Luleå is a city on the coast of northern Sweden, the capital of Norrbotten County, the northernmost county in Sweden. Luleå is the seat of Luleå Municipality. Luleå has the seventh biggest harbor in Sweden for shipping goods, it is a center for extensive research. Luleå University of Technology is one of Sweden’s three technology universities and the northernmost university in Sweden; the town's Royal charter was granted in 1621 by King Gustavus Adolphus of Sweden. The original town was situated; the town had to be moved in 1649 to the current site, due to the post-glacial rebound that had made the bay too shallow for ships to enter. The Gammelstad Church Town is a UNESCO World Heritage Site. In 1805, Luleå only had 947 inhabitants, but in 1865 Luleå succeeded Piteå as the county town in Norrbotten county and now had around 1400 residents. In the 1860s the industries started taking root in the city; the town has been plagued by fires in 1653, 1657 and in 1887, the fire in 1887 was a devastating fire that destroyed most of the town, sparing only a few buildings.
The Neo-Gothic Cathedral, dedicated in 1893, standing at 67 meters, is the tallest building in town. Luleå's commerce and industry are a mix of industry, education and services. Major employers in the city are the SSAB Luleå University of Technology. A Swedish Air Force wing, F 21, is stationed near Luleå at the neighbouring Luleå Airport. Other major employers include Gestamp HardTech; the information technology industry in Luleå has about 2000 employees. Luleå is the home of technological milestones. Broadcast radio: RDS, DAB, DARC The Luleå algorithm for routing Living Labs: leading European service testbed with 6000 users Marratech: pioneers in Internet-based E-meetings – acquired by Google, releasing in November 2008 video-chat support in Gmail Arena project, IT in Sports: sensors, handheld wireless video Estreet project: First large-scale mobile marketing experiment On 27 October 2011, Facebook announced it would locate its first data center outside of the United States in Luleå; the whole facility is made up by a set of three 28,000 m2 buildings.
The first building was to be operational in 2012. The establishment will help turn the Luleå region into a major node for European data traffic; the town's northern location and that it will become a hub for data traffic in Europe has generated a new epithet for the Luleå region – The Node Pole. The Node Pole region provides stable, low-cost electricity, 100-percent derived from renewable sources. In addition, they cite the benefits of low cooling expenses, given that the region is one of the coolest in Sweden. Sweden's long political stability is cited as another long-term benefit of the Node Pole's location. Facebook expands into Luleå The new European computer center in Luleå is Facebook's first investment outside of the US; some of the reasons that Facebook choose Luleå were because of natural cooling due to the climate, cheap electricity, reliable electrical networks, clean energy. The computer center is the largest in Europe, with 84,000 m2, comparable to 11 football fields; the computer center will process large amounts of data through thousands of computers working as one.
The establishment of Facebook in Luleå has led to other companies realizing the potential of establishing in Luleå. The positive effect has been noticeable at the university where the applications rate has risen with 18 percent- Luleå Science Park has had an increase with 25 percent of new established companies. Luleå has a subarctic climate, which borders on a continental climate with short, mild to warm summers and long, snowy winters. Due to the Gulf Stream, Luleå has a warmer climate than other cities on the same latitude and some that are further south in Canada, Northeast China, Siberia. During the summer in June and July the temperature in Luleå can some days rise to around +30 degrees Celsius. Summers are bright, with marginal twillight being the only exception during the summer solstice. Newspapers include: Norrbottens-Kuriren Norrländska Socialdemokraten Public transport in Luleå is operated by Luleå Lokaltrafik and consists of five main bus lines, an additional five bus lines, direct connection bus traffic and night bus service.
From Luleå Bus station, Länstrafiken i Norrbotten operates several regional bus lines within Norrbotten County. Luleå Airport, located 7 km south of the city centre, is the fifth largest airport in Sweden, with about 1.2 million yearly passengers. It is the largest airport in Norrland; the domestic route to Stockholm Arlanda Airport is the third busiest domestic route in Sweden with over 1 million passengers per year. Luleå Lokaltrafik operates connections to and from Luleå Airport via Line 4 and 104. In total, there are about 15 additional charter destinations; the Stockholm Arlanda Airport route is operated by Scandinavian Airlines and Norwegian Air Shuttle and serves the vast majority of passengers at the airport with about 16 daily connections each way. Scandinavian Airlines operates a direct connection to Göteborg Landvetter Airport. Nextjet operates connections to and from Göteborg Landvetter Airport
Sweden the Kingdom of Sweden, is a Scandinavian Nordic country in Northern Europe. It borders Norway to the west and north and Finland to the east, is connected to Denmark in the southwest by a bridge-tunnel across the Öresund, a strait at the Swedish-Danish border. At 450,295 square kilometres, Sweden is the largest country in Northern Europe, the third-largest country in the European Union and the fifth largest country in Europe by area. Sweden has a total population of 10.2 million. It has a low population density of 22 inhabitants per square kilometre; the highest concentration is in the southern half of the country. Germanic peoples have inhabited Sweden since prehistoric times, emerging into history as the Geats and Swedes and constituting the sea peoples known as the Norsemen. Southern Sweden is predominantly agricultural, while the north is forested. Sweden is part of the geographical area of Fennoscandia; the climate is in general mild for its northerly latitude due to significant maritime influence, that in spite of this still retains warm continental summers.
Today, the sovereign state of Sweden is a constitutional monarchy and parliamentary democracy, with a monarch as head of state, like its neighbour Norway. The capital city is Stockholm, the most populous city in the country. Legislative power is vested in the 349-member unicameral Riksdag. Executive power is exercised by the government chaired by the prime minister. Sweden is a unitary state divided into 21 counties and 290 municipalities. An independent Swedish state emerged during the early 12th century. After the Black Death in the middle of the 14th century killed about a third of the Scandinavian population, the Hanseatic League threatened Scandinavia's culture and languages; this led to the forming of the Scandinavian Kalmar Union in 1397, which Sweden left in 1523. When Sweden became involved in the Thirty Years War on the Reformist side, an expansion of its territories began and the Swedish Empire was formed; this became one of the great powers of Europe until the early 18th century. Swedish territories outside the Scandinavian Peninsula were lost during the 18th and 19th centuries, ending with the annexation of present-day Finland by Russia in 1809.
The last war in which Sweden was directly involved was in 1814, when Norway was militarily forced into personal union. Since Sweden has been at peace, maintaining an official policy of neutrality in foreign affairs; the union with Norway was peacefully dissolved in 1905. Sweden was formally neutral through both world wars and the Cold War, albeit Sweden has since 2009 moved towards cooperation with NATO. After the end of the Cold War, Sweden joined the European Union on 1 January 1995, but declined NATO membership, as well as Eurozone membership following a referendum, it is a member of the United Nations, the Nordic Council, the Council of Europe, the World Trade Organization and the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development. Sweden maintains a Nordic social welfare system that provides universal health care and tertiary education for its citizens, it has the world's eleventh-highest per capita income and ranks in numerous metrics of national performance, including quality of life, education, protection of civil liberties, economic competitiveness, equality and human development.
The name Sweden was loaned from Dutch in the 17th century to refer to Sweden as an emerging great power. Before Sweden's imperial expansion, Early Modern English used Swedeland. Sweden is derived through back-formation from Old English Swēoþēod, which meant "people of the Swedes"; this word is derived from Sweon/Sweonas. The Swedish name Sverige means "realm of the Swedes", excluding the Geats in Götaland. Variations of the name Sweden are used in most languages, with the exception of Danish and Norwegian using Sverige, Faroese Svøríki, Icelandic Svíþjóð, the more notable exception of some Finnic languages where Ruotsi and Rootsi are used, names considered as referring to the people from the coastal areas of Roslagen, who were known as the Rus', through them etymologically related to the English name for Russia; the etymology of Swedes, thus Sweden, is not agreed upon but may derive from Proto-Germanic Swihoniz meaning "one's own", referring to one's own Germanic tribe. Sweden's prehistory begins in the Allerød oscillation, a warm period around 12,000 BC, with Late Palaeolithic reindeer-hunting camps of the Bromme culture at the edge of the ice in what is now the country's southernmost province, Scania.
This period was characterised by small bands of hunter-gatherer-fishers using flint technology. Sweden is first described in a written source in Germania by Tacitus in 98 AD. In Germania 44 and 45 he mentions the Swedes as a powerful tribe with ships that had a prow at each end. Which kings ruled these Suiones is unknown, but Norse mythology presents a long line of legendary and semi-legendary kings going back to the last centuries BC; as for literacy in Sweden itself, the runic script was in use among the south Scandinavian elite by at least the 2nd century AD, but all that has come down to the present from the Roman Period is curt inscriptions on artefacts of male names, demonstrating th