A census is the procedure of systematically acquiring and recording information about the members of a given population. The term is used in connection with national population and housing censuses; the United Nations defines the essential features of population and housing censuses as "individual enumeration, universality within a defined territory and defined periodicity", recommends that population censuses be taken at least every 10 years. United Nations recommendations cover census topics to be collected, official definitions and other useful information to co-ordinate international practice; the word is of Latin origin: during the Roman Republic, the census was a list that kept track of all adult males fit for military service. The modern census is essential to international comparisons of any kind of statistics, censuses collect data on many attributes of a population, not just how many people there are. Censuses began as the only method of collecting national demographic data, are now part of a larger system of different surveys.
Although population estimates remain an important function of a census, including the geographic distribution of the population, statistics can be produced about combinations of attributes e.g. education by age and sex in different regions. Current administrative data systems allow for other approaches to enumeration with the same level of detail but raise concerns about privacy and the possibility of biasing estimates. A census can be contrasted with sampling in which information is obtained only from a subset of a population. Modern census data are used for research, business marketing, planning, as a baseline for designing sample surveys by providing a sampling frame such as an address register. Census counts are necessary to adjust samples to be representative of a population by weighting them as is common in opinion polling. Stratification requires knowledge of the relative sizes of different population strata which can be derived from census enumerations. In some countries, the census provides the official counts used to apportion the number of elected representatives to regions.
In many cases, a chosen random sample can provide more accurate information than attempts to get a population census. A census is construed as the opposite of a sample as its intent is to count everyone in a population rather than a fraction. However, population censuses rely on a sampling frame to count the population; this is the only way to be sure that everyone has been included as otherwise those not responding would not be followed up on and individuals could be missed. The fundamental premise of a census is that the population is not known and a new estimate is to be made by the analysis of primary data; the use of a sampling frame is counterintuitive as it suggests that the population size is known. However, a census is used to collect attribute data on the individuals in the nation; this process of sampling marks the difference between historical census, a house to house process or the product of an imperial decree, the modern statistical project. The sampling frame used by census is always an address register.
Thus it is not known how many people there are in each household. Depending on the mode of enumeration, a form is sent to the householder, an enumerator calls, or administrative records for the dwelling are accessed; as a preliminary to the dispatch of forms, census workers will check any address problems on the ground. While it may seem straightforward to use the postal service file for this purpose, this can be out of date and some dwellings may contain a number of independent households. A particular problem is what are termed'communal establishments' which category includes student residences, religious orders, homes for the elderly, people in prisons etc; as these are not enumerated by a single householder, they are treated differently and visited by special teams of census workers to ensure they are classified appropriately. Individuals are counted within households and information is collected about the household structure and the housing. For this reason international documents refer to censuses of housing.
The census response is made by a household, indicating details of individuals resident there. An important aspect of census enumerations is determining which individuals can be counted from which cannot be counted. Broadly, three definitions can be used: de facto residence; this is important to consider individuals who have temporary addresses. Every person should be identified uniquely as resident in one place but where they happen to be on Census Day, their de facto residence, may not be the best place to count them. Where an individual uses services may be more useful and this is at their usual, or de jure, residence. An individual may be represented at a permanent address a family home for students or long term migrants, it is necessary to have a precise definition of residence to decide whether visitors to a country should be included in the population count. This is becoming more important as students travel abroad for education for a period of several years. Other groups causing problems of enumeration are new born babies, people away on holiday, people moving home around census day, people without a fixed address.
People having second homes because of working in another part of the country or retaining a holiday cottage are dif
Maine Township High School District 207
Maine Township High School District 207 is a school district based in Illinois. Composed of all of Park Ridge and most of Des Plaines, as well as portions of Glenview, Harwood Heights, Morton Grove, Niles and Norwood Park Township, the 36-square-mile district lies 30 minutes from downtown Chicago. Residential with some light industry, office developments and shopping centers, the district is adjacent to O'Hare International Airport and lies at the hub of rail and highway transportation; the district has earned many national awards including being named as one of “Most Innovative School Districts” for its unique approaches to expand and support teacher learning and student success both during and after high school by AASA. In 2007, District 207 became Google’s first elementary and secondary school district Google Apps for Education partner. Maine East High School Maine South High School Maine West High School Maine North High School District 207 operates Frost Academy, an alternative placement for students who have not found success in a traditional school setting, require a more structured environment.
The program was called ARC. The district administrative offices are located at 1177 S. Dee Road, at the southwest corner of the property on which Maine South is located; this building was sold to the Tooling and Manufacturing Association of Chicago when the district offices were moved into a section of Maine South. This section was refurbished to provide a boardroom for meetings, as well as offices for the superintendent and the business office. In 2014, the district re-purchased the location at 1177 S. Dee Road where the district administrative offices and Frost Academy are now housed. Maine Township High School District 207 is governed by a seven-member board of education; this board is the legislative, policy-setting authority of the school district and while the board is the hiring authority and approves all hiring, the board's only direct employee is the Superintendent of Schools. The Superintendent of Schools is the executive authority of the school district; the Board undergoes an annual reorganization each April, where the Board elects a president and vice president from among their number.
Members of the Board of Education are elected to four year terms, with elections held in the Spring of odd-numbered years. Candidates must be 18 years old, a legal resident of the district for at least one year prior to the election, must be a registered voter. School trustees and the school treasure for the township are forbidden from running for the Board. Board members cannot have any interest in any contract with the District, are required to file an Economic Interest Statement each year for verification. In odd-numbered years, the Board elects a president, vice president, secretary from among its members in the first meeting after the election; these positions are held for a period of one year. In even-numbered years, the election is held at the first meeting in the month of April; the Superintendent of Schools for Maine Township High School District 207 is Dr. Ken Wallace who assumed those duties on July 1, 2009; the Superintendent is supported by four assistant superintendents. In the fall of 2018, voters living in the school district approved the passage of a $195 million bond issue with 61% of the votes.
The money will be used to improve safety and security, replace outdated plumbing and mechanical systems, update classrooms and labs at all three high schools to create flexible learning spaces that promote collaboration. The district was a defendant in a federal court case, Wiemerslage vs. Maine Township High School District 207, 29 F.3d 1149, which helped reaffirm the doctrine of In loco parentis, the rights of schools to act in the place of parents in certain situations. The case involved a Maine South High School student, suspended for loitering near a gate which gave access to school grounds from a neighborhood area. Students were permitted to use the gate to get to and from school, but were explicitly forbidden to loiter in the area due to complaints from neighbors about property damage and other problematic behavior; the student and his family sued in 2012, citing violations of the First and Fourteenth Amendments to the United States Constitution. The District's motion to dismiss the case was granted by the United States District Court for the Northern District of Illinois.
The United States Court of Appeals for the Seventh Circuit upheld the dismissal, holding that the school had acted "appropriately". The 2009–10 school year saw the need for a $15 million cut to the district's budget; the cuts included the dismissal of 62 other staff members. According to district officials, the cause of the financial crisis was due to a "flat Consumer Price Index" which helps determine property values and the corresponding property taxes from which the school raises a large percentage of its monies; the problem was identified in July 2009 when the projected deficit spending of $3.8 million for the year was found to be $10.3 million. At a public meeting that drew more than 3,000 community members, a representative of the teachers' union claimed that the deficit spending was due to a lack of oversight from school officials. Maine Township High School District 207 Link to district boundary map – PDF file
The Chicago Outfit is an Italian-American organized crime syndicate based in Chicago, which dates back to the 1910s. It is part of the American Mafia originating in Chicago's South Side; the Outfit rose to power in the 1920s, under the control of Johnny Torrio and Al Capone and the period was marked by bloody gang wars for control of the distribution of illegal alcohol during Prohibition. Since the Outfit has been involved in a wide range of criminal activities, including loansharking, prostitution, political corruption, murder. Following Capone's conviction for income tax evasion, the Outfit was run by Paul Ricca. From 1943 until his death in 1972, he shared power with Tony Accardo, who became the sole power in the Outfit upon Ricca's death. Accardo was one of the longest sitting bosses of all time right up until his death in the early 1990s; the Outfit did not have a monopoly on organized crime in Chicago, but was by far the most powerful and largest criminal organization in the Midwest. The Outfit's influence, at its peak, stretched as far as Florida.
Higher law enforcement attention and general attrition has led to the Outfit's gradual decline since the late 20th century. From 1997 to 2018, the Chicago Outfit was believed to be led by John DiFronzo before his death; the early years of organized crime in Chicago, in the late 19th and early 20th centuries, were marked by the division of various street gangs controlling the South Side and North Side, as well as the Black Hand organizations of Little Italy. Big Jim Colosimo centralized control in the early 20th century. Colosimo was born in Calabria, Italy, in 1877, emigrating to Chicago in 1895 where he established himself as a criminal. By 1909, he was successful enough that he was encroaching on the criminal activity of the Black Hand organization, his expanding organization required the procurement of extra muscle. This came in the form of Colosimo's nephew Johnny Torrio from New York. In 1919, Torrio brought in Al Capone. In time and Torrio had a falling out over Torrio's insistence that they expand into rum-running, which Colosimo staunchly opposed.
In 1920, Colosimo was killed on Torrio's order. Torrio brought in New York colleague Frankie Yale to murder Colosimo. Al Capone has been suspected as Colosimo's assassin. Torrio brought together different parts of Chicago criminal activity, with a lasting effect on Chicago in general, Chicago crime in particular. With the start of Prohibition in the United States, Al Capone saw an opportunity for himself and the Outfit in Chicago to make money and to further expand their criminal empire by racketeering small businesses. With Capone taking the role of an actual businessman and partner of the owner, the Outfit had a legitimate way to source their money, which prevented incrimination and unnecessary attention from law enforcement. During the Prohibition era, Johnny Torrio competed with other gangsters in Chicago for the bootlegging business. Despite this, Torrio was able to reach a truce with Dean O'Banion, the leader of the Irish North Side Gang; the Chicago Outfit operated in South Chicago. Torrio had allied with the Sicilian Genna crime family that operated out of Little Italy in the city's center.
The truce with the North Side fell apart and, on November 10, 1924, Dean O'Banion was killed by Frankie Yale and two Genna gunmen. Hymie Weiss took over the North Side Gang and, on January 24, 1925, Torrio was wounded in an assassination attempt, he recovered in the hospital, served a one-year jail sentence, handed off control to Capone and retired. In 1926, Capone had Hymie Weiss killed. Capone's accession led to a bloody war for control of the bootlegging rackets in Chicago during the 1920s; this culminated in the St. Valentine's Day Massacre; the war was covered by the press and turned Capone into a national figure. Capone and his men were raking in vast amounts of money, were immune to prosecution because of witness intimidation and the bribing of city officials, he paid off numerous police officers to avoid the arrest of his men. By the end of his reign, Capone had expanded the Chicago Outfit throughout metro Chicago. One of the prime areas of interest was in Canada, the main source of alcohol which the Outfit was smuggling into the States.
This illicit alcohol was distributed to all the brothels of Chicago. During Prohibition, this was one of the greatest sources of income for the Outfit; the boss controlled the heads of various divisions of the Outfit through a system of subordinates placed throughout the various levels of the organization. Anyone who betrayed the honor of the organization was killed. Unable to convict Capone of any meaningful criminal activity, Treasury agents had him arrested for tax evasion and he was sentenced to 11 years in prison in 1931. Capone's hand-picked successor Frank Nitti nominally assumed power. In truth, power was seized by Nitti's underboss Paul Ricca, acknowledged as "boss" by the leaders of the growing National Crime Syndicate. Ricca ruled the Outfit, for the next 40 years. Over the next decade, The Outfit moved into labor racketeering and loan sharking. Geographically, this was the period when Outfit muscle extended to Milwaukee and Madison, Kansas City, to Hollywood and other California cities, where The Outfit's extortion of labor unions gave it leverage over the motion picture industry.
In the early 1940s, a handful of top Outfit leaders went to prison because they were found to be extorting Hollywood by control
A flight simulator is a device that artificially re-creates aircraft flight and the environment in which it flies, for pilot training, design, or other purposes. It includes replicating the equations that govern how aircraft fly, how they react to applications of flight controls, the effects of other aircraft systems, how the aircraft reacts to external factors such as air density, wind shear, precipitation, etc. Flight simulation is used for a variety of reasons, including flight training, the design and development of the aircraft itself, research into aircraft characteristics and control handling qualities. In 1910, on the initiative of the French commanders Clolus and Laffont and Lieutenant Clavenad, the first ground training aircraft for military aircraft were built; the "Tonneau Antoinette", created by the Antoinette company, seems to be the precursor of flight simulators. An area of training was for air gunnery handled by a specialist air gunner. Firing at a moving target requires aiming ahead of the target to allow for the time the bullets require to reach the vicinity of the target.
This is sometimes called "deflection shooting" and requires skill and practice. During World War I, some ground-based simulators were developed to teach this skill to new pilots; the best-known early flight simulation device was the Link Trainer, produced by Edwin Link in Binghamton, New York, USA, which he started building in 1927. He patented his design, first available for sale in 1929; the Link Trainer was a basic metal frame flight simulator painted in its well-known blue color. Some of these early war era flight simulators still exist, but it is becoming difficult to find working examples; the Link family firm in Binghamton manufactured player pianos and organs, Ed Link was therefore familiar with such components as leather bellows and reed switches. He was a pilot, but dissatisfied with the amount of real flight training, available, he decided to build a ground-based device to provide such training without the restrictions of weather and the availability of aircraft and flight instructors.
His design had a pneumatic motion platform driven by inflatable bellows which provided pitch and roll cues. A vacuum motor similar to those used in player pianos rotated the platform. A generic replica cockpit with working instruments was mounted on the motion platform; when the cockpit was covered, pilots could practice flying by instruments in a safe environment. The motion platform gave the pilot cues as to real angular motion in pitch and yaw. Aviation flight schools showed little interest in the "Link Trainer". Link demonstrated his trainer to the U. S. Army Air with no result. However, the situation changed in 1934 when the Army Air Force was given a government contract to fly the postal mail; this included having to fly in bad weather as well as good, for which the USAAF had not carried out much training. During the first weeks of the mail service, nearly a dozen Army pilots were killed; the Army Air Force hierarchy remembered his trainer. Link flew in to meet them at Newark Field in New Jersey, they were impressed by his ability to arrive on a day with poor visibility, due to practice on his training device.
The result was that the USAAF purchased six Link Trainers, this can be said to mark the start of the world flight simulation industry. The principal pilot trainer used during World War II was the Link Trainer; some 10,000 were produced to train 500,000 new pilots from allied nations, many in the US and Canada because many pilots were trained in those countries before returning to Europe or the Pacific to fly combat missions. All US Army Air Force pilots were trained in a Link Trainer. A different type of World War II trainer was used for navigating at night by the stars; the Celestial Navigation Trainer of 1941 was 13.7 m high and capable of accommodating the navigation team of a bomber crew. It enabled sextants to be used for taking "star shots" from a projected display of the night sky. In 1954 United Airlines bought four flight simulators at a cost of $3 million from Curtiss-Wright that were similar to the earlier models, with the addition of visuals and movement; this was the first of today's modern flight simulators for commercial aircraft.
The simulator manufacturers are consolidating and integrate vertically as training offers double-digit growth: CAE forecast 255,000 new airline pilots from 2017 to 2027, 180,000 first officers evolving to captains. The largest is Canadian CAE Inc. with a 70% market share and $2.8 billion annual revenues, manufacturing training devices since 70 years but moved into training in 2000 with multiple acquisitions, making more than from producing the simulators. Crawley-based L3 CTS entered the market in 2012 by acquiring Thales Training & Simulation's manufacturing plant near Gatwick Airport where it assembles up to 30 devices a year UK CTC training school in 2015, Aerosim in Sanford, Florida in 2016, Portuguese academy G Air in October 2017. With a 20% market share, equipment still accounts for more than half of L3 CTS turnover but that could soon be reversed as it educates 1,600 commercial pilots each year, 7% of the 22,000 entering the profession annually, aims for 10% in a fragmented market.
The third largest is TRU Simulation + Training, created in 2014 when parent Textron Aviation merged its simulators with Mechtronix, OPINICUS and ProFlight, focusing on simulators and developing the first full-flight simulators for the 737 MAX and the 777X. The fourth is FlightSafet
Maine South High School
Maine South High School is a public four-year high school located in Park Ridge, Illinois, a northwest suburb of Chicago, Illinois, in the United States. It is part of Maine Township High School District 207, which includes Maine East High School and Maine West High School. Maine South is well known for its academic and fine arts success. Since at least 1992 it has received mention in national media as the alma mater of Hillary Clinton, a member of the school's first graduating class. Bids on the construction of Maine South opened on March 18, 1963. Maine South was built in 1964 on the grounds of a former landfill to meet the growing educational needs of the area the city of Park Ridge, but some of Niles, Harwood Heights, Norridge and unincorporated Norwood Park Township; the first principal, Clyde Watson, was appointed in December 1963, in order to give him time to begin forming the first parents and music booster clubs. Until 1969, students were under a dress code that included a requirement for men to be clean shaven, that hair had to be cut above the collar.
1969 saw the first expansion of the school with the addition of the student cafeteria, some physical education and classroom areas. In 1973, the North Central Association, an academic accreditation agency, rated Maine South as "one of the top 10 high schools in the nation."In 1986 and 1987, officials from Maine South were instrumental in pushing the Illinois High School Association to recognize girls soccer. The 1988-1989 school year saw Maine South recognized by the United States Department of Education as a Blue Ribbon School. In 1996, after several decades of existing in the shadow of nearby O'Hare International Airport, the school received federal funds which allowed for the installation of soundproof windows, air conditioning, sound dampening ceilings; the project began in 1997 and took three years to complete.1998 saw the completion of the last major addition to the building: a sixteen classroom, four laboratory extension on the east end of the academic wing. In 2008, graduation ceremonies, which since the first graduating class had been held on campus, were moved to the nearby Rosemont Theatre.
Over the summer of 2009, the athletic stadium had an artificial turf surface installed. In July 2011, the Guinness World Records certified that the Maine South class of 2014 had set a world record for the most multiple birth sets in the same academic year. In 2014, Maine South had an average composite ACT score of 24.2, graduated 95% of its senior class. 78.6% of students met PSAE standards in 2014, a state test used in Illinois to fulfill the mandates of the federal No Child Left Behind Act. Maine South's academic programs range to accelerated honors/AP classes. Based on performances in 2008, Maine South is ranked 11th among public non-magnet high schools in the state of Illinois, ranked according to a standardization of Prairie State Achievement Examination scores. Maine South is ranked 9th by the Chicago Tribune among public non-magnet high schools in Illinois, ranked according to average PSAE scores; the school offers 21 Advanced Placement courses in English Language, English Literature, U.
S. History, U. S. Government and Politics, Micro/Macro Economics, European History, Comparative Government, Computer Science, Biology, Environmental Science, Spanish Language, French Language, Music Theory, Studio Drawing, Chinese Language and Culture, newly in 2016-'17, World History. In addition, there are courses in multivariable calculus and differential equations which are offered to students pursuing mathematics beyond the AP program; the Foreign Language Department offers five-year programs in French, German and Spanish, a four-year program in Mandarin. The school offers many electives in the Applied Arts & Technology Department. Within this department there are three departments: Applied Technology, Business, & Family and Consumer Sciences; the Business Department offers Introduction to Business, Computer Applications, Web Design, Business Law, Web Technology, Graphic Design, College Accounting and Investing, Internships. The FCS department offers three levels of foods, five levels of fashion, psychology and child development.
The Maine South Constitution Team has won the Center for Civic Education's "We The People" competition in Illinois for the past sixteen years straight. In 1999 the team won the national competition in Washington D. C.. In 2007, the school's Scholastic Bowl team won the state championship tournament sponsored by the Ancient, Free, & Accepted Masons of Illinois; the chess team won IHSA State Championships in 2001–02, 2002–03, & 2006-07.: Maine South sponsors teams for both boys and girls in basketball, cross country, gymnastics, soccer, swimming & diving, track & field and water polo. Boys are able to compete in baseball and wrestling, while girls are able to compete in badminton and softball. Maine South competes in the Central Suburban League South Division. In state competition, Maine South competes in the largest potential school classes in each sport sponsored by the Illinois High School Association; the following teams have won IHSA sponsored State Championship Tournaments: Basketball: 1978–79 Football: 1995–96, 2000–01, 2008–09, 2009–10, 2010–11, 2016–17 Swimming & Diving: 1975–76 Volleyball: 2005–06 Dance Team: 2013In addition, the girls soccer team won three consecutive unofficia
Chicago the City of Chicago, is the most populous city in Illinois, as well as the third most populous city in the United States. With an estimated population of 2,716,450, it is the most populous city in the Midwest. Chicago is the principal city of the Chicago metropolitan area referred to as Chicagoland, the county seat of Cook County, the second most populous county in the United States; the metropolitan area, at nearly 10 million people, is the third-largest in the United States, the fourth largest in North America and the third largest metropolitan area in the world by land area. Located on the shores of freshwater Lake Michigan, Chicago was incorporated as a city in 1837 near a portage between the Great Lakes and the Mississippi River watershed and grew in the mid-nineteenth century. After the Great Chicago Fire of 1871, which destroyed several square miles and left more than 100,000 homeless, the city made a concerted effort to rebuild; the construction boom accelerated population growth throughout the following decades, by 1900 Chicago was the fifth largest city in the world.
Chicago made noted contributions to urban planning and zoning standards, including new construction styles, the development of the City Beautiful Movement, the steel-framed skyscraper. Chicago is an international hub for finance, commerce, technology, telecommunications, transportation, it is the site of the creation of the first standardized futures contracts at the Chicago Board of Trade, which today is the largest and most diverse derivatives market gobally, generating 20% of all volume in commodities and financial futures. O'Hare International Airport is the one of the busiest airports in the world, the region has the largest number of U. S. highways and greatest amount of railroad freight. In 2012, Chicago was listed as an alpha global city by the Globalization and World Cities Research Network, it ranked seventh in the entire world in the 2017 Global Cities Index; the Chicago area has one of the highest gross domestic products in the world, generating $680 billion in 2017. In addition, the city has one of the world's most diversified and balanced economies, not being dependent on any one industry, with no single industry employing more than 14% of the workforce.
Chicago's 58 million domestic and international visitors in 2018, made it the second most visited city in the nation, behind New York City's approximate 65 million visitors. The city ranked first place in the 2018 Time Out City Life Index, a global quality of life survey of 15,000 people in 32 cities. Landmarks in the city include Millennium Park, Navy Pier, the Magnificent Mile, the Art Institute of Chicago, Museum Campus, the Willis Tower, Grant Park, the Museum of Science and Industry, Lincoln Park Zoo. Chicago's culture includes the visual arts, film, comedy and music jazz, soul, hip-hop and electronic dance music including house music. Of the area's many colleges and universities, the University of Chicago, Northwestern University, the University of Illinois at Chicago are classified as "highest research" doctoral universities. Chicago has professional sports teams in each of the major professional leagues, including two Major League Baseball teams; the name "Chicago" is derived from a French rendering of the indigenous Miami-Illinois word shikaakwa for a wild relative of the onion, known to botanists as Allium tricoccum and known more as ramps.
The first known reference to the site of the current city of Chicago as "Checagou" was by Robert de LaSalle around 1679 in a memoir. Henri Joutel, in his journal of 1688, noted that the eponymous wild "garlic" grew abundantly in the area. According to his diary of late September 1687:...when we arrived at the said place called "Chicagou" which, according to what we were able to learn of it, has taken this name because of the quantity of garlic which grows in the forests in this region. The city has had several nicknames throughout its history such as the Windy City, Chi-Town, Second City, the City of the Big Shoulders, which refers to the city's numerous skyscrapers and high-rises. In the mid-18th century, the area was inhabited by a Native American tribe known as the Potawatomi, who had taken the place of the Miami and Sauk and Fox peoples; the first known non-indigenous permanent settler in Chicago was Jean Baptiste Point du Sable. Du Sable arrived in the 1780s, he is known as the "Founder of Chicago".
In 1795, following the Northwest Indian War, an area, to be part of Chicago was turned over to the United States for a military post by native tribes in accordance with the Treaty of Greenville. In 1803, the United States Army built Fort Dearborn, destroyed in 1812 in the Battle of Fort Dearborn and rebuilt; the Ottawa and Potawatomi tribes had ceded additional land to the United States in the 1816 Treaty of St. Louis; the Potawatomi were forcibly removed from their land after the Treaty of Chicago in 1833. On August 12, 1833, the Town of Chicago was organized with a population of about 200. Within seven years it grew to more than 4,000 people. On June 15, 1835, the first public land sales began with Edmund Dick Taylor as U. S. Receiver of Public Monies; the City of Chicago was incorporated on Saturday, March 4, 1837, for several decades was the world's fastest-growing city. As the site of the Chicago Portage, the city became an important transportation hub between the eastern and western United States.
Chicago's first railway and Chicago Union Railroad, the Illi
A ZIP Code is a postal code used by the United States Postal Service in a system it introduced in 1963. The term ZIP is an acronym for Zone Improvement Plan; the basic format consists of five digits. An extended ZIP+4 code was introduced in 1983 which includes the five digits of the ZIP Code, followed by a hyphen and four additional digits that reference a more specific location; the term ZIP Code was registered as a servicemark by the U. S. Postal Service, but its registration has since expired; the early history and context of postal codes began with postal district/zone numbers. The United States Post Office Department implemented postal zones for numerous large cities in 1943. For example: The "16" was the number of the postal zone in the specific city. By the early 1960s, a more organized system was needed, non-mandatory five-digit ZIP Codes were introduced nationwide on July 1, 1963; the USPOD issued its Publication 59: Abbreviations for Use with ZIP Code on October 1, 1963, with the list of two-letter state abbreviations which are written with both letters capitalized.
An earlier list in June had proposed capitalized abbreviations ranging from two to five letters. According to Publication 59, the two-letter standard was "based on a maximum 23-position line, because this has been found to be the most universally acceptable line capacity basis for major addressing systems", which would be exceeded by a long city name combined with a multi-letter state abbreviation, such as "Sacramento, Calif." along with the ZIP Code. The abbreviations have remained unchanged, with the exception of Nebraska, changed from NB to NE in 1969 at the request of the Canadian postal administration, to avoid confusion with the Canadian province of New Brunswick. Robert Moon is considered the father of the ZIP Code; the post office only credits Moon with the first three digits of the ZIP Code, which describe the sectional center facility or "sec center." An SCF is a central mail processing facility with those three digits. The fourth and fifth digits, which give a more precise locale within the SCF, were proposed by Henry Bentley Hahn Sr.
The SCF sorts mail to all post offices with those first three digits in their ZIP Codes. The mail is sorted according to the final two digits of the ZIP Code and sent to the corresponding post offices in the early morning. Sectional centers do not deliver mail and are not open to the public, most of their employees work the night shift. Mail picked up at post offices is sent to their own SCF in the afternoon, where the mail is sorted overnight. In the case of large cities, the last two digits coincide with the older postal zone number thus: In 1967, these became mandatory for second- and third-class bulk mailers, the system was soon adopted generally; the United States Post Office used a cartoon character, which it called Mr. ZIP, to promote the use of the ZIP Code, he was depicted with a legend such as "USE ZIP CODE" in the selvage of panes of postage stamps or on the covers of booklet panes of stamps. In 1971 Elmira Star-Gazette reporter Dick Baumbach found out the White House was not using a ZIP Code on its envelopes.
Herb Klein, special assistant to President Nixon, responded by saying the next printing of envelopes would include the ZIP Code. In 1983, the U. S. Postal Service introduced an expanded ZIP Code system that it called ZIP+4 called "plus-four codes", "add-on codes", or "add-ons". A ZIP+4 Code uses the basic five-digit code plus four additional digits to identify a geographic segment within the five-digit delivery area, such as a city block, a group of apartments, an individual high-volume receiver of mail, a post office box, or any other unit that could use an extra identifier to aid in efficient mail sorting and delivery. However, initial attempts to promote universal use of the new format met with public resistance and today the plus-four code is not required. In general, mail is read by a multiline optical character reader that instantly determines the correct ZIP+4 Code from the address—along with the more specific delivery point—and sprays an Intelligent Mail barcode on the face of the mail piece that corresponds to 11 digits—nine for the ZIP+4 Code and two for the delivery point.
For Post Office Boxes, the general rule is. The add-on code is one of the following: the last four digits of the box number, zero plus the last three digits of the box number, or, if the box number consists of fewer than four digits, enough zeros are attached to the front of the box number to produce a four-digit number. However, there is no uniform rule, so the ZIP+4 Code must be looked up individually for each box; the ZIP Code is translated into an Intelligent Mail barcode, printed on the mailpiece to make it easier for automated machines to sort. A barcode can be printed by the sender, it is better to let the post office put one on. In general, the post office uses OCR technology, though in some cases a human might have to read and enter the address. Customers who send bulk mail can get a discount on postage if they have printed the barcode themselves and have presorted the mai