pig sty, he is executed by the peasants, who have discovered that Attila had killed a young boy several years prior and had murdered a wealthy landowner's widow, Mrs. Pioppi, in order to steal her land and home. Years earlier, Attila had several peasants killed after they threw horse manure at him for "selling" Olmo. Olmo made Attila let him go. Olmo had to leave town to keep from being killed by the fascists. Alfredo fires Attila, when Attila and his blackshirts seek vengeance on Olmo by tearing up Olmo's house.
In the final scenes, set on 28 April 1945, Alfredo is brought before Olmo's workers' tribunal to stand trial. Many workers come forth and accuse Alfredo of letting them suffer in squalor while he profited from their labors. Alfredo is sentenced to death, but his execution is prevented after Olmo explains that the padrone is dead, so Alfredo Berlinghieri is alive, suggesting that the social system has been overthrown with the end of the war; as soon as the verdict is reached, however and soldiers of the new government, which includes the Communist Party and call on the peasants to turn in their arms. Olmo convinces the peasants to do so. Alone with Olmo, Alfredo declares, "The padrone is alive." With Robert De Niro as Alfredo Berlinghieri Gérard Depardieu as Olmo Dalcò Dominique Sanda as Ada Chiostri PolanAnd in alphabetical order And in order of appearance And with Stefania Sandrelli as Anita Foschi Donald Sutherland as Attila Mellanchini Burt Lancaster as Alfredo Berlinghieri the ElderWith the voices of The original direc
Bernardo Bertolucci was an Italian director and screenwriter, whose films include The Conformist, Last Tango in Paris, 1900, The Last Emperor, The Sheltering Sky, Little Buddha, Stealing Beauty and The Dreamers. In recognition of his work, he was presented with the inaugural Honorary Palme d'Or Award at the opening ceremony of the 2011 Cannes Film Festival. From 1979 until his death in 2018, he was married to screenwriter Clare Peploe. Bertolucci was born in the region of Emilia-Romagna, he was the elder son of Ninetta, a teacher, Attilio Bertolucci, a poet, a reputed art historian and film critic. His mother was born to an Italian father and an Irish mother. Having been raised in an artistic environment, Bertolucci began writing at the age of fifteen, soon after received several prestigious literary prizes including the Premio Viareggio for his first book, his father's background helped his career: the elder Bertolucci had helped the Italian filmmaker Pier Paolo Pasolini publish his first novel, Pasolini reciprocated by hiring Bertolucci as first assistant in Rome on Accattone.
Bertolucci had the theatre director and playwright Giuseppe. His cousin was the film producer Giovanni Bertolucci, with. Bertolucci wished to become a poet like his father. With this goal in mind, he attended the Faculty of Modern Literature of the University of Rome from 1958 to 1961, where his film career as an assistant director to Pasolini began. Shortly after, Bertolucci left the University without graduating. In 1962, at the age of 22, he directed his first feature film, produced by Tonino Cervi with a screenplay by Pasolini, called La commare secca; the film is a murder mystery, following a prostitute's homicide. Bertolucci uses flashbacks to piece together the person who committed it; the film which shortly followed was his acclaimed Before the Revolution. The boom of Italian cinema, which gave Bertolucci his start, slowed in the 1970s as directors were forced to co-produce their films with several of the American, Swedish and German companies and actors due to the effects of the global economic recession on the Italian film industry.
Bertolucci caused controversy in 1972 with the film Last Tango in Paris, starring Marlon Brando, Maria Schneider, Jean-Pierre Léaud and Massimo Girotti. The film presents Brando's character, Paul, as he copes with his wife's suicide by and physically dominating a young woman, Jeane; the depictions of Schneider 19 years old, were regarded as exploitative. In one scene, Paul anally rapes Jeane using butter as a lubricant; the use of butter was not in the script. She said in 2007 that she had cried "real tears" during the scene and had felt humiliated and "a little raped". In 2013 Bertolucci said that he had withheld the information from Schneider to generate a real "reaction of frustration and rage". Brando alleged that Bertolucci had wanted the characters to have real sex, but Brando and Schneider both said it was simulated. In 2016 Bertolucci released a statement where he clarified that Schneider had known of the violence to be depicted in the scene, but had not been told about the use of butter.
Following the scandal surrounding the film's release, Schneider became suicidal. She became a women's rights advocate, in particular fighting for more female film directors, more respect for female actors and better representation of women in film and media. Criminal proceedings were brought against Bertolucci in Italy for the rape scene. An Italian court revoked Bertolucci's civil rights for five years and gave him a four-month suspended prison sentence. In 1978 the Appeals Court of Bologna ordered three copies of the film to be preserved in the national film library with the stipulation that they could not be viewed, until Bertolucci was able to re-submit it for general distribution with no cuts. Bertolucci increased his fame with his next few films, from 1900, an epic depiction of the struggles of farmers in Emilia-Romagna from the beginning of the 20th century up to World War II with an international cast to La Luna, set in Rome and in Emilia-Romagna, in which Bertolucci deals with the thorny issue of drugs and incest, La tragedia di un uomo ridicolo, with Ugo Tognazzi.
He wrote two screenplays based on Dashiell Hammett’s Red Harvest. He hoped this would be his first film set in America. In 1987, Bertolucci directed the epic The Last Emperor, a biographical film telling the life story of Aisin-Gioro Puyi, the last Emperor of China; the film was independently produced by British producer Jeremy Thomas, with whom Bertolucci worked exclusively from on. The film was three years in the making. Bertolucci, who co-wrote the film with Mark Peploe, won the Academy Award for Best Director; the film uses Puyi's life as a mirror that reflects China's passage from feudalism through revolution to its current state. At the 60th Academy Awards, The Last Emperor won all nine Oscars for which it was nominated: Best Picture, Best Director, Best Writing, Screenplay Based on Material from Another Medium, Best Cinematography, Best Film
María Kodama Schweizer is the widow of Argentine author Jorge Luis Borges and sole owner of his estate after his death in 1986. Borges had bequeathed to Kodama his rights as author in a will written in 1979, when she was his literary secretary, bequeathed to her his whole estate in 1985, they were married in 1986, shortly before the death of Borges. Kodama is the daughter of a Japanese father, she met Borges when she was a student, at one of his lectures in Buenos Aires on Icelandic literature. After the death in 1975 of Borges's ninety-nine-year-old mother, with whom he had lived all his life, Kodama became Borges’s literary secretary and had the opportunity—at the invitation of Borges's caretaker, "Fanny"—to assist him as a blind old man in his frequent travels abroad during his years, when he received many invitations by institutions from around the world. Kodama helped Borges write, she collaborated with him in Breve antología anglosajona and Atlas and in the translation of the Younger Edda by Snorri Sturluson.
Kodama married Borges through representatives in a civil proceeding in Paraguay on April 26, 1986. This was a common practice for Argentines wishing to circumvent the restrictions on divorce in their country at the time, Borges was married once but for many years estranged from his first wife. At the time of the wedding, Borges was terminally ill, died of cancer in Geneva, Switzerland, on June 14, 1986, she is president of the Fundación Internacional Jorge Luis Borges, which she founded in Buenos Aires in 1988. After Borges's death, Kodama renegotiated the English translation rights of his works. In particular, she terminated a longstanding agreement between Borges and the translator Norman Thomas di Giovanni under which royalties for a number of translations on which they collaborated were divided between author and translator. New translations by Andrew Hurley were commissioned and published to replace the di Giovanni translations, which were allowed to go out of print. Kodama's assertive administration of the Borges estate resulted in a bitter dispute with the French publisher Gallimard regarding the republication of the complete works of Borges in French, with Pierre Assouline in Le Nouvel Observateur calling her "an obstacle to the dissemination of the works of Borges."
Kodama took legal action against Assouline, considering the remark unjustified and defamatory, asking for a symbolic compensation of one euro. Fundación Internacional Jorge Luis Borges Official Facebook
Jorge Guillén Álvarez was a Spanish poet, a member of the Generation of'27, as well as a university teacher and literary critic. In 1957-8 he delivered; these were published in 1961 under Poetry: Some Poets of Spain. The final lecture was a tribute to his colleagues in the Generation of'27. In 1983, he was named Hijo Predilecto de Andalucía, he was nominated for the Nobel Prize in Literature four times. Jorge Guillén was born in Valladolid where he spent his adolescence. From 1909 to 1911 he lived in Switzerland, he studied at the universities of Madrid – lodging in the Residencia de Estudiantes – and Granada, where he took his licenciatura in philosophy in 1913. His life paralleled that of his friend Pedro Salinas, whom he succeeded as a Spanish lector at the Collège de Sorbonne in the University of Paris from 1917 to 1923. While in Paris, he met and, in 1921, married Germaine Cahen, they had two children, a son Claudio born in 1924 who became a noted critic and scholar of comparative literature, a daughter Teresa who married the Harvard professor Stephen Gilman.
He took his doctorate at the University of Madrid in 1924 with a dissertation on Góngora's notoriously difficult and, at that time, neglected long poem Polifemo. This was the period when his first poems were starting to be published in España and La pluma, he was appointed to the chair of Spanish Literature at the University of Murcia from 1925 to 1929, with Juan Guerrero Ruiz and José Ballester Nicolás, he founded and edited a literary magazine called Verso y Prosa. He continued to visit the Residencia de Estudiantes although his academic responsibilities limited his attendance to vacations; this allowed him to make the acquaintance of the younger members of the Generation – such as Rafael Alberti and Federico García Lorca. He became a regular correspondent of the latter and, on the occasion of a visit by Lorca to the Arts Club of Valladolid in April 1926, Guillén delivered an introduction to a poetry reading, a considered and sympathetic appraisal of a man whom he considered to be a poetic genius, although he had only published one collection.
He participated in the Tercentenary celebrations in honour of Góngora. The volume of Octavas that he was supposed to edit, was never completed but he did give a reading of some of his own poems at an event in Seville with great success, he became the lector at Oxford University from 1929 to 1931, was appointed to a professorship at the University of Seville in 1932. On 8 March 1933, he was present at the premiere in Madrid of García Lorca's play Bodas de sangre. In August 1933, he was able to attend performances at the Magdalena Palace in Santander by the travelling theatre company La Barraca that Lorca led. On 12 July 1936 he was present at a party in Madrid that took place just before García Lorca departed to Granada for the last time before his murder, it was there. On the outbreak of the Spanish Civil War in July 1936 he was back in Valladolid and was imprisoned in Pamplona for political reasons, he returned to his post in Seville and continued there until July 1938, when he decided to go into exile in the USA together with his wife and two teenage children.
Apart from the turmoil in Spain itself, the fact that his wife was Jewish might have caused him concern. He joined Salinas at Wellesley College and stayed there as the Professor of Spanish from 1941 to his retirement in 1957, he retired to Italy. In 1958 in Florence he married Irene Mochi-Sismondi, his first wife having died in 1947, he continued to give lectures at Harvard and Puerto Rico, for a spell was Mellon Professor of Spanish at the University of Pittsburgh, until he broke his hip in a fall in 1970. In 1976 he moved to the city of Málaga. In 1976, he was awarded the Premio Cervantes, the most prestigious prize for Spanish-language writers, in 1977 the Premio Internacional Alfonso Reyes, he aged 91 and was buried there in the Anglican Cemetery of Saint George. Although a glimpse at the collected poems of Guillén suggests that he was a prolific poet, he was slow to get started, he only seems to have started writing poems when he was in Paris in 1919 when he was 25. Over the next 10 years he published quite in the small magazines of the day and began to build a name for himself amongst the members of his generation, including Dámaso Alonso and Federico García Lorca.
As early as 1923 Pedro Salinas urged him to publish a collection but he would not be hurried. Two of his key character traits are revealed by this long gestation period: his quest for perfection and an innate reserve, he was in fact the last of the major figures of the generation to gather together a collection, the first instalment of Cántico- at this stage a collection of 75 poems –, published by the Revista de Occidente in 1928. He was by this time 35. Correspondence with García Lorca shows just how painstaking he was, spending months polishing and correcting poems that he had written and published, to a point where they were unrecognisable from the way they had first appeared in public. Clarity and coherence were his major objectives but he seemed to wish to avoid obvious self-revelation and any hint of sentimentality. Lorca's reaction in a postcard to Guillén written on 27 December 1928 captures the elements that dominate most critical responses to the latter's poetry: an opposition between the jubilant, physical celebration of reality that his poems try to capture and, on the other