Sweden the Kingdom of Sweden, is a Scandinavian Nordic country in Northern Europe. It borders Norway to the west and north and Finland to the east, is connected to Denmark in the southwest by a bridge-tunnel across the Öresund, a strait at the Swedish-Danish border. At 450,295 square kilometres, Sweden is the largest country in Northern Europe, the third-largest country in the European Union and the fifth largest country in Europe by area. Sweden has a total population of 10.2 million. It has a low population density of 22 inhabitants per square kilometre; the highest concentration is in the southern half of the country. Germanic peoples have inhabited Sweden since prehistoric times, emerging into history as the Geats and Swedes and constituting the sea peoples known as the Norsemen. Southern Sweden is predominantly agricultural, while the north is forested. Sweden is part of the geographical area of Fennoscandia; the climate is in general mild for its northerly latitude due to significant maritime influence, that in spite of this still retains warm continental summers.
Today, the sovereign state of Sweden is a constitutional monarchy and parliamentary democracy, with a monarch as head of state, like its neighbour Norway. The capital city is Stockholm, the most populous city in the country. Legislative power is vested in the 349-member unicameral Riksdag. Executive power is exercised by the government chaired by the prime minister. Sweden is a unitary state divided into 21 counties and 290 municipalities. An independent Swedish state emerged during the early 12th century. After the Black Death in the middle of the 14th century killed about a third of the Scandinavian population, the Hanseatic League threatened Scandinavia's culture and languages; this led to the forming of the Scandinavian Kalmar Union in 1397, which Sweden left in 1523. When Sweden became involved in the Thirty Years War on the Reformist side, an expansion of its territories began and the Swedish Empire was formed; this became one of the great powers of Europe until the early 18th century. Swedish territories outside the Scandinavian Peninsula were lost during the 18th and 19th centuries, ending with the annexation of present-day Finland by Russia in 1809.
The last war in which Sweden was directly involved was in 1814, when Norway was militarily forced into personal union. Since Sweden has been at peace, maintaining an official policy of neutrality in foreign affairs; the union with Norway was peacefully dissolved in 1905. Sweden was formally neutral through both world wars and the Cold War, albeit Sweden has since 2009 moved towards cooperation with NATO. After the end of the Cold War, Sweden joined the European Union on 1 January 1995, but declined NATO membership, as well as Eurozone membership following a referendum, it is a member of the United Nations, the Nordic Council, the Council of Europe, the World Trade Organization and the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development. Sweden maintains a Nordic social welfare system that provides universal health care and tertiary education for its citizens, it has the world's eleventh-highest per capita income and ranks in numerous metrics of national performance, including quality of life, education, protection of civil liberties, economic competitiveness, equality and human development.
The name Sweden was loaned from Dutch in the 17th century to refer to Sweden as an emerging great power. Before Sweden's imperial expansion, Early Modern English used Swedeland. Sweden is derived through back-formation from Old English Swēoþēod, which meant "people of the Swedes"; this word is derived from Sweon/Sweonas. The Swedish name Sverige means "realm of the Swedes", excluding the Geats in Götaland. Variations of the name Sweden are used in most languages, with the exception of Danish and Norwegian using Sverige, Faroese Svøríki, Icelandic Svíþjóð, the more notable exception of some Finnic languages where Ruotsi and Rootsi are used, names considered as referring to the people from the coastal areas of Roslagen, who were known as the Rus', through them etymologically related to the English name for Russia; the etymology of Swedes, thus Sweden, is not agreed upon but may derive from Proto-Germanic Swihoniz meaning "one's own", referring to one's own Germanic tribe. Sweden's prehistory begins in the Allerød oscillation, a warm period around 12,000 BC, with Late Palaeolithic reindeer-hunting camps of the Bromme culture at the edge of the ice in what is now the country's southernmost province, Scania.
This period was characterised by small bands of hunter-gatherer-fishers using flint technology. Sweden is first described in a written source in Germania by Tacitus in 98 AD. In Germania 44 and 45 he mentions the Swedes as a powerful tribe with ships that had a prow at each end. Which kings ruled these Suiones is unknown, but Norse mythology presents a long line of legendary and semi-legendary kings going back to the last centuries BC; as for literacy in Sweden itself, the runic script was in use among the south Scandinavian elite by at least the 2nd century AD, but all that has come down to the present from the Roman Period is curt inscriptions on artefacts of male names, demonstrating th
Farsta is a borough in Söderort in the southern part of Stockholm Municipality, Sweden. The districts that make up the borough are Fagersjö, Farsta strand, Farstanäset, Gubbängen, Hökarängen, Larsboda, Sköndal and Tallkrogen; the population as of 2004 is 45,463 on an area of 15.40 km², which gives a density of 2,952.14/km². Media related to Farsta at Wikimedia Commons
Hässelby-Vällingby is a borough in the western part of Stockholm. It is made up of Hässelby and Vällingby; the other districts that make up the borough are Kälvesta, Nälsta, Råcksta and Vinsta. As of 2004, the population is 58,796 in an area of 19.60 km², which gives a density of 2,999.80/km². The name is taken from Hässelby Castle, which included large areas within the present three districts; the port of Hässelby includes parts of Vinsta. The castle is located in the postcode of Vällingby. Media related to Hässelby-Vällingby at Wikimedia Commons
Integrated Authority File
The Integrated Authority File or GND is an international authority file for the organisation of personal names, subject headings and corporate bodies from catalogues. It is used for documentation in libraries and also by archives and museums; the GND is managed by the German National Library in cooperation with various regional library networks in German-speaking Europe and other partners. The GND falls under the Creative Commons Zero licence; the GND specification provides a hierarchy of high-level entities and sub-classes, useful in library classification, an approach to unambiguous identification of single elements. It comprises an ontology intended for knowledge representation in the semantic web, available in the RDF format; the Integrated Authority File became operational in April 2012 and integrates the content of the following authority files, which have since been discontinued: Name Authority File Corporate Bodies Authority File Subject Headings Authority File Uniform Title File of the Deutsches Musikarchiv At the time of its introduction on 5 April 2012, the GND held 9,493,860 files, including 2,650,000 personalised names.
There are seven main types of GND entities: LIBRIS Virtual International Authority File Information pages about the GND from the German National Library Search via OGND Bereitstellung des ersten GND-Grundbestandes DNB, 19 April 2012 From Authority Control to Linked Authority Data Presentation given by Reinhold Heuvelmann to the ALA MARC Formats Interest Group, June 2012
Stockholm City Centre
Stockholm City Centre is the city centre of Stockholm in Sweden. The entire city of Stockholm is the centre of the Stockholm Metropolitan Area. Since 2007, Stockholm City Centre is organized into four stadsdelsområden: Kungsholmen, Södermalm, Norrmalm and Östermalm. Before 2007, Stockholm City Centre was organized into five boroughs: Katarina-Sofia borough, Kungsholmen borough, Maria-Gamla stan borough, Norrmalm borough and Östermalm borough; the border between the historical provinces of Södermanland and Uppland splits Stockholm City Centre in two parts. 179,185 people live on an area of 28.05 km² in the northern part, which gives a density of 6,388.06/km². The same data for the southern part is 103,646 people on 7.44 km², giving a density of 13,930.91/km². This border has no administrative significance whatsoever. South Stockholm West Stockholm Stockholm City Station
Vasastaden, or colloquially Vasastan, is a 3.00 km² large city district in central Stockholm, being a part of Norrmalm borough. With 58,458 inhabitants it is the third most populous, the second most densely populated district in Stockholm; the major parks in Vasastaden are Vasaparken and Observatorielunden near the centre and Vanadislunden and Bellevueparken in the north. The city district, most named after the street Vasagatan, in its turn named after King Gustav Vasa in 1885, was still a peripheral part of the city in the early 1880s. Before the end of that decade, some 150 buildings had been built and only the properties along Odengatan remained vacant; the expansion was preceded by a city plan established in 1879, a more modest edition of the 1866 intentions of city planner Albert Lindhagen, in its turn a continuation north of an original 17th-century plan. Like the Baroque plan, the new plan took little or no account of local topographic variations, where the two failed to reconcile, sites were set aside as parks or for major structures such as the Sabbatsberg Hospital.
Compared to central Stockholm, streets were widened to 18 metres, except for the main east-west-bound street Odengatan, made 30 metres wide and adorned with plantings after continental prototypes. In accordance with construction charters from the 1870s, building corners where filleted and building heights adopted to street width and limited to five floors — embellishing proportions intended to bring light and air into the urban space; the Neo-Renaissance plaster architecture of the middle class residential buildings in southern Vasastaden is reminiscent of the Ringstraße in Vienna. Architects failed to appreciate these Neo-Renaissance buildings and freed many of them of most of their decorations; the north-eastern part of the district is called Sibirien. The area borders Östermalm but has been a stronghold for the working class; the origin of the name Sibirien originates from a time when the area was inhabited by the poor, who could not afford heating. People started to say, hence the nickname.
In the north-western corner of the district are eight blocks forming Birkastaden, named after the 9th century settlement Birka, sometimes called Rörstrandsområdet which forms the compact northern frontier of Stockholm's historical city centre. As described above, Lindhagen's original intentions for the elevated area was to keep it as a park featuring the 17th century avenue of Karlberg Palace. In the city plan of 1879, the area was divided into two large blocks, which on a request from the local landowner, porcelain factory Rörstrand, in 1886 were split up into smaller properties; this resulted in a new city plan, adopted to local topographic variations and therefore features non-perpendicular street crossings. Few buildings were constructed before the start of the 20th century, but construction work soon boomed to culminate in 1905–06, speculation causing many buildings to change owners several times before their completion. All the buildings in Birkastaden are Art Nouveau, a result of both the brief construction period and the fact that some 50 buildings were designed by architects Dorph & Höög, at the time the largest architectural practice in Northern Europe.
The buildings of Birkastan features oriel windows, towers on the corners, rounded pediments and bright, plain plaster façades with thrifty decorations. As a result of speculation, the backyards are narrow, many flats shadowy. From the start, Birkastan was a mixed area shared by both low and high income earners. Röda bergen, the hilly area just north of Birkastan, was unsuitable for the regular and perpendicular street pattern envisaged for Vasastaden, but proved excellent for the new city planning ideals where the terrain was allowed to govern city plans; the plan for Röda Bergen was designed by P O Hallman, who during the 1910s produced similar plans for Lärkstaden inspired by the ideas of Austrian architect Camillo Sitte. His plan for Röda Bergen was adopted in 1909, but because of World War I most of these plans remained unrealised until the 1920s. In 1923 the plan modified by Sigurd Lewerentz, was established; the buildings facing the surrounding blocks are traditional 5–6 floors residential buildings forming a wall around Röda Bergen.
From the monumental eastern entrance, an avenue leads west to a round elevated space where a church was planned. Perpendicular to this avenue, the trafficked Torsgatan cuts through the area; the blocks within Röda Bergen are limited to 2–3 floors and most of the backyards are open in one end, which allows for plenty of sun light and series of spaces appealing to the eye. Hallman's design was a sharp break with the contemporary narrow and filthy backyards. In contrast to them, the involved architects — including Björn Hedwall, Paul Hedqvist, Sven Wallander — detailed the façades and gables facing the interior with simple classical ornaments and warm red and yellow colours. Of the 2.500 flats in the area, many included novelties such as warm and cold water, WC, bath tubes, but most of them were small — half of them was a single room with a kitchen or less. The area next to the Sankt Eriksbron bridge was until the turn of century 1900 a industrial district; the Atlas Area, east of the bridge and named after industrial company Atlas AB whose workshops used to
Älvsjö is a borough in the southern part of Stockholm Sweden. The borough is divided into the districts Herrängen, Långsjö, Långbro, Älvsjö, Solberga, Örby Slott and Liseberg, it has about 21000 inhabitants. Media related to Älvsjö at Wikimedia Commons