Taraba is a state in North Eastern Nigeria, named after the Taraba River which traverses the southern part of the state. Taraba's capital is Jalingo; the state was created out of the former Gongola State on 27 August 1991, by the military government of General Ibrahim Babangida. Taraba State is bounded in the west by Nasarawa State and Benue State, northwest by Plateau State, north by Bauchi State and Gombe State, northeast by Adamawa State and south by Cameroon. Taraba State lies within the middle of Nigeria and consists of undulating landscape dotted with a few mountainous features; these include the prominent Mambilla Plateau. The state lies within the tropical zone and has a vegetation of low forest in the southern part and grassland in the northern part; the Mambilla Plateau with an altitude of 1,800 meters above sea level has a temperate climate all year round. The Benue, Donga and Ibi are the main rivers in the state, they rise from the Cameroonian mountains, straining the entire length of the state in the North and South direction to link up with the River Niger.
Taraba State consists of sixteen Local Government Areas. They are governed by elected chairmen, they are as follows: The major occupation of the people of Taraba State is agriculture. Cash crops produced in the state include coffee, tea and cotton. Crops such as maize, sorghum, millet and yam are produced in commercial quantity. In addition, cattle and goats are reared in large numbers on the Mambilla Plateau, along the Benue and Taraba valleys; the people undertake other livestock production activities like poultry production, rabbit breeding and pig farming in large scale. Communities living on the banks of River Benue, River Taraba, River Donga and Ibi engage in fishing all year round. Other occupational activities such as pottery, cloth-weaving, mat-making, carving and blacksmithing are carried out in various parts of the State; the government has made concerted efforts to improve areas of tourist attractions like Mambilla Tourist Center, Gumpti Park and game reserve in Gashaka. Other festivals are Purma of the Chamba in Donga and jibu culture dance in Bali, the Puje of Jukuns, Kuchecheb of Kutebs in Takum and Ussa, Kati of the Mambilla and host of others.
Taraba is called "Nature's gift to the nation" as the state is rich and have many ethnic groups, including Jenjo, Kuteb Chamba, Mumuyes, Wurkums, Jukun, Tiv, Panso, Wawa, Tikari and Ndola. A striking historical fact about the State is that it encompasses part of the Mambilla Region, famed as the Bantu cradle, having been occupied for some five millennia to date. Official website Nigerian Post Office- with map of LGAs of the state
Nigeria the Federal Republic of Nigeria, is a federal republic in West Africa, bordering Niger in the north, Chad in the northeast, Cameroon in the east, Benin in the west. Its coast in the south is located on the Gulf of Guinea in the Atlantic Ocean; the federation comprises 36 states and 1 Federal Capital Territory, where the capital, Abuja, is located. The constitution defines Nigeria as a democratic secular country. Nigeria has been home to states over the millennia; the modern state originated from British colonial rule beginning in the 19th century, took its present territorial shape with the merging of the Southern Nigeria Protectorate and Northern Nigeria Protectorate in 1914. The British set up administrative and legal structures while practising indirect rule through traditional chiefdoms. Nigeria became a formally independent federation in 1960, it experienced a civil war from 1967 to 1970. It thereafter alternated between democratically elected civilian governments and military dictatorships until it achieved a stable democracy in 1999, with the 2011 presidential election considered the first to be reasonably free and fair.
Nigeria is referred to as the "Giant of Africa", owing to its large population and economy. With 186 million inhabitants, Nigeria is the most populous country in Africa and the seventh most populous country in the world. Nigeria has the third-largest youth population in the world, after India and China, with more than 90 million of its population under age 18; the country is viewed as a multinational state as it is inhabited by 250 ethnic groups, of which the three largest are the Hausa and Yoruba. The official language is English. Nigeria is divided in half between Christians, who live in the southern part of the country, Muslims, who live in the north. A minority of the population practice religions indigenous to Nigeria, such as those native to the Igbo and Yoruba ethnicities; as of 2015, Nigeria is the world's 20th largest economy, worth more than $500 billion and $1 trillion in terms of nominal GDP and purchasing power parity respectively. It overtook South Africa to become Africa's largest economy in 2014.
The 2013 debt-to-GDP ratio was 11 percent. Nigeria is considered to be an emerging market by the World Bank. However, it has a "low" Human Development Index, ranking 152nd in the world. Nigeria is a member of the MINT group of countries, which are seen as the globe's next "BRIC-like" economies, it is listed among the "Next Eleven" economies set to become among the biggest in the world. Nigeria is a founding member of the African Union and a member of many other international organizations, including the United Nations, the Commonwealth of Nations and OPEC; the name Nigeria was taken from the Niger River running through the country. This name was coined in the late 19th century by British journalist Flora Shaw, who married Lord Lugard, a British colonial administrator; the origin of the name Niger, which applied only to the middle reaches of the Niger River, is uncertain. The word is an alteration of the Tuareg name egerew n-igerewen used by inhabitants along the middle reaches of the river around Timbuktu prior to 19th-century European colonialism.
The Nok civilisation of Northern Nigeria flourished between 500 BC and AD 200, producing life-sized terracotta figures that are some of the earliest known sculptures in Sub-Saharan Africa. Further north, the cities Kano and Katsina have a recorded history dating to around 999 AD. Hausa kingdoms and the Kanem–Bornu Empire prospered as trade posts between North and West Africa; the Kingdom of Nri of the Igbo people consolidated in the 10th century and continued until it lost its sovereignty to the British in 1911. Nri was ruled by the Eze Nri, the city of Nri is considered to be the foundation of Igbo culture. Nri and Aguleri, where the Igbo creation myth originates, are in the territory of the Umeuri clan. Members of the clan trace their lineages back to the patriarchal king-figure Eri. In West Africa, the oldest bronzes made using the lost-wax process were from Igbo-Ukwu, a city under Nri influence; the Yoruba kingdoms of Ife and Oyo in southwestern Nigeria became prominent in the 12th and 14th centuries, respectively.
The oldest signs of human settlement at Ife's current site date back to the 9th century, its material culture includes terracotta and bronze figures. Oyo, at its territorial zenith in the late 17th to early 18th centuries, extended its influence from western Nigeria to modern-day Togo; the Edo's Benin Empire is located in southwestern Nigeria. Benin's power lasted between the 19th centuries, their dominance reached further. At the beginning of the 19th century, Usman dan Fodio directed a successful jihad and created and led the centralised Fulani Empire; the territory controlled by the resultant state included much of modern-day northern and central Nigeria. For centuries, various peoples in modern-day Nigeria traded overland with traders from North Africa. Cities in the area became regional centres in a broad network of trade routes that spanned western and northern Africa. In the 16th century, Portuguese explorers were the first Europeans to begin significant, direct trade with peoples of modern-day Nigeria, at the port they named Lago
Muhammadu Buhari is a Nigerian politician serving as the President of Nigeria, in office since 2015. He is a retired major general in the Nigerian Army and served as the nation's head of state from 31 December 1983 to 27 August 1985, after taking power in a military coup d'état; the term Buharism is ascribed to the Buhari military government. He unsuccessfully ran for the office of president of Nigeria in the 2003, 2007, 2011 general elections. In December 2014, he emerged as the presidential candidate of the All Progressives Congress for the March 2015 general elections. Buhari won the election; this marked the first time in the history of Nigeria that an incumbent president lost to an opposition candidate in a general election. He was sworn in on 29 May 2015. In February 2019, Buhari was re-elected President, defeating his closest rival Atiku Abubakar by over 3 million votes. Buhari has stated that he takes responsibility for anything over which he presided during his military rule, that he cannot change the past.
He has described himself as a "converted democrat". Muhammadu Buhari was born to a Fulani family on 17 December 1942, in Daura, Katsina State, to his father Hardo Adamu, a Fulani chief, mother Zulaihat, he is the twenty-third child of his father. Buhari was raised by his mother. Buhari enrolled at age 19 in the Nigerian Military Training College in 1962. In February 1964, the college was upgraded to an officer commissioning unit of the Nigerian Army and renamed the Nigerian Defence Academy. From 1962 to 1963, Buhari underwent officer cadet training at Mons Officer Cadet School in Aldershot in England. In January 1963, at age 20, Buhari was commissioned a second lieutenant and appointed Platoon Commander of the Second Infantry Battalion in Abeokuta, Nigeria. From November 1963 to January 1964, Buhari attended the Platoon Commanders' Course at the Nigerian Military Training College, Kaduna. In 1964, he facilitated his military training by attending the Mechanical Transport Officer's Course at the Army Mechanical Transport School in Borden, United Kingdom.
From 1965 to 1967, Buhari served as commander of the Second Infantry Battalion and appointed brigade major, Second Sector, First Infantry Division, April 1967 to July 1967. In July 1966 Lieutenant Muhammadu Buhari was one of the participants in the "July Rematch" or so called "Counter-Coup", led by Lt-Col Murtala Muhammed, that overthrew and assassinated Nigeria's first self-appointed military Head of State General Aguiyi Ironsi, who had assumed leadership of the Nigerian government after a failed coup attempt on 15 January 1966, which overthrew the elected parliamentary government of Nigeria. Other participants in the coup on 28 July 1966 included 2nd Lieutenant Sani Abacha, Lieutenant Ibrahim Babangida, Major Theophilus Danjuma, Lieutenant Ibrahim Bako among others; the coup was a reaction to the January coup where a group of Igbo officers led by Major Chukwuma Kaduna Nzeogwu overthrew the democratically elected government of Prime Minister Abubakar Tafawa Balewa. Many Northern soldiers were aggrieved by the murder of senior politicians, Prime Minister Abubakar Tafawa Balewa, northern regional premier, Ahmadu Bello, four senior officers from northern Nigeria: Brigadier Zakariya Maimalari, Colonel Kur Mohammed, Lt-Cols Abogo Largema and James Pam.
The counter-coup was bloody leading to the murder of Igbo officers. Among the casualties were the first military head of state General Aguiyi Ironsi and Lt Colonel Adekunle Fajuyi, the military governor of the Western Region. Buhari was assigned to the 1st Division under the command of Lt. Col Mohammed Shuwa, the division had temporarily moved from Kaduna to Makurdi at the onset of the Nigerian Civil War; the 1st division was divided into sectors and battalions with Shuwa assisted by sector commanders Martin Adamu and Sule Apollo, replaced by Theophilus Danjuma. Buhari's initial assignment was as Adjutant and Company Commander 2 battalion unit, Second Sector Infantry of the 1st Division; the 2 battalion was one of the units that participated in the first actions of the war, they started from Gakem near Afikpo and moved towards Ogoja with support from Gado Nasko's artillery squad. They reached and captured Ogoja within a week with the intention of advancing through the flanks to Enugu, the rebel capital.
Buhari was the 2 battalion's Commander and led the battalion to Afikpo to link with the 3rd Marine Commando and advance towards Enugu through Nkalagu and Abakaliki. However, before the move to Enugu, he was posted to Nsukka as Brigade Major of the 3rd Infantry Brigade under Joshua Gin who would become battle fatigued and replaced by Isa Bukar. Buhari stayed with the infantry for a few months as the Nigerian army began to adjust tactics learnt from early battle experiences. Instead of swift advances, the new tactics involved securing and holding on to the lines of communications and using captured towns as training ground to train new recruits brought in from the army depots in Abeokuta and Zaria. In 1968, he was posted to the 4 Sector called the Awka sector, charged to take over the capture of Onitsha from Division 2; the sector's operations was within the Awka-Abagana-Onitsha region, important to Biafran forces because it was a major source of food supply. It was in the sector that Buhari's group suffered a lot of casualties trying to protect food supplies route of the rebels along Oji River and Abagana.
From 1970 to 1971, Buhar
Northern Region, Nigeria
Northern Nigeria was an autonomous division within Nigeria, distinctly different from the southern part of the country, with independent customs, foreign relations and security structures. In 1962 it acquired the territory of the British Northern Cameroons, which voted to become a province within Northern Nigeria; the Nok culture, an ancient culture dominated most of what is now Northern Nigeria in pre historic times, its legacy in the form of terracotta statues and megaliths have been discovered in Sokoto, Birinin Kudu and Zaria. The Kwatarkwashi culture, a variant of the Nok culture centred around Zamfara in Sokoto Province is thought by some to be the same or an offshoot of the Nok; the Fourteen Kingdoms unified the diverse lore and heritage of Northern Nigeria into a cohesive ethno-historical system. Seven of these Kingdoms developed from the Kabara legacy of the Hausa people. In the 9th century as vibrant trading centers competing with Kanem-Bornu and Mali developed in the Central Sudan, a set Kingdoms merged dominating the great savannah plains of Hausaland, their primary exports were leather, cloth, kola nuts, animal hides, henna.
The Seven Hausa states included: Daura,? - 1806 Kano, 998 - 1807 Katsina, c. 1400 - 1805 Zazzau, c. 1200 - 1808 Gobir,? - 1808 Rano Biram, c. 1100 - 1805The growth and conquest of the Hausa Bakwai resulted in the founding of additional states with rulers tracing their lineage to a concubine of the Hausa founding father, Bayajidda. Thus they are called meaning Bastard Seven; the Banza Bakwai adopted many of the customs and institutions of the Hausa Bakwai but were considered unsanctioned or copy-cat kingdoms by non-Hausa people. These states include: Zamfara Kebbi Yauri Gwari Kwararafa Nupe Ilorin Between 500 CE and 700 CE Hausa people, who are thought to have moved from Nubia and mixing in with the local Northern and Middle Belt population, established a number of strong states in what is now Northern Nigeria and Eastern Niger. With the decline of the Nok and Sokoto, who had controlled Central and Northern Nigeria between 800 BCE and 200 CE, the Hausa were able to emerge as the new power in the region.
They are linked with the Kanuri people of Kanem-Bornu, the Birom, Gwari and Jukun. The Hausa aristocracy, under influence from the Mali Empire adopted Islam in the 11th century CE. By the 12th century CE the Hausa were becoming one of Africa's major powers; the architecture of the Hausa is one of the least known but most beautiful of the medieval age. Many of their early mosques and palaces are bright and colourful and include intricate engraving or elaborate symbols designed into the facade. By 1500 CE the Hausa utilized a modified Arabic script known as Ajami to record their own language. Usuman dan Fodio led a jihad against the Hausa States and united them into the Sokoto Caliphate; the Sokoto Caliphate was under the overall authority of the Commander of the Faithful. Under Dan Fodio, the Empire was bicephalous and divided into two territories each controlled by an appointed vizier; each of the territories was further divided into autonomous Emirates under hereditary local Emirs. The Bornu Empire was absorbed into the Sokoto Caliphate of Usman dan Fodio, but broke away after a few years later.
The British involvement in Northern Nigeria was predominantly trade-related, revolved around the expansion of the Royal Niger Company, whose interior territories spread north from about where the Niger River and Benue River joined at Lokoja. The Royal Niger Company's territory did not represent a direct threat to much the Sokoto Caliphate or the numerous states of Northern Nigeria; this changed, when Fredrick Lugard and Taubman Goldie laid down an ambitious plan to pacify the Niger interior and unite it with the rest of the British Empire. The protectorate of Northern Nigeria was proclaimed at Ida by Fredrick Lugard on January 1, 1897; the basis of the colony was the 1885 Treaty of Berlin which broadly granted Northern Nigeria to Britain, on the basis of their protectorates in Southern Nigeria. Hostilities with the powerful Sokoto Caliphate soon followed; the Emirates of Kotogora and Ilorin were the first to be conquered by the British. In February 1903, the great fort of Kano, seat of the Kano Emirate was captured and much of the rest of its Caliphate soon catapulted.
On March 13, 1903, the Grand Shura of Caliphate conceded to Lugards demands and proclaimed Queen Victoria and sovereign of the Caliphate and all its lands. The Governor, Frederick Lugard, with limited resources, ruled with the consent of local rulers through a policy of indirect rule which he developed into a sophisticated political theory; the geographical area included in the Northern protectorate included the Okun-Yoruba land of Kabba, Ijumu, Yagba, as well as, Ebira land, Igala land fashioned collectively under Kabba Province. The Ifelodun, Omuaran and Irepodun areas Yorubas were fashioned into Ilorin province. Lugard left the protectorate after some years, serving in Hong Kong, but was returned to work in Nigeria where he decided on the merger of the Northern Nigeria Protectorate with Southern Nigeria in 1914. Agitation for independence from the radically different Southern Protectorate however led to a formidable split on the 1940s; the Richards constitution proclaimed in 1945 gave overwhelming autonomy to the North including in the areas of foreign relations and customs policy.
Northern Nigeria gaine
Adamawa is a state in northeastern Nigeria, with its capital at Yola. In 1991, when Taraba State was carved out from Gongola State, the geographical entity Gongola State was renamed Adamawa State, with four administrative divisions: Adamawa, Ganye and Numan, it is the home of the American University of Nigeria in Yola and Modibbo Adama University of Technology Yola. It is one of the thirty-six states. On May 14, 2013, President Goodluck Jonathan declared a state of emergency in Adamawa State, along with neighboring Borno State and Yobe State, due to the activities of Boko Haram. Adamawa occupies about 36,917 square kilometres, it is bordered by the states of Borno to the northwest, Gombe to the west and Taraba to the southwest. Its eastern border forms the national eastern border with Cameroon. Topographically, it is a mountainous land crossed by the large river valleys – Benue and Yedsarem; the valleys of the Mount Cameroon, Mandara Mountains and Adamawa Plateau form part of the landscape. The major occupation of the people is farming as reflected in their two notable vegetational zones, the Sub-Sudan and Northern Guinea Savannah zones.
Their cash crops are cotton and groundnuts while food crops include maize, cassava, guinea corn and rice. The village communities living on the banks of the rivers engage in fishing while the Fulanis are cattle rearers; the state has a network of roads linking all parts of the country. The development of many communities in the state can be traced to the colonial era when the Germans ruled a swath of territory known as the Northern and Southern Kameruns from Dikwa in the North to Victoria on the Atlantic coast in the 19th century; these were, handed over as United Nations Trust Territories to the British at the end of the World War I with the signing of the Treaty of Versailles. After a series of referendums, the Northern Kameruns joined Nigeria to form the Sardauna Province, the Southern Kameruns formed a Confederation with French speaking Cameroon. Adamawa State is home to the headquarters of two indigenous churches, the Church of the Brethren in Nigeria with its headquarters in Mubi in the northern zone of the state, the Lutheran Church of Christ in Nigeria with headquarters in Numan in the southern zone of the state.
The Church of the Brethren in Nigeria was founded in Garkida Gombi Local Government of the state in March 1923 by American missionaries. The Lutheran Church of Christ in Nigeria was founded in Numan by Dutch missionaries in 1913. Before it became a state in Nigeria, Adamawa was a subordinate kingdom of the Sultanate of Sokoto which included much of northern Cameroon; the rulers bear the title of emir. The name "Adamawa" came from the founder of the kingdom, Modibo Adama, a regional leader of the Fulani Jihad organized by Usman dan Fodio of Sokoto in 1804. Modibo Adama came from the region of Gurin and in 1806, received a green flag for leading the jihad in his native country. In the following years, Adama conquered many tribes. In 1838, he moved his capital to Ribadu, in 1839, to Joboliwo. In 1841, he founded Yola, where he died in 1848. After the European colonization, the rulers remained as emirs and the line of succession has continued to the present day. Emirs of Adamawa have included: Modibbo Adama ben Hassan, 1809–1848 Lawalu ben Adama, 1848–1872 Sanda ben Adama, 1872–1890 Zubayru ben Adama, 1890–1901 Bobbo Ahmadu ben Adama, 1901–1909 Iya ben Sanda, 1909–1910 Muhammadu Abba, 1910–1924 Muhammadu Bello ben Ahmadu ben Hamidu ben Adamu, 1924–1928 Mustafa ben Muhammadu Abba, 1928–1946 Ahmadu ben Muhammadu Bello, 1946–1953 Aliyu Mustafa, 1953–2010 Muhammadu Barkindo Aliyu Musdafa, 2011–present Adamawa State has been impacted by the Islamist insurgency in Nigeria.
As of November 30, 2014, the state has become home to camps housing an estimated 35,000 internally displaced persons fleeing violence from Boko Haram in locations such as Mubi, Askira Uba and Gwoza in the states of Adamawa and Yobe. In 2014, an estimate placed the number of internally displaced persons around Yola at 400,000. In 2017, when jihadist Fulani herdsmen attacked Christians in Demsa, it was alleged that the government sent the airforce to bomb the defending Christians and protect the aggressors. Organizations serving the community include the Adamawa Peace Initiative - a group of business and community leaders- and the Adamawa Muslim Council; the United States Agency for International Development has pledged to provide continuing humanitarian assistance. A measles outbreak was reported in the camps in January 2015. Mubi Nuhu Auwalu Wakili's Palace Sukur World Heritage Site Lamido's Palace American University of Nigeria Kamale Mountain Peak in Michika Three Sisters Rock in Song The confluence of Rivers Benue and Gongola in Numan Uba under Mubi Adamawa State consists of twenty-one Local Government Areas: Abubakar Saleh Michika Bamanga Tukur Mohammed Bello Atiku Abubakar Murtala Nyako Boni Haruna Babachir David Lawal Nuhu Ribadu Buba Marwa Aisha Buhari Binta Masi Garba Alex Badeh Ibrahim Lamorde Ahmed Hassan Barata Muhammadu Gambo Jimeta Iya Abubakar Boss Mustapha Adamawa.com - Articles and art from Adamawa State