Paul Fjelde was a noted American sculptor and educator. Paul Fjelde was born in Minnesota, he was the son of Jacob Fjelde, a well-known sculptor in Norway when he emigrated to the United States in 1887. After Jacob’s untimely death at age 36, the Fjelde family moved to North Dakota in 1902. Margarethe Fjelde homesteaded with her four children in North Dakota. Fjelde studied art in Valley City, North Dakota at the State Normal School, now the Valley City State University, he subsequently went to study under Chicago based sculptor Lorado Taft. He went on to study at the Minneapolis School of Art, Beaux-Arts Institute of Design, the Art Students League of New York, at the Royal Danish Academy of Fine Arts, at the Académie de la Grande Chaumière in Paris. Fjelde was a professor emeritus from that institution. Fjelde served as chairman of the Sculpture Department at the Carnegie Institute of Technology, he was an instructor of School of Fine Arts. He was editor of Sculpture Review between 1951 and 1955.
Among Fjelde’s most recognized sculptural works is the Lincoln Monument in Frogner Park in Oslo. His father's brother, Dr. Herman Olaus Fjelde, was chairman of the committee for the Lincoln Monument. On July 4, 1914, North Dakota Governor Louis Hanna presented the bronze bust of Abraham Lincoln to the nation of Norway. During World War II, the bust in Frogner Park became a center for silent protest against Occupation of Norway by Nazi Germany; every July 4 during the occupation, Norwegians gathered by the Lincoln bust in Frogner Park in silent protest at the affront to freedom the Nazis represented to the people of Norway. Fjelde's bust is still prominent in the July 4 celebration. Other noteworthy works include the statue of Col. Hans C. Heg, leader of the 15th Wisconsin Volunteer Regiment in Madison, the Wendell Willkie Memorial in the Indiana Statehouse, the bronze plaque of Wendell Willkie in the Summit County Courthouse, Ohio, the bronze portrait of Orville Wright in the Hall of Fame for Great Americans, the John Scott Bradstreet tablet at the Minneapolis Institute of Arts, the Pioneers Memorial in Council Bluffs, Iowa.
Fjelde received awards from the American-Scandinavian Foundation, Allied Artists of America, the National Sculpture Society. His works were exhibited at the Art Institute of Chicago, 1913–1919 and the Norse-American Centennial Art Exhibition at the Minnesota State Fair in 1925, he was among the exhibitors at the Society of Scandinavian-American Artists exhibition held at the Brooklyn Museum in 1932. His works were shown at the Pennsylvania Academy of Fine Arts, 1935–36 and 1940. Fjelde served as the editor of the National Sculpture Review from 1951 to 1955. In 1949 he was elected into the National Academy of Design as an Associate member, became a full Academician in 1957. Sundby-Hanson, Harry Norwegian Immigrant Contributions to America’s Making Fjelde, Paul The Sculpture of Paul Fjelde Lincoln Monument, Frogner Park
World's Columbian Exposition
The World's Columbian Exposition was a world's fair held in Chicago in 1893 to celebrate the 400th anniversary of Christopher Columbus's arrival in the New World in 1492. The centerpiece of the Fair, the large water pool, represented the long voyage Columbus took to the New World. Chicago bested New York City, Washington, D. C. and St. Louis for the honor of hosting the fair; the Exposition was an influential social and cultural event and had a profound effect on architecture, the arts, Chicago's self-image, American industrial optimism. The layout of the Chicago Columbian Exposition was, in large part, designed by John Wellborn Root, Daniel Burnham, Frederick Law Olmsted and Charles B. Atwood, it was the prototype of what his colleagues thought a city should be. It was designed to follow Beaux Arts principles of design, namely French neoclassical architecture principles based on symmetry and splendor; the color of the material used to cover the buildings façades gave the fairgrounds its nickname, the White City.
Many prominent architects designed its 14 "great buildings". Artists and musicians were featured in exhibits and many made depictions and works of art inspired by the exposition; the exposition covered 690 acres, featuring nearly 200 new buildings of predominantly neoclassical architecture and lagoons, people and cultures from 46 countries. More than 27 million people attended the exposition during its six-month run, its scale and grandeur far exceeded the other world's fairs, it became a symbol of the emerging American Exceptionalism, much in the same way that the Great Exhibition became a symbol of the Victorian era United Kingdom. Dedication ceremonies for the fair were held on October 21, 1892, but the fairgrounds were not opened to the public until May 1, 1893; the fair continued until October 30, 1893. In addition to recognizing the 400th anniversary of the discovery of the New World by Europeans, the fair served to show the world that Chicago had risen from the ashes of the Great Chicago Fire, which had destroyed much of the city in 1871.
On October 9, 1893, the day designated as Chicago Day, the fair set a world record for outdoor event attendance, drawing 751,026 people. The debt for the fair was soon paid off with a check for $1.5 million. Chicago has commemorated the fair with one of the stars on its municipal flag. Many prominent civic and commercial leaders from around the United States participated in the financing and management of the Fair, including Chicago shoe company owner Charles H. Schwab, Chicago railroad and manufacturing magnate John Whitfield Bunn, Connecticut banking and iron products magnate Milo Barnum Richardson, among many others; the fair was planned in the early 1890s during the Gilded Age of rapid industrial growth and class tension. World's fairs, such as London's 1851 Crystal Palace Exhibition, had been successful in Europe as a way to bring together societies fragmented along class lines; the first American attempt at a world's fair in Philadelphia in 1876, drew crowds but was a financial failure.
Nonetheless, ideas about distinguishing the 400th anniversary of Columbus' landing started in the late 1880s. Civic leaders in St. Louis, New York City, Washington DC and Chicago expressed an interest in hosting a fair to generate profits, boost real estate values, promote their cities. Congress was called on to decide the location. New York's financiers J. P. Morgan, Cornelius Vanderbilt, William Waldorf Astor, among others, pledged $15 million to finance the fair if Congress awarded it to New York, while Chicagoans Charles T. Yerkes, Marshall Field, Philip Armour, Gustavus Swift, Cyrus McCormick, offered to finance a Chicago fair. What persuaded Congress was Chicago banker Lyman Gage, who raised several million additional dollars in a 24-hour period and above New York's final offer. Chicago representatives not only fought for the world's fair on monetary reasons, but on practicality reasons. On a Senate hearing held in January 1890, representative Thomas B. Bryan argued that the most important qualities for a world's fair were'abundant supplies of good air and pure water... ample space and transportation for all exhibits and visitors...
" He argued that New York had too many obstructions, Chicago would be able to use large amounts of land around the city where there was "not a house to buy and not a rock to blast.." and that it would be so located that "the artisan and the farmer and the shopkeeper and the man of humble means" would be able to access the fair. Bryan continued to say that the fair was of'vital interest' to the West, that the West wanted the location to be Chicago; the city spokesmen would continue to stress the essentials of a successful Exposition and that only Chicago was fitted to fill these exposition requirements. The exposition corporation and national exposition commission settled on Jackson Park and an area around it as the fair site. Daniel H. Burnham was selected as director of works, George R. Davis as director-general. Burnham emphasized architecture and sculpture as central to the fair and assembled the period's top talent to design the buildings and grounds including Frederick Law Olmsted for the grounds.
The temporary buildings were designed in an ornate Neoclassical style and painted white, resulting in the fair site being referred to as the "White City". The Exposition's offices set up shop in the upper floors of the Rand McNally Building on Adams Street, the world's first all-steel-fram
United States postmasters provisional stamps
In the Act of March 3, 1845, the United States Congress standardized postal rates throughout the nation at 5¢ for a normal-weight letter transported up to 300 miles and 10¢ for a letter transported between 300 and 3,000 miles, with these rates to take effect on July 1, 1845. In Great Britain, such uniformity had been adopted as a necessary prelude to the issue, in May 1840, of the world's first adhesive postage stamps, to be used for the prepayment of mail, it was Britain’s standardization that led the U. S. Congress to do in 1845. S. Post office to do so. Local postmasters, now realized that uniform rates made it practical for them to issue postage stamps of their own for pre-payment of mail; the first provisionals issued were those of New York and Baltimore, which appeared on July 14 and 15, 1845. The remaining seven jurisdictions all introduced their stamps in 1846. Examples of the eleven provisional issues are shown below. U. S. Postmasters' Provisional Stamps, 1845–47 The designs of the eleven provisional issues varied in sophistication, as did the methods used to produce them.
Five were printed in sheets from engraving plates: New York Baltimore Brattleboro Providence St. Louis. Two provisional issues were typeset: Alexandria Boscawen; the Millbury stamp was printed from a woodcut. The rarest of the provisionals, known in but a single copy, are those of Lockport. Unique as well is the Alexandria "Blue Boy" variant, the only surviving example printed on blue paper. According to census data supplied by Siegel Auctions, only six additional copies of the Alexandria Provisional are known, all on buff-colored paper. Notably rare as well are the provisionals of New Haven and Millbury. Baltimore 10¢ labels are scarce. Five hundred copies of the Brattleboro issue were produced. Providence printed 500 10 ¢ stamps; the first two printings of the St. Louis provisional produced 2,000 5¢ stamps, 3,000 10¢ stamps and 1,000 20¢ stamps. Among the eleven provisionals, the New York issue was produced in the largest quantity by far, with 143,600 stamps delivered to the New York Post Office.
The national U. S. stamps introduced on July 1, 1847 conformed to the design features of the New York Postmaster's provisional—not given that both the provisional and national issues were designed and printed by the same New York firm. With the issue of stamps for nationwide use, postmasters' provisionals became obsolete—having played, however, an appreciable role in accustoming the public to the use of stamps for prepaying postal fees. Alexandria "Blue Boy" Postmaster's Provisional St. Louis Bears New York Postmaster's Provisional
Restauration was a sloop built in 1801, in Hardanger, Norway. It became a symbol of Norwegian American immigration. Historical sources may contain several variations on the name of the sloop, including Restauration, Restoration and Restorasjon. On what is considered the first organized emigration from Norway to the United States, Restauration set sail from Stavanger on July 4, 1825, with 52 people aboard, many of them Norwegian Quakers. Many of this group belonged to a similar local movement, the Haugeans, a Lutheran sect which derived its name from Hans Nielsen Hauge; the group, led by Cleng Peerson, landed in New York City on October 9, 1825, after a three-month voyage. The voyage is described in Ole Rynning's Amerika-boka. For a vessel of her size Restauration had far more passengers on board than were allowed by American law; this resulted in a severe fine, confiscation of the ship and the arrest of the captain, L. O. Helland; the situation was solved when President John Quincy Adams pardoned the captain on 15 November, released him and the ship, rescinded the fine.
The people who made this voyage, who are sometimes referred to as the "Sloopers," moved onward to their first settlement in Kendall, Orleans County, New York. The Norse-American Centennial was held in Minnesota on June 7–9, 1925, in commemoration of the 100th anniversary of the arrival of Restauration in New York City; the United States Post Office issued two stamps commemorate the 1825 arrival. The 2-cent stamp has for its central design a ship representing Restauration; the illustration on the two cent stamp is an artist's rendition of what Restauration looked like based on a drawing of its sister ship. The 5-cent stamp has for its central design a Viking ship; this design is from a photograph of Viking which sailed from Norway to Chicago for the Columbian Exposition of 1893. The design on the 5-cent stamp was from a photograph of an exact size replica of Viking. A flag of the United States is seen waving from the bow of the ship; that ship was a replica of the Gokstad ship on display in the Viking Ship Museum in Oslo.
In 1975, in honor of the sesquicentennial of the arrival of Restauration, Cleng Peerson was depicted on a Norwegian NOK 1.40 postage stamp. The date of Leif Erikson Day in the United States was chosen to coincide with the day Restauration arrived in New York Harbor: October 9. A replica of Restauration was built at Jørn Flesjå's small wooden shipyard at Finnøy in Ryfylke, Norway; the replica is now used for education and charter excursions in Rogaland. Haslam, Gerald Myron. 1984. Clash of Cultures: The Norwegian Experience with Mormonism, 1842–1920. New York: P. Lang. Seversike, Lester; the Prairie Lands of the Sloopers Tjossem, Wilmer L. Quaker Sloopers: From the Fjords to the Prairies The Norwegian Sloop Restoration Page The 1893 Viking Ship, now in Geneva IL Norse-American Commemorative Stamps – Issue of 1925 Hall of Stamps – The Norse American Stamps
St. Olaf College
St. Olaf College is a co-educational, four-year, private liberal arts college in Northfield, United States, it was founded in 1874 by a group of Norwegian-American immigrant pastors and farmers, led by Pastor Bernt Julius Muus. The college is named after the King and the Patron Saint Olaf II of Norway and is affiliated with the Evangelical Lutheran Church in America; the seal of the St. Olaf College displays the Coat of arms of Norway, which includes the axe of St. Olaf; the motto Fram! Fram! Kristmenn, written in New Norwegian, is adapted from the Old Norse battle cry of King Olaf, it means "Forward! Forward! Men of Christ, Men of the Cross". Many Norwegian immigrants arrived in Rice County and the surrounding area in the late 19th century. With nearly all the immigrants being Lutheran Christians, they desired a non-secular post-secondary institution in the Lutheran tradition that offered classes in all subjects in both Norwegian and English; the catalyst for founding St. Olaf was the Reverend Bernt Julius Muus.
Together they petitioned their parishes and others to raise money in order to buy a plot of land on which to build this new institution. The three men succeeded in receiving around $10,000 in pledges, thus went on to form a corporation and to buy a plot of land and four buildings for accommodations for the school. St. Olaf called St. Olaf's School, opened on January 8, 1875, at its first site under the leadership of its first president, Thorbjorn N. Mohn, a graduate of Luther College. Herman Amberg Preus, President of the Norwegian Synod, laid this foundation stone of the St. Olaf School on July 4, 1877. During 1887 the Manitou Messenger was founded as a campus magazine and has since evolved into the college's student newspaper. Known as “The Hill”, St. Olaf College's picturesque 300-acre campus is home to 17 academic and administrative buildings, 29 student residences and 10 athletic facilities. St. Olaf is a residential college. Adjacent to campus are 325 acres of restored wetlands and native tall grass prairie owned and maintained by St. Olaf, a utility-grade wind turbine that supplies up to one-third of the college's daily electrical needs.
Two buildings on the campus are listed on the National Register of Historic Places: Old Main, designed by Long and Haglin. In 2011, Travel+Leisure named St. Olaf as one of the most beautiful college campuses in the United States. Edward Sövik, a liturgical architect and St. Olaf professor of art until his death in 2014, designed or assisted in the design of 20 campus buildings; the Flaten Art Museum at St. Olaf College was founded as the Steensland Art Gallery in 1976. In 2002, the gallery was moved to The Center for Art and Dance and renamed to honor Arnold Flaten, a past professor of art, his family; the museum holds a collection of regional and international works and exhibits these as well as faculty and student work. Before graduating, St. Olaf students complete nearly 20 required courses in foundation studies and core studies that include studies in Western culture, human behavior and society and theological studies and literary studies, studies in natural science. Many of the courses are interdisciplinary.
St. Olaf offers 39 major areas of study for the bachelor of arts degree, 4 for the bachelor of music degree and 19 areas of concentration; the average student-to-faculty ratio is 12:1. For the Class of 2019, St. Olaf received 7,571 applications, accepted 2,725, enrolled 763; the middle 50% range of SAT scores was 560-700 for critical reading and 570-690 for math, while the ACT Composite range was 26–32. Of the 46% of enrolled freshmen who submitted high school class rank, 52% of enrolled freshmen were in the top 10% of their high school classes and 79% ranked in the top quarter; the average high school GPA for incoming freshmen was 3.62. The 2019 annual ranking by U. S. News & World Report rates St. Olaf College as the 61st best among "National Liberal Arts Colleges" and tied for 6th in "Best Undergraduate Teaching" in the nation. In the 2016 edition of the Washington Monthly college rankings, St. Olaf ranked 88th among liberal arts colleges. St. Olaf College is ranked 47th for liberal arts colleges on Payscale.com's 2016-17 list of highest-paid graduates.
According to the most recent National Science Foundation's Survey of Earned Doctorates, St. Olaf ranks 12th overall among the nation's 263 baccalaureate colleges in the number of graduates who go on to earn doctoral degrees. St. Olaf earned top 10 rankings in the following fields: mathematics/statistics and religion/theology. St. Olaf has had five Rhodes Scholars since 1995. Two St. Olaf seniors were selected in the 2008 awards competition. Over the past two decades, only two other liberal arts colleges have had two selections in a single year. Fifty-eight percent of the Class of 2012 was employed within a year of graduation, 28 percent enrolled in graduate school or other advanced study, 12 percent engaged in full-time volunteer service. Six St. Olaf students were named Fulbright Scholars for 2013–14. Since 1995, 93 St. Olaf students have received Fulbright scholarships. Thirty–two St. Olaf students have received Goldwater scholarships since 1995; the scholarships, which are granted to sopho
Chicago the City of Chicago, is the most populous city in Illinois, as well as the third most populous city in the United States. With an estimated population of 2,716,450, it is the most populous city in the Midwest. Chicago is the principal city of the Chicago metropolitan area referred to as Chicagoland, the county seat of Cook County, the second most populous county in the United States; the metropolitan area, at nearly 10 million people, is the third-largest in the United States, the fourth largest in North America and the third largest metropolitan area in the world by land area. Located on the shores of freshwater Lake Michigan, Chicago was incorporated as a city in 1837 near a portage between the Great Lakes and the Mississippi River watershed and grew in the mid-nineteenth century. After the Great Chicago Fire of 1871, which destroyed several square miles and left more than 100,000 homeless, the city made a concerted effort to rebuild; the construction boom accelerated population growth throughout the following decades, by 1900 Chicago was the fifth largest city in the world.
Chicago made noted contributions to urban planning and zoning standards, including new construction styles, the development of the City Beautiful Movement, the steel-framed skyscraper. Chicago is an international hub for finance, commerce, technology, telecommunications, transportation, it is the site of the creation of the first standardized futures contracts at the Chicago Board of Trade, which today is the largest and most diverse derivatives market gobally, generating 20% of all volume in commodities and financial futures. O'Hare International Airport is the one of the busiest airports in the world, the region has the largest number of U. S. highways and greatest amount of railroad freight. In 2012, Chicago was listed as an alpha global city by the Globalization and World Cities Research Network, it ranked seventh in the entire world in the 2017 Global Cities Index; the Chicago area has one of the highest gross domestic products in the world, generating $680 billion in 2017. In addition, the city has one of the world's most diversified and balanced economies, not being dependent on any one industry, with no single industry employing more than 14% of the workforce.
Chicago's 58 million domestic and international visitors in 2018, made it the second most visited city in the nation, behind New York City's approximate 65 million visitors. The city ranked first place in the 2018 Time Out City Life Index, a global quality of life survey of 15,000 people in 32 cities. Landmarks in the city include Millennium Park, Navy Pier, the Magnificent Mile, the Art Institute of Chicago, Museum Campus, the Willis Tower, Grant Park, the Museum of Science and Industry, Lincoln Park Zoo. Chicago's culture includes the visual arts, film, comedy and music jazz, soul, hip-hop and electronic dance music including house music. Of the area's many colleges and universities, the University of Chicago, Northwestern University, the University of Illinois at Chicago are classified as "highest research" doctoral universities. Chicago has professional sports teams in each of the major professional leagues, including two Major League Baseball teams; the name "Chicago" is derived from a French rendering of the indigenous Miami-Illinois word shikaakwa for a wild relative of the onion, known to botanists as Allium tricoccum and known more as ramps.
The first known reference to the site of the current city of Chicago as "Checagou" was by Robert de LaSalle around 1679 in a memoir. Henri Joutel, in his journal of 1688, noted that the eponymous wild "garlic" grew abundantly in the area. According to his diary of late September 1687:...when we arrived at the said place called "Chicagou" which, according to what we were able to learn of it, has taken this name because of the quantity of garlic which grows in the forests in this region. The city has had several nicknames throughout its history such as the Windy City, Chi-Town, Second City, the City of the Big Shoulders, which refers to the city's numerous skyscrapers and high-rises. In the mid-18th century, the area was inhabited by a Native American tribe known as the Potawatomi, who had taken the place of the Miami and Sauk and Fox peoples; the first known non-indigenous permanent settler in Chicago was Jean Baptiste Point du Sable. Du Sable arrived in the 1780s, he is known as the "Founder of Chicago".
In 1795, following the Northwest Indian War, an area, to be part of Chicago was turned over to the United States for a military post by native tribes in accordance with the Treaty of Greenville. In 1803, the United States Army built Fort Dearborn, destroyed in 1812 in the Battle of Fort Dearborn and rebuilt; the Ottawa and Potawatomi tribes had ceded additional land to the United States in the 1816 Treaty of St. Louis; the Potawatomi were forcibly removed from their land after the Treaty of Chicago in 1833. On August 12, 1833, the Town of Chicago was organized with a population of about 200. Within seven years it grew to more than 4,000 people. On June 15, 1835, the first public land sales began with Edmund Dick Taylor as U. S. Receiver of Public Monies; the City of Chicago was incorporated on Saturday, March 4, 1837, for several decades was the world's fastest-growing city. As the site of the Chicago Portage, the city became an important transportation hub between the eastern and western United States.
Chicago's first railway and Chicago Union Railroad, the Illi
Moorhead is a city in Clay County, United States, the largest city in northwest Minnesota. The population was 42,005 according to the 2015 United States Census estimates, it is the county seat of Clay County. Moorhead was platted in 1871; the city was named for an official of the Northern Pacific railroad. Moorhead is bordered on the west by the city of Fargo, North Dakota. On the east, Moorhead is bordered by Minnesota. Moorhead, along with its twin city of Fargo, North Dakota, as well as adjacent West Fargo, form the core of the Fargo–Moorhead metropolitan area, which has a 2010 population of around 208,777 residents; the former Moorhead Armory on 5th Street South was the site of the intended concert destination for musicians Buddy Holly, Ritchie Valens, The Big Bopper before their plane crashed in Clear Lake, Iowa on February 3, 1959. The building was demolished in 1990 and is now the site of Ecumen Evergreens, a senior living property. Moorhead is home to the first Dairy Queen to sell Dilly Bars.
The Moorhead Dairy Queen is one of only a few Dairy Queens operating on a contract signed in 1949, which allows it to feature products not approved by corporate Headquarters. An example includes a chipper sandwich, vanilla ice cream sandwiched between two chocolate chip cookies and dipped in chocolate. Moorhead is located adjacent to the Red River in the Red River Valley; the land around the Fargo–Moorhead area is some of the flattest and richest in the world. This is because it lies on the lake bed of glacial Lake Agassiz, which drained between 9,900 and 11,000 years ago. According to the United States Census Bureau, the city has a total area of 19.80 square miles, all of it land. Interstate 94 and U. S. Highways 10 and 75 are three of the main routes in the city. Other nearby routes in the Fargo–Moorhead area include Interstate 29 and Minnesota State Highway 336. According to the 2010–2012 American Community Survey, the racial composition was as follows: White: 90.4% Black or African American: 2.1% American Indian: 1.3% Asian: 1.5% Pacific Islander: 0.1% Some other race: 1.2% Two or more races: 3.4% Hispanic or Latino: 4.3%According to the 2006–2008 American Community Survey, the top ten European ancestries were the following: Norwegian: 36.1% German: 36.0% Swedish: 7.6% Irish: 7.2% English: 4.7% French: 3.7% Polish: 3.6% American: 2.3% Italian: 1.5% Dutch: 1.4% As of the census of 2010, there were 38,065 people, 14,304 households, 8,372 families residing in the city.
The population density was 1,922.5 inhabitants per square mile. There were 15,274 housing units at an average density of 771.4 per square mile. The racial makeup of the city was 90.7% White, 2.0% African American, 1.5% Native American, 2.0% Asian, 1.1% from other races, 2.6% from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 4.1% of the population. There were 14,304 households of which 29.4% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 43.5% were married couples living together, 10.6% had a female householder with no husband present, 4.4% had a male householder with no wife present, 41.5% were non-families. 29.2% of all households were made up of individuals and 10% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.41 and the average family size was 2.97. The median age in the city was 28.3 years. 20.9% of residents were under the age of 18. The gender makeup of the city was 48.4% male and 51.6% female. As of the census of 2000, there were 32,177 people, 11,660 households, 7,030 families residing in the city.
The population density was 2,394.3 people per square mile. There were 12,180 housing units at an average density of 906.3 per square mile. The racial makeup of the city was 92.08% White, 0.77% African American, 1.94% Native American, 1.27% Asian, 0.04% Pacific Islander, 2.10% from other races, 1.79% from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 4.47% of the population. There were 11,660 households out of which 31.4% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 47.3% were married couples living together, 9.8% had a female householder with no husband present, 39.7% were non-families. 29.2% of all households were made up of individuals and 11.1% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.43 and the average family size was 3.04. In the city, the population was spread out with 22.7% under the age of 18, 23.1% from 18 to 24, 24.2% from 25 to 44, 17.2% from 45 to 64, 12.8% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 29 years. For every 100 females, there were 88.4 males.
For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 83.3 males. The median income for a household in the city was $34,781, the median income for a family was $49,118. Males had a median income of $33,137 versus $23,717 for females; the per capita income for the city was $17,150. About 8.2% of families and 16.3% of the population were below the poverty line, including 14.9% of those under age 18 and 6.4% of those age 65 or over. Agriculture remains prominent in the area, but Moorhead is home to notable corporate and distribution industries, Busch Agricultural Resources and Pactiv; the unemployment rate is below the national average and property values are stable. The Rourke Art Gallery and the Rourke Art Museum are native Moorhead cultural institutions hosting the annual Midwester