Norman conquest of England

The Norman conquest of England was the 11th-century invasion and occupation of England by an army of Norman, Breton and French soldiers led by the Duke of Normandy styled William the Conqueror. William's claim to the English throne derived from his familial relationship with the childless Anglo-Saxon king Edward the Confessor, who may have encouraged William's hopes for the throne. Edward was succeeded by his brother-in-law Harold Godwinson; the Norwegian king Harald Hardrada invaded northern England in September 1066 and was victorious at the Battle of Fulford, but Godwinson's army defeated and killed Hardrada at the Battle of Stamford Bridge on 25 September. Within days, William landed in southern England. Harold marched south leaving a significant portion of his army in the north. Harold's army confronted William's invaders on 14 October at the Battle of Hastings. Although William's main rivals were gone, he still faced rebellions over the following years and was not secure on his throne until after 1072.

The lands of the resisting English elite were confiscated. To control his new kingdom, William granted lands to his followers and built castles commanding military strongpoints throughout the land with the Domesday Book, a manuscript record of the "Great Survey" of much of England and parts of Wales being completed by 1086. Other effects of the conquest included the court and government, the introduction of the Norman language as the language of the elites, changes in the composition of the upper classes, as William enfeoffed lands to be held directly from the king. More gradual changes affected the agricultural classes and village life: the main change appears to have been the formal elimination of slavery, which may or may not have been linked to the invasion. There was little alteration in the structure of government, as the new Norman administrators took over many of the forms of Anglo-Saxon government. In 911, the Carolingian French ruler Charles the Simple allowed a group of Vikings under their leader Rollo to settle in Normandy as part of the Treaty of Saint-Clair-sur-Epte.

In exchange for the land, the Norsemen under Rollo were expected to provide protection along the coast against further Viking invaders. Their settlement proved successful, the Vikings in the region became known as the "Northmen" from which "Normandy" and "Normans" are derived; the Normans adopted the indigenous culture as they became assimilated by the French, renouncing paganism and converting to Christianity. They adopted the langue d'oïl of their new home and added features from their own Norse language, transforming it into the Norman language, they intermarried with the local population and used the territory granted to them as a base to extend the frontiers of the duchy westward, annexing territory including the Bessin, the Cotentin Peninsula and Avranches. In 1002 English king Æthelred the Unready married Emma of Normandy, the sister of Richard II, Duke of Normandy, their son Edward the Confessor, who spent many years in exile in Normandy, succeeded to the English throne in 1042. This led to the establishment of a powerful Norman interest in English politics, as Edward drew on his former hosts for support, bringing in Norman courtiers and clerics and appointing them to positions of power in the Church.

Childless and embroiled in conflict with the formidable Godwin, Earl of Wessex and his sons, Edward may have encouraged Duke William of Normandy's ambitions for the English throne. When King Edward died at the beginning of 1066, the lack of a clear heir led to a disputed succession in which several contenders laid claim to the throne of England. Edward's immediate successor was the Earl of Wessex, Harold Godwinson, the richest and most powerful of the English aristocrats. Harold was elected king by the Witenagemot of England and crowned by the Archbishop of York, although Norman propaganda claimed the ceremony was performed by Stigand, the uncanonically elected Archbishop of Canterbury. Harold was challenged by two powerful neighbouring rulers. Duke William claimed that he had been promised the throne by King Edward and that Harold had sworn agreement to this, his claim to the throne was based on an agreement between his predecessor, Magnus the Good, the earlier English king, whereby if either died without heir, the other would inherit both England and Norway.

William and Harald at once set about assembling ships to invade England. In early 1066, Harold's exiled brother, Tostig Godwinson, raided southeastern England with a fleet he had recruited in Flanders joined by other ships from Orkney. Threatened by Harold's fleet, Tostig moved north and raided in East Anglia and Lincolnshire, but he was driven back to his ships by the brothers Edwin, Earl of Mercia, Morcar, Earl of Northumbria. Deserted by most of his followers, Tostig withdrew to Scotland, where he spent the summer recruiting fresh forces. King Harold spent the summer on the south coast with a large army and fleet waiting for William to invade, but the bulk of his forces were militia who needed to harvest their crops, so on 8 September Harold dismissed them. Hardrada invaded northern England in early September, leading a fleet of more than 300 ships carrying 15,000 men. Harald's army was further augmented by the forces of Tostig, who threw his support behind the Norwegian king's bid for the throne.

Advancing on York, the Norwegians defeated a northern English army under Edwin and Morcar on 20 September at the Battle of

Mercy (game)

Mercy is a game of strength, skill and pain tolerance popular in Britain, Pakistan, the United States, elsewhere. The game is played by two players; the aim is to bend the fingers until the opponent surrenders. Two players face each other and join hands, each player's left hand interlocking fingers and thumbs with the opposing player's right hand, but one of the most important rules is to not apply pressure on the middle finger and the ring finger. On the word "go", each player attempts to bend back the opponent's hand and inflict pain by straining their wrist; when a player can no longer stand the pain they declare defeat by shouting popularly "Mercy, Uncle Mercy", "Mercy!". If a player on the verge of losing the match calls for "timeout", "break", or "re grip", that player will lose the match as though he or she has cried "mercy!" The winner is called'The Monster','The Champion','The Fahad' but this of course depends on the players, people from different ethnic background, decide or/choose to call it different.

Most opponents do not want a rematch after facing the winners. Cheating involves any other activity during the match that inflicts pain, distraction or discomfort on the opponent. Sportsmanship etiquette includes the prompt release of the hand grip after defeating the opponent; some consider the rapid twisting of the wrist to be a dangerous cheat that could result in broken wrists. During play, players may not move their feet. Rules are agreed upon before playing. Skilled Mercy players use specific strategies to get their opponents into painful positions, such as twisting the arm around so that the elbow is pointed towards the neck, against the back, pushing up on the arm. Throwing an opponent on their back on either a desk or the floor maybe used if they are too persistent. Sometimes a mercy match can end quickly or can last for minutes. Players with bony fingers may shift their grip to twist their opponents fingers purposefully, causing pain by digging their bony middle joints into the other players fingers.

However painful this may be to the unsuspecting opponent, this may run the risk of dislocating or breaking one or both parties fingers. The ` handlock' is a strategy mastered by those. Beware, 2 strong players could cause hand marks over them. Sometimes, if a person knows they will lose, they say "What's the name of this game?" to the other player. The other player may say "Mercy". Mercy may be played one-handed. A stronger player may play two people at one on each hand. A player may choose to have the outer grip depending on the decision between players. Mercy can be played with any number of people: players form a ring and interlock fingers with the adjacent hands of the two players on either side. On "go" all players attempt to bend back the wrists of their neighbor; when a player cries "Mercy!", play ceases and that player is eliminated from the game. The remaining players rejoin hands and play resumes until only one person is left. In another variation of Mercy, two opponents sit back-to-back on a bench, with feet against the arm rests on the far side of the bench.

Both players proceed to push each other in which standard mercy rules come into play. One variation of this involves several people sitting in a row, having only one person push with their back; the players must play with mercy but also'floor' the other player to win. This is a test of skill and the ability to focus your body in different ways; this is more popular. Players must use the basic mercy stance; the person who says'Mercy!' or gets floored loses the game. The game causes tissues in the hands to be twisted and can cause injuries in case of children. Major Payne, to relieve a fellow soldier's pain in Operation Eagle Claw, which Major Payne is about to share with the boy until distracted at the last second. Storm Trooper by Kevin Cramer, page 224 Playing Mercy by Matthew David Scott The Welch Sisters' memoir, The Kids Are Alright, page 140 Sarah Nichter's memoir, "Brilliant Disguise: An Ugly Story of a Beautiful Redemption", pages 3–4 "Mercy!" in Welcome Home: Meditations Along Our Way by Tom Sikes "Grabbing Onto Mercy" by Sarah Lawrence in LeadHer Challenge: 365 Devotionals to Encourage and Inspire Women in Their Calling from God "Merciful" by Marisa T. Johnson in "Yes, I Am Talking To You: Answering the Call of Christian Discipleship When Faith Gets Shaken by Liza Patrick Regan page 93 Bloody knuckles Red hands

List of state leaders in 1593

This is a list of heads of state, heads of governments, other rulers in the year 1593. Ethiopian EmpireSarsa Dengel Kingdom of Kongo – Álvaro II, Manikongo Sennar Sultanate – Unsa I Ayutthaya KingdomNaresuan Bijapur SultanateIbrahim Adil Shah II Khanate of KhivaAbdullah Khan II China - Wanli Emperor Đại Việt – Lê Thế Tông Đàng Ngoài – Trịnh Tùng, Trịnh lord Đàng TrongNguyễn Hoàng, Nguyễn lord Japan Monarch – Emperor Go-Yōzei Regent - Toyotomi Hideyoshi, Sesshō and Kampaku Khanate of Khiva – Haji Muhammad I JoseonSeonjo Mughal EmpireAkbar Ryukyu KingdomShō Nei Kingdom of Denmark and NorwayChristian IV Duchy of Schleswig – Christian IV and John Adolphus in condominial rule Kingdom of EnglandElizabeth I, Queen of England and Ireland Kingdom of FranceHenry IV Holy Roman EmpireRudolf II Duchy of BavariaWilliam V, Duke of Bavaria Prince-Archbishopric of Bremen – John Adolphus Duchy of Holstein – Christian IV and John Adolphus in condominial rule Prince-Bishopric of Lübeck – John Adolphus Royal Hungary – Rudolf II, Holy Roman Emperor Principality of MoldaviaAron Tiranul Kingdom of NavarreHenry III of Navarre Ottoman EmpireMurad III Papal StatesPope Clement VIII Polish–Lithuanian CommonwealthSigismund III Vasa Russia Tsar - Feodor I, Tsar of Russia Regent – Boris Godunov Kingdom of ScotlandJames VI Kingdom of Spain and Kingdom of Portugal and the AlgarvesPhilip II of Spain and I of Portugal Kingdom of Sweden – Sigismund United Provinces Estates of Friesland, Guelders, Overijssel, Zeeland Stadtholder - Maurice of Nassau, Prince of Orange, Stadtholder of Gelre, Overijssel and Zeeland Grand Pensionary of Holland - Johan van Oldenbarnevelt Republic of VenicePasquale Cicogna, Doge of Venice Principality of Wallachia – Alexandru cel Rău Morocco - Ahmad I al-Mansur Saadi Safavid EmpireAbbas I, Shah of Iran