Nunavut is the newest and most northerly territory of Canada. It was separated from the Northwest Territories on April 1, 1999, via the Nunavut Act and the Nunavut Land Claims Agreement Act, though the boundaries had been drawn in 1993; the creation of Nunavut resulted in the first major change to Canada's political map since the incorporation of the province of Newfoundland in 1949. Nunavut comprises a major portion of Northern Canada, most of the Canadian Arctic Archipelago, its vast territory makes it the fifth-largest country subdivision in the world, as well as North America's second-largest. The capital Iqaluit, on Baffin Island in the east, was chosen by the 1995 capital plebiscite. Other major communities include the regional centres of Cambridge Bay. Nunavut includes Ellesmere Island to the far north, as well as the eastern and southern portions of Victoria Island in the west, all islands in Hudson and Ungava Bays, including Akimiski Island far to the southeast of the rest of the territory.
It is Canada's only geo-political region, not connected to the rest of North America by highway. Nunavut is the second-least populous of Canada's provinces and territories. One of the world's most remote, sparsely settled regions, it has a population of 35,944 Inuit, spread over a land area of just over 1,750,000 km2, or smaller than Mexico. Nunavut is home to the world's northernmost permanently inhabited place, Alert. Eureka, a weather station on Ellesmere Island, has the lowest average annual temperature of any Canadian weather station. Nunavut means "our land" in the native language Inuktitut. Nunavut covers 160,935 km2 of water in Northern Canada; the territory includes part of the mainland, most of the Arctic Archipelago, all of the islands in Hudson Bay, James Bay, Ungava Bay, including the Belcher Islands, all of which belonged to the Northwest Territories from which Nunavut was separated. This makes it the fifth-largest subnational entity in the world. If Nunavut were a country, it would rank 15th in area.
Nunavut has long land borders with the Northwest Territories on the mainland and a few Arctic islands, with Manitoba to the south of the Nunavut mainland. Through its small satellite territories in the southeast, it has short land borders with Newfoundland and Labrador on Killiniq Island, with Ontario in two locations in James Bay – the larger located west of Akimiski Island, the smaller around the Albany River near Fafard Island – and with Quebec in many locations, such as near Eastmain and near Inukjuak, it shares maritime borders with Greenland and the provinces of Quebec and Manitoba. Nunavut's highest point is Barbeau Peak on Ellesmere Island; the population density is one of the lowest in the world. By comparison, Greenland has the same area and nearly twice the population. Nunavut experiences a polar climate in most regions, owing to its high latitude and lower continental summertime influence than areas to the west. In more southerly continental areas cold subarctic climates can be found, due to July being milder than the required 10 °C.
The region now known as Nunavut has supported a continuous indigenous population for 4,000 years. Most historians identify the coast of Baffin Island with the Helluland described in Norse sagas, so it is possible that the inhabitants of the region had occasional contact with Norse sailors. In September 2008, researchers reported on the evaluation of existing and newly excavated archaeological remains, including yarn spun from a hare, tally sticks, a carved wooden face mask that depicts Caucasian features, possible architectural material; the materials were collected in five seasons of excavation at Cape Tanfield. Scholars determined that these provide evidence of European traders and settlers on Baffin Island, not than 1000 CE, they seem to indicate prolonged contact up to 1450. The origin of the Old World contact is unclear. So... you have to consider the possibility that as remote as it may seem, these finds may represent evidence of contact with Europeans prior to the Vikings' arrival in Greenland."
The written historical accounts of Nunavut begin in 1576, with an account by English explorer Martin Frobisher. While leading an expedition to find the Northwest Passage, Frobisher thought he had discovered gold ore around the body of water now known as Frobisher Bay on the coast of Baffin Island; the ore turned out to be worthless, but Frobisher made the first recorded European contact with the Inuit. Other explorers in search of the elusive Northwest Passage followed in the 17th century, including Henry Hudson, William Baffin and Robert Bylot. Cornwallis and Ellesmere Islands featured in the history of the Cold War in the 1950s. Concerned about the area's strategic geopolitical position, the federal government relocated Inuit from Nunavik to Resolute and Grise Fiord. In the unfamiliar and hostile conditions, they were forced to stay. Forty years the Royal Commission on Aboriginal Peoples issued a report titled The High Arctic Relocation: A Report on the 1953–
Chief Directorate of the Northern Sea Route
The Chief Directorate of the Northern Sea Route known as Glavsevmorput or GUSMP, was a Soviet government organization in charge of the maritime Northern Sea Route, established in January 1932 and dissolved in 1964. The organization traces its roots to AO Komseverput or KSMP, a shipping company established by the Kolchak government in 1919 and subsequently nationalized by the Bolsheviks. In May 1931 AO Komseverput was reorganized into VO Glavkomseverput. A new office, was established in December 1932 and absorbed VO Glavkomseverput in May 1933. Overall management was assigned to the Arctic explorer Otto Schmidt, who had managed the Arctic Institute. Glavsevmorput had its own Polar Air service Aviaarktika, headed by Mark Shevelev. Glavsevmorput, in addition to running Arctic shipping became the Soviet agency for exploiting resources across the far north and coordinating supplies and transport, it aimed to contribute to the development of northern coastal Siberia. The organization's quick unchecked expansion in its Moscow offices, was masked by the successes of the 1934-1936 seasons.
However, the season of 1937, through a combination of unrealistic plans, bad weather and bad luck, proved a disaster. Twenty-five of 64 ships dispatched on the route were trapped with crews and cargoes in the Arctic winter; the débâcle, which coincided with the Great Purge of 1936-1938, led to a string of arrests. The oversized organization was streamlined and stripped of auxiliary functions that were delegated to Dalstroy and to the State trading company Gostorg. Glavsevmorput was to concentrate on maintaining the Northern Sea Route running its coastal shipping line. Otto Schmidt, once an highly publicized personality, was spared but demoted to scientific duties. Papanin's first season, 1939, was a safe and successful one. In 1953 the organization enjoying the status of a national ministry, was downgraded to a department within the Ministry of Merchant Fleet. In 1964 the department was dissolved, its units were reassigned to the Ministry of the Merchant Fleet, the Hydrometeorological Service of the USSR and the Soviet Ministry of Civil Aviation.
The system continued working and reached peak capacity in 1987. A large island at the mouth of the Kolyma River was named Glavsevmorput Island in honour of the organization 69°30′N 161°30′E. Great Northern Expedition Northern Sea Route Barr, W; the Drift of Lenin's Convoy in the Laptev Sea, 1937 - 1938. Arctic, v.33 no.1 p. 4-20 Barr, W. The First Soviet Convoy to the Mouth of the Lena. Arctic, v.35 no.2 p. 317-325 On Russian explorations: 75 years of Northern Sea Route Biography of G. A. Ushakov at Polar World; the Northern Sea Route at SHIP & OCEAN FOUNDATION The discovery and history of exploration of the Northern Sea Route at The Russian State Museum of Arctic and Antarctic John McCannon, Red Arctic, 1932-1939, ISBN 0-19-511436-1 Red Arctic. Reviewed by Eva-Maria Stolberg. In Search of a Soviet Klondike in the Tundra
Greenland ice sheet
The Greenland ice sheet is a vast body of ice covering 1,710,000 square kilometres 80% of the surface of Greenland. It is the second largest ice body in the world, after the Antarctic ice sheet; the ice sheet is 2,400 kilometres long in a north-south direction, its greatest width is 1,100 kilometres at a latitude of 77°N, near its northern margin. The mean altitude of the ice is 2,135 metres; the thickness is more than 2 km and over 3 km at its thickest point. In addition to the large ice sheet, isolated glaciers and small ice caps cover between 76,000 and 100,000 square kilometres around the periphery. If the entire 2,850,000 cubic kilometres of ice were to melt, it would lead to a global sea level rise of 7.2 m, over 14,000 years at current rates of melting. The Greenland Ice Sheet is sometimes referred to under the term inland ice, or its Danish equivalent, indlandsis, it is sometimes referred to as an ice cap. The presence of ice-rafted sediments in deep-sea cores recovered from northeast Greenland, in the Fram Strait, south of Greenland indicated the more or less continuous presence of either an ice sheet or ice sheets covering significant parts of Greenland for the last 18 million years.
From about 11 million years ago to 10 million years ago, the Greenland Ice Sheet was reduced in size. The Greenland Ice Sheet formed in the middle Miocene by coalescence of ice glaciers. There was an intensification of glaciation during the Late Pliocene. Ice sheet formation occurred in connection to uplift of the West Greenland and East Greenland uplands; the Western and Eastern Greenland mountains constitute passive continental margins that were uplifted in two phases, 10 and 5 million years ago, in the Miocene epoch. Computer modelling shows that the uplift would have enabled glaciation by producing increased orographic precipitation and cooling the surface temperatures; the oldest known ice in the current ice sheet is as old as 1,000,000 years old. The weight of the ice has depressed the central area of Greenland. If the ice disappeared, Greenland would most appear as an archipelago, at least until isostasy lifted the land surface above sea level once again; the ice surface reaches its greatest altitude on ridges.
The southern dome reaches 3,000 metres at latitudes 63°–65°N. The crests of both domes are displaced east of the centre line of Greenland; the unconfined ice sheet does not reach the sea along a broad front anywhere in Greenland, so that no large ice shelves occur. The ice margin just reaches the sea, however, in a region of irregular topography in the area of Melville Bay southeast of Thule. Large outlet glaciers, which are restricted tongues of the ice sheet, move through bordering valleys around the periphery of Greenland to calve off into the ocean, producing the numerous icebergs that sometimes occur in North Atlantic shipping lanes; the best known of these outlet glaciers is Jakobshavn Glacier, which, at its terminus, flows at speeds of 20 to 22 metres or 66 to 72 feet per day. On the ice sheet, temperatures are substantially lower than elsewhere in Greenland; the lowest mean annual temperatures, about −31 °C, occur on the north-central part of the north dome, temperatures at the crest of the south dome are about −20 °C.
The ice sheet, consisting of layers of compressed snow from more than 100,000 years, contains in its ice today's most valuable record of past climates. In the past decades, scientists have drilled ice cores up to 4 kilometres deep. Scientists have, using those ice cores, obtained information on temperature, ocean volume, precipitation and gas composition of the lower atmosphere, volcanic eruptions, solar variability, sea-surface productivity, desert extent and forest fires; this variety of climatic proxies is greater than in any other natural recorder of climate, such as tree rings or sediment layers. Many scientists who study the ice ablation in Greenland consider that a two or three °C temperature rise would result in a complete melting of Greenland's ice. Positioned in the Arctic, the Greenland ice sheet is vulnerable to climate change. Arctic climate is believed to be now warming and much larger Arctic shrinkage changes are projected; the Greenland Ice Sheet has experienced record melting in recent years since detailed records have been kept and is to contribute to sea level rise as well as to possible changes in ocean circulation in the future if this is sustained.
The area of the sheet that experiences melting has been argued to have increased by about 16% between 1979 and 2002. The area of melting in 2002 broke all previous records; the number of glacial earthquakes at the Helheim Glacier and the northwest Greenland glaciers increased between 1993 and 2005. In 2006, estimated monthly changes in the mass of Greenland's ice sheet suggest that it is melting at a rate of about 239 cubic kilometers per year. A more recent study, based on reprocessed and improved data between 2003 and 2008, reports an average trend of 195 cubic kilometers per year; these measurements came from the US space agency's GRACE satellite, launched in 2002
Polar regions of Earth
The polar regions called the frigid zones, of Earth are the regions of the planet that surround its geographical poles, lying within the polar circles. These high latitudes are dominated by Earth's polar ice caps: the northern resting on the Arctic Ocean and the southern on the continent of Antarctica; the Arctic has various definitions, including the region north of the Arctic Circle, or the region north of 60° north latitude, or the region from the North Pole south to the timberline. The Antarctic is defined as south of 60° south latitude, or the continent of Antarctica; the 1959 Antarctic Treaty uses the former definition. The two polar regions are distinguished from the other two climatic and biomatic belts of Earth, a tropics belt near the equator, two middle latitude regions located between the tropics and polar regions. Polar regions receive less intense solar radiation than the other parts of Earth because the sun's energy arrives at an oblique angle, spreading over a larger area, travels a longer distance through the Earth's atmosphere in which it may be absorbed, scattered or reflected, the same thing that causes winters to be colder than the rest of the year in temperate areas.
The axial tilt of the Earth has a major effect on climate of the polar regions. Since the polar regions are the farthest from the equator, they receive the least amount of sunlight and are therefore frigid; the large amount of ice and snow reflects a large part of what little sunlight the Polar regions receive, contributing to the cold. Polar regions are characterized by the polar climate cold temperatures, heavy glaciation wherever there is sufficient precipitation to form permanent ice, extreme variations in daylight hours, with twenty-four hours of daylight in summer, complete darkness at mid-winter. There are many settlements in Earth's north polar region. Countries with claims to Arctic regions are: the United States, Denmark, Finland, Sweden and Russia. Arctic circumpolar populations share more in common with each other than with other populations within their national boundaries; as such, the northern polar region is diverse in human cultures. The southern polar region has no permanent human habitation.
McMurdo Station is the largest research station in Antarctica, run by the United States. Other notable stations include Palmer Station and Amundsen–Scott South Pole Station, Esperanza Base and Marambio Base, Scott Base, Vostok Station. While there are no indigenous human cultures, there is a complex ecosystem along Antarctica's coastal zones. Coastal upwelling provides abundant nutrients which feeds krill, a type of marine crustacea, which in turn feeds a complex of living creatures from penguins to blue whales. Polar regions at Curlie The Polar Regions International Polar Foundation Arctic Environmental Atlas Earth's Polar Regions on Windows to the Universe Arctic Studies Center, Smithsonian Institution Scott Polar Research Institute, University of Cambridge WWF:The Polar Regions World Environment Day 2007 "Melting Ice" image gallery at The Guardian Polar Discovery Victor, Paul-Émile. Man and the Conquest of the Poles, trans. by Scott Sullivan. New York: Simon & Schuster, 1963
Alaska is a U. S. state in the northwest extremity of North America, just across the Bering Strait from Asia. The Canadian province of British Columbia and territory of Yukon border the state to the east and southeast, its most extreme western part is Attu Island, it has a maritime border with Russia to the west across the Bering Strait. To the north are the Chukchi and Beaufort seas—southern parts of the Arctic Ocean; the Pacific Ocean lies to southwest. It is the largest U. S. state by the seventh largest subnational division in the world. In addition, it is the most sparsely populated of the 50 United States. Half of Alaska's residents live within the Anchorage metropolitan area. Alaska's economy is dominated by the fishing, natural gas, oil industries, resources which it has in abundance. Military bases and tourism are a significant part of the economy; the United States purchased Alaska from the Russian Empire on March 30, 1867, for 7.2 million U. S. dollars at two cents per acre. The area went through several administrative changes before becoming organized as a territory on May 11, 1912.
It was admitted as the 49th state of the U. S. on January 3, 1959. The name "Alaska" was introduced in the Russian colonial period when it was used to refer to the Alaska Peninsula, it was derived from an Aleut-language idiom. It means object to which the action of the sea is directed. Alaska is the northernmost and westernmost state in the United States and has the most easterly longitude in the United States because the Aleutian Islands extend into the Eastern Hemisphere. Alaska is the only non-contiguous U. S. state on continental North America. It is technically part of the continental U. S. but is sometimes not included in colloquial use. S. called "the Lower 48". The capital city, Juneau, is situated on the mainland of the North American continent but is not connected by road to the rest of the North American highway system; the state is bordered by Yukon and British Columbia in Canada, to the east, the Gulf of Alaska and the Pacific Ocean to the south and southwest, the Bering Sea, Bering Strait, Chukchi Sea to the west and the Arctic Ocean to the north.
Alaska's territorial waters touch Russia's territorial waters in the Bering Strait, as the Russian Big Diomede Island and Alaskan Little Diomede Island are only 3 miles apart. Alaska has a longer coastline than all the other U. S. states combined. Alaska is the largest state in the United States by total area at 663,268 square miles, over twice the size of Texas, the next largest state. Alaska is larger than all but 18 sovereign countries. Counting territorial waters, Alaska is larger than the combined area of the next three largest states: Texas and Montana, it is larger than the combined area of the 22 smallest U. S. states. There are no defined borders demarcating the various regions of Alaska, but there are six accepted regions: The most populous region of Alaska, containing Anchorage, the Matanuska-Susitna Valley and the Kenai Peninsula. Rural unpopulated areas south of the Alaska Range and west of the Wrangell Mountains fall within the definition of South Central, as do the Prince William Sound area and the communities of Cordova and Valdez.
Referred to as the Panhandle or Inside Passage, this is the region of Alaska closest to the rest of the United States. As such, this was where most of the initial non-indigenous settlement occurred in the years following the Alaska Purchase; the region is dominated by the Alexander Archipelago as well as the Tongass National Forest, the largest national forest in the United States. It contains the state capital Juneau, the former capital Sitka, Ketchikan, at one time Alaska's largest city; the Alaska Marine Highway provides a vital surface transportation link throughout the area, as only three communities enjoy direct connections to the contiguous North American road system. Designated in 1963; the Interior is the largest region of Alaska. Fairbanks is the only large city in the region. Denali National Park and Preserve is located here. Denali is the highest mountain in North America. Southwest Alaska is a sparsely inhabited region stretching some 500 miles inland from the Bering Sea. Most of the population lives along the coast.
Kodiak Island is located in Southwest. The massive Yukon–Kuskokwim Delta, one of the largest river deltas in the world, is here. Portions of the Alaska Peninsula are considered part of Southwest, with the remaining portions included with the Aleutian Islands; the North Slope is tundra peppered with small villages. The area is known for its massive reserves of crude oil, contains both the National Petroleum Reserve–Alaska and the Prudhoe Bay Oil Field; the city of Utqiagvik known as Barrow, is the northernmost city in the United States and is located here. The Northwest Arctic area, anchored by Kotzebue and containing the Kobuk River valley, is regarded as being part of this region. However, the respective Inupiat of the No
Arctic ecology is the scientific study of the relationships between biotic and abiotic factors in the arctic, the region north of the Arctic Circle. This region is characterized by stressful conditions as a result of extreme cold, low precipitation, a limited growing season and no sunlight throughout the winter; the Arctic consists of taiga and tundra biomes, which dominate high elevations in the tropics. Sensitive ecosystems exist throughout the Arctic region, which are being impacted by global warming; the earliest inhabitants of the Arctic were the Neanderthal sub-species. Since many indigenous populations have inhabited the region, which continues to this day. Since the early 1900s, when Vilhjalmur Stefansson led the first major Canadian Arctic Expedition, the Arctic has been a valued area for ecological research. In 1946, The Arctic Research Laboratory was established in Point Barrow, Alaska under the contract of the Office of Naval Research; this launched an interest in exploring the Arctic examining animal cycles and the interactions between indigenous peoples and the Arctic ecology.
During the Cold War, the Arctic became a place where the United States and the Soviet Union performed significant research, essential to the study of climate change in recent years. A major reason why research in the Arctic is essential for the study of climate change is because the effects of climate change will be felt more and more drastically in higher latitudes of the world as above average temperatures are predicted for Northwest Canada and Alaska. From an anthropological point of view, researchers study the native Inuit peoples of Alaska as they have become accustomed to adapting to ecological and climate variability. To understand Arctic ecology, it is important to consider both the terrestrial and oceanic aspects of the region. A few important parts of this environment are sea permafrost. Sea ice is frozen seawater, it provides important habitat and a resting place for animals during the winter months. Over time, small pockets of seawater get trapped in the ice, the salt is squeezed out.
This causes the ice to become progressively less salty. Sea ice persists throughout the year. Large portions of the land are frozen during the year. Permafrost is substrate, frozen for a minimum of 2 years. There are two types of permafrost: continuous. Discontinuous permafrost is found in areas where the mean annual air temperature is only below freezing. In areas where the mean annual soil surface temperature is below −5 °C, continuous permafrost forms; this is not limited to sheltered areas and ranges from a few inches below the surface to over 300 m deep. The top layer is called the active layer, it is critical to plant life. Moisture and temperature are major physical drivers of natural ecosystems; the more arid and colder conditions found at higher northern latitudes support tundra and boreal forests. The water in this region is frozen and evaporation rates are low. Species diversity, nutrient availability and average temperatures increase as you move from the tundra to boreal forests and to deciduous temperate ecosystems, which are found south of these Arctic biomes.
Tundra is found from 55 ° to 80° N latitude in North America and Greenland. It can be found at lower latitudes at high elevations as well; the average temperature is −34 °C. Average precipitation ranges from 10 to 50 cm, the permafrost is 400–600 m thick. Plant species supported by tundra have small leaves, are short, tend to be deciduous, have a high ratio of roots to shoots, they are composed of perennial forbs, dwarf shrubs, grasses and mosses. In comparison to tundra, boreal forest has a longer and warmer growing season and supports larger species diversity, an increase in canopy height, vegetation density, biomass. Boreal conditions can be found across northern North Eurasia; the boreal forests in the interior of the continents grow on top of permafrost due to cold winters, while much of the boreal forest has patchy permafrost or lack permafrost completely. The short growing season in boreal forests is sustained by greater levels of rainfall than the tundra receives. Shrubs, ferns and lichens are important species.
Stand-replacing crown fires are important to this biome, occurring as as every 50–100 years in some parts. Humans living in the Arctic region rely on warm clothing and buildings to protect them from the elements. Acclimatization, or the adjustment to new conditions, appears to be the most common form of adaptation to cold environments. No genetic advantage has been found when races are compared. There is no evidence although its presence is advantageous. Amazingly, most people living in the Arctic region live a lifestyle connected to the environment, spending significant time outside and depending on hunting and fishing. Animals that are active in the winter have adaptations for surviving the intense cold. A common example is the presence of strikingly large feet in p
The North Pole known as the Geographic North Pole or Terrestrial North Pole, is defined as the point in the Northern Hemisphere where the Earth's axis of rotation meets its surface. The North Pole is the northernmost point on the Earth, lying diametrically opposite the South Pole, it defines geodetic latitude 90° North, as well as the direction of true north. At the North Pole all directions point south. Along tight latitude circles, counterclockwise is east and clockwise is west; the North Pole is at the center of the Northern Hemisphere. While the South Pole lies on a continental land mass, the North Pole is located in the middle of the Arctic Ocean amid waters that are permanently covered with shifting sea ice; this makes it impractical to construct a permanent station at the North Pole. However, the Soviet Union, Russia, constructed a number of manned drifting stations on a annual basis since 1937, some of which have passed over or close to the Pole. Since 2002, the Russians have annually established a base, close to the Pole.
This operates for a few weeks during early spring. Studies in the 2000s predicted that the North Pole may become seasonally ice-free because of Arctic ice shrinkage, with timescales varying from 2016 to the late 21st century or later; the sea depth at the North Pole has been measured at 4,261 m by the Russian Mir submersible in 2007 and at 4,087 m by USS Nautilus in 1958. The nearest land is said to be Kaffeklubben Island, off the northern coast of Greenland about 700 km away, though some semi-permanent gravel banks lie closer; the nearest permanently inhabited place is Alert in the Qikiqtaaluk Region, Canada, located 817 km from the Pole. The Earth's axis of rotation – and hence the position of the North Pole – was believed to be fixed until, in the 18th century, the mathematician Leonhard Euler predicted that the axis might "wobble" slightly. Around the beginning of the 20th century astronomers noticed a small apparent "variation of latitude," as determined for a fixed point on Earth from the observation of stars.
Part of this variation could be attributed to a wandering of the Pole across the Earth's surface, by a range of a few metres. The wandering has an irregular component; the component with a period of about 435 days is identified with the eight-month wandering predicted by Euler and is now called the Chandler wobble after its discoverer. The exact point of intersection of the Earth's axis and the Earth's surface, at any given moment, is called the "instantaneous pole", but because of the "wobble" this cannot be used as a definition of a fixed North Pole when metre-scale precision is required, it is desirable to tie the system of Earth coordinates to fixed landforms. Of course, given plate tectonics and isostasy, there is no system in which all geographic features are fixed, yet the International Earth Rotation and Reference Systems Service and the International Astronomical Union have defined a framework called the International Terrestrial Reference System. As early as the 16th century, many prominent people believed that the North Pole was in a sea, which in the 19th century was called the Polynya or Open Polar Sea.
It was therefore hoped. Several expeditions set out to find the way with whaling ships commonly used in the cold northern latitudes. One of the earliest expeditions to set out with the explicit intention of reaching the North Pole was that of British naval officer William Edward Parry, who in 1827 reached latitude 82°45′ North. In 1871 the Polaris expedition, a US attempt on the Pole led by Charles Francis Hall, ended in disaster. Another British Royal Navy attempt on the pole, part of the British Arctic Expedition, by Commander Albert H. Markham reached a then-record 83°20'26" North in May 1876 before turning back. An 1879–1881 expedition commanded by US naval officer George W. DeLong ended tragically when their ship, the USS Jeanette, was crushed by ice. Over half the crew, including DeLong, were lost. In April 1895 the Norwegian explorers Fridtjof Nansen and Hjalmar Johansen struck out for the Pole on skis after leaving Nansen's icebound ship Fram; the pair reached latitude 86°14′ North before they abandoned the attempt and turned southwards reaching Franz Josef Land.
In 1897 Swedish engineer Salomon August Andrée and two companions tried to reach the North Pole in the hydrogen balloon Örnen, but came down 300 km north of Kvitøya, the northeasternmost part of the Svalbard archipelago. They died there three months later. In 1930 the remains of this expedition were found by the Norwegian Bratvaag Expedition; the Italian explorer Luigi Amedeo, Duke of the Abruzzi and Captain Umberto Cagni of the Italian Royal Navy sailed the converted whaler Stella Polare from Norway in 1899. On 11 March 1900 Cagni led a party over the ice and reached latitude 86° 34’ on 25 April, setting a new record by beating Nansen's result of 1895 by 35 to 40 km. Cagni managed to return to the camp, remaining there until 23 June. On 16 August the Stella Polare left Rudolf Island heading south and the expedition returned to Norway; the US explorer Frederick Cook claimed to have reached the North Pole on 21 April 1908 with two Inuit men and Etukishook, but he was unable to produce convincing proof and his c