Semen known as seminal fluid, is an organic fluid that may contain spermatozoa. It is secreted by the gonads and other sexual organs of male or hermaphroditic animals and can fertilize female ova. In humans, seminal fluid contains several components besides spermatozoa: proteolytic and other enzymes as well as fructose are elements of seminal fluid which promote the survival of spermatozoa, provide a medium through which they can move or "swim". Semen is produced and originates from the seminal vesicle, located in the pelvis; the process that results in the discharge of semen is called ejaculation. Semen is a form of genetic material. In animals, semen has been collected for cryoconservation. Cryoconservation of animal genetic resources is a practice that calls for the collection of genetic material in efforts for conservation of a particular breed. Depending on the species, spermatozoa can fertilize ova internally. In external fertilization, the spermatozoa fertilize the ova directly, outside of the female's sexual organs.
Female fish, for example, spawn ova into their aquatic environment, where they are fertilized by the semen of the male fish. During internal fertilization, fertilization occurs inside the female's sexual organs. Internal fertilization takes place after insemination of a female by a male through copulation. In most vertebrates, including amphibians, reptiles and monotreme mammals, copulation is achieved through the physical mating of the cloaca of the male and female. In marsupial and placental mammals, copulation occurs through the vagina. During the process of ejaculation, sperm passes through the ejaculatory ducts and mixes with fluids from the seminal vesicles, the prostate, the bulbourethral glands to form the semen; the seminal vesicles produce a yellowish viscous fluid rich in fructose and other substances that makes up about 70% of human semen. The prostatic secretion, influenced by dihydrotestosterone, is a whitish, thin fluid containing proteolytic enzymes, citric acid, acid phosphatase and lipids.
The bulbourethral glands secrete a clear secretion into the lumen of the urethra to lubricate it. Sertoli cells, which nurture and support developing spermatocytes, secrete a fluid into seminiferous tubules that helps transport sperm to the genital ducts; the ductuli efferentes possess cuboidal cells with microvilli and lysosomal granules that modify the ductal fluid by reabsorbing some fluid. Once the semen enters the ductus epididymis the principal cells, which contain pinocytotic vessels indicating fluid reabsorption, secrete glycerophosphocholine which most inhibits premature capacitation; the accessory genital ducts, the seminal vesicle, prostate glands, the bulbourethral glands, produce most of the seminal fluid. Seminal plasma of humans contains a complex range of inorganic constituents; the seminal plasma provides a nutritive and protective medium for the spermatozoa during their journey through the female reproductive tract. The normal environment of the vagina is a hostile one for sperm cells, as it is acidic and patrolled by immune cells.
The components in the seminal plasma attempt to compensate for this hostile environment. Basic amines such as putrescine, spermine and cadaverine are responsible for the smell and flavor of semen; these alkaline bases counteract and buffer the acidic environment of the vaginal canal, protect DNA inside the sperm from acidic denaturation. The components and contributions of semen are as follows: A 1992 World Health Organization report described normal human semen as having a volume of 2 ml or greater, pH of 7.2 to 8.0, sperm concentration of 20×106 spermatozoa/ml or more, sperm count of 40×106 spermatozoa per ejaculate or more, motility of 50% or more with forward progression of 25% or more with rapid progression within 60 minutes of ejaculation. A 2005 review of the literature found that the average reported physical and chemical properties of human semen were as follows: Semen is translucent with white, grey or yellowish tint. Blood in the semen can cause a pink or reddish colour, known as hematospermia, may indicate a medical problem which should be evaluated by a doctor if the symptom persists.
After ejaculation, the latter part of the ejaculated semen coagulates forming globules, while the earlier part of the ejaculate does not. After a period ranging from 15 – 30 minutes, prostate-specific antigen present in the semen causes the decoagulation of the seminal coagulum, it is postulated that the initial clotting helps keep the semen in the vagina, while liquefaction frees the sperm to make their journey to the ova. A 2005 review found that the average reported viscosity of human semen in the literature was 3–7 cP. Semen quality is a measure of the ability of semen to accomplish fertilization. Thus, it is a measure of fertility in a man, it is the sperm in the semen, the fertile component, therefore semen quality involves both sperm quantity and sperm quality. The volume of semen ejaculate varies but is about 1 teaspoonful or less. A review of 30 studies concluded that the average was around 3.4 milliliters, with some studies finding amounts as high as 5.0 ml or as low as 2.3 ml. In a study with Swedish and Danish men, a prolonged interval between ejaculations caused an increase of the sperm count in the semen but not an increase of its amount.
Some dietary supplements have been marketed with claims to increase seminal volume. Like other supplements, including so-called herbal viagra, these are not approved or regulated by the Food and Drug Administration
Domestic sheep are quadrupedal, ruminant mammals kept as livestock. Like most ruminants, sheep are members of the even-toed ungulates. Although the name sheep applies to many species in the genus Ovis, in everyday usage it always refers to Ovis aries. Numbering a little over one billion, domestic sheep are the most numerous species of sheep. An adult female sheep is referred to as a ewe, an intact male as a ram or a tup, a castrated male as a wether, a younger sheep as a lamb. Sheep are most descended from the wild mouflon of Europe and Asia. One of the earliest animals to be domesticated for agricultural purposes, sheep are raised for fleeces and milk. A sheep's wool is the most used animal fiber, is harvested by shearing. Ovine meat is called lamb when from younger animals and mutton when from older ones in Commonwealth countries, lamb in the United States. Sheep continue to be important for wool and meat today, are occasionally raised for pelts, as dairy animals, or as model organisms for science.
Sheep husbandry is practised throughout the majority of the inhabited world, has been fundamental to many civilizations. In the modern era, New Zealand, the southern and central South American nations, the British Isles are most associated with sheep production. Sheepraising has a large lexicon of unique terms which vary by region and dialect. Use of the word sheep began in Middle English as a derivation of the Old English word scēap. A group of sheep is called a herd or mob. Many other specific terms for the various life stages of sheep exist related to lambing and age. Being a key animal in the history of farming, sheep have a entrenched place in human culture, find representation in much modern language and symbology; as livestock, sheep are most associated with pastoral, Arcadian imagery. Sheep figure in many mythologies—such as the Golden Fleece—and major religions the Abrahamic traditions. In both ancient and modern religious ritual, sheep are used as sacrificial animals; the exact line of descent between domestic sheep and their wild ancestors is unclear.
The most common hypothesis states. Sheep were among the first animals to be domesticated by humankind. C in Mesopotamia; the rearing of sheep for secondary products, the resulting breed development, began in either southwest Asia or western Europe. Sheep were kept for meat and skins. Archaeological evidence from statuary found at sites in Iran suggests that selection for woolly sheep may have begun around 6000 BC, the earliest woven wool garments have been dated to two to three thousand years later. Sheep husbandry spread in Europe. Excavations show that in about 6000 BC, during the Neolithic period of prehistory, the Castelnovien people, living around Châteauneuf-les-Martigues near present-day Marseille in the south of France, were among the first in Europe to keep domestic sheep. From its inception, ancient Greek civilization relied on sheep as primary livestock, were said to name individual animals. Ancient Romans kept sheep on a wide scale, were an important agent in the spread of sheep raising.
Pliny the Elder, in his Natural History, speaks at length about wool. European colonists spread the practice to the New World from 1493 onwards. Domestic sheep are small ruminants with a crimped hair called wool and with horns forming a lateral spiral. Domestic sheep differ from their wild relatives and ancestors in several respects, having become uniquely neotenic as a result of selective breeding by humans. A few primitive breeds of sheep retain some of the characteristics of their wild cousins, such as short tails. Depending on breed, domestic sheep may have no horns at all, or horns in both sexes, or in males only. Most horned breeds have a single pair. Another trait unique to domestic sheep as compared to wild ovines is their wide variation in color. Wild sheep are variations of brown hues, variation within species is limited. Colors of domestic sheep range from pure white to dark chocolate brown, spotted or piebald. Selection for dyeable white fleeces began early in sheep domestication, as white wool is a dominant trait it spread quickly.
However, colored sheep do appear in many modern breeds, may appear as a recessive trait in white flocks. While white wool is desirable for large commercial markets, there is a niche market for colored fleeces for handspinning; the nature of the fleece varies among the breeds, from dense and crimped, to long and hairlike. There is variation of wool type and quality among members of the same flock, so wool classing is a step in the commercial processing of the fibre. Depending on breed, sheep show a range of weights, their rate of growth and mature weight is a heritable trait, selected for in breeding. Ewes weigh between 45 and 100 kilograms, rams between 45 and 160 kilograms; when all deciduous teeth have erupted, the sheep has 20 teeth. Mature sheep have 32 teeth; as with other ruminants, the front teeth in the lower jaw bite against a hard, toothless pad in the upper jaw. These are used to pick off vegetation the rear
The alpaca is a species of South American camelid. It is similar to, confused with, the llama. However, alpacas are noticeably smaller than llamas; the two animals are related and can cross-breed. Alpacas and llamas are closely related to the vicuña, believed to be the alpaca's wild ancestor, to the guanaco. There are two breeds of alpaca: the Huacaya alpaca. Alpacas are kept in herds that graze on the level heights of the Andes of Southern Peru, Western Bolivia and Northern Chile at an altitude of 3,500 m to 5,000 m above sea level. Alpacas are smaller than llamas, unlike llamas, they were not bred to be working animals, but were bred for their fiber. Alpaca fiber is used for making knitted and woven items to sheep's wool; these items include blankets, hats, scarves, a wide variety of textiles and ponchos in South America, sweaters, socks and bedding in other parts of the world. The fiber comes in more than 52 natural colors as classified in Peru, 12 as classified in Australia, 16 as classified in the United States.
Alpacas communicate through body language. The most common is spitting, fearful, or mean to show dominance. Male alpacas are more aggressive than females, tend to establish dominance of their herd group. In some cases, alpha males will immobilize the head and neck of a weaker or challenging male in order to show their strength and dominance. In the textile industry, "alpaca" refers to the hair of Peruvian alpacas, but more broadly it refers to a style of fabric made from alpaca hair, such as mohair, Icelandic sheep wool, or high-quality wool from other breeds of sheep. In trade, distinctions are made between the several styles of mohair and luster. An adult alpaca is between 81–99 centimetres in height at the shoulders, they weigh between 48–84 kilograms. Alpacas have been domesticated for thousands of years; the Moche people of Northern Peru used alpaca images in their art. There are no known wild alpacas, its closest living relative, the vicuña, is believed to be the wild ancestor of the alpaca.
The family Camelidae first appeared in Americas 40–45 million years ago, during the Eocene period, from the common ancestor, Protylopus. The descendants divided into Camelini and Lamini tribes, taking different migratory patterns to Asia and South America, respectively. Although the camelids became extinct in North America around 3 million years ago, in the South flourished with the tribes we see today, it was not until 2–5 million years ago, during the Pliocene that the genus Hemiauchenia of the tribe Lamini split into Palaeolama and Lama, the latter would split again into Lama and Vicugna upon migrating down to South America. Remains of vicuña and guanaco have been found throughout Peru for around 12,000 years, their domesticated counterparts, the llama and alpacas have been found mummified in the Moquegua valley in the south of Peru dating back 900 to 1000 years. Mummies found in this region shows two breeds of alpacas. More precise analysis of bone and teeth of these mummies has demonstrated that alpacas were domesticated from the Vicugna vicugna.
Other research, considering the behavioral and morphological characteristics of alpacas and their wild counterparts, seems to indicate that alpacas could find their origins in Lama guanicoe as well as Vicugna vicugna, or a hybrid of both. Genetic analysis shows a different picture for the origins of the alpaca. Analysis of mitochondrial DNA shows that most alpacas have guanaco mtDNA, many have vicuña mtDNA, but microsatellite data shows that alpaca DNA is much more similar to vicuña DNA than to guanaco DNA. This suggests; the discrepancy with mtDNA seems to be a result of the fact that mtDNA is only transmitted by the mother, recent husbandry practices have caused hybridization between llamas and alpacas. To the extent that many of today's domestic alpacas are the result of male alpacas bred to female llamas, this would explain the mtDNA consistent with guanacos; this situation has led to attempts to reclassify the alpaca as Vicugna pacos. Alpacas come in two breeds and Huacaya, based on its fiber rather than conventional or European classifications.
Huacaya alpacas are about 90 % of the population. The Huacaya alpaca is thought to be originated in post-colonial Peru; this is due to their thicker fleece which makes them more suited to survive in the higher altitudes of the Andes after being pushed into the highlands of Peru when conquistadors arrived. Suri alpacas represent a smaller portion of the total alpaca population, around 10%, they are thought to have been more prevalent in pre-Columbian Peru since they could be kept at a lower altitude where a thicker fleece was not needed for extenuating weather conditions. Alpacas are social herd animals that live in family groups, consisting of a territorial alpha male and their young ones. Alpacas warn the herd about intruders by making sharp, noisy inhalations that sound like a high-pitched bray; the herd may attack smaller predators with their front feet, can spit and kick. Their aggression towards members of the canid family is exploited when alpacas are used as guard llamas for guarding sheep.
Alpacas can sometimes be aggressive, but they can be gentle and observant. For the most part, alpacas are quiet, but male alpacas are more energetic when they get involved in fighting with other a
The Boer goat is a breed of goat, developed in South Africa in the early 1900s for meat production. Their name is derived from the Afrikaans word boer. Boer goats are a popular breed for meat; the Boer goat was bred from the indigenous South African goats of the Namaqua and Fooku tribes, with some crossing of Indian and European bloodlines being possible. They were selected for meat rather than milk production. Boer goats adapt well to hot, dry semideserts. United States production is centered in west-central Texas in and around San Angelo and Menard; the original US breeding stock came from herds located in New Zealand. Only were they imported directly from Africa Boer goats have white bodies and distinctive brown heads; some Boer goats can be brown or white or paint, which means large spots of a different color are on their bodies. Like the Nubian goat, they possess pendulous ears, they are noted for being docile, fast-growing, having high fertility rates. Does are reported to have superior mothering skills as compared to other breeds.
Boer goats tend to gain weight at about the same rate as their sire, so a buck from a proven fast-growing bloodline will command the highest price, as its offspring will tend to be fast growers. The primary market for slaughter goats is a 22–36 kg kid; the kid of a proven fast-growing sire might weigh 36 kg at 90 days, while the kid of a poor-quality sire might weigh only 15 kg at 90 days. An average-quality buck will be less expensive to purchase, but it can undermine an operation's long-term profitability. A doe used to breed show-quality goats are very large. For commercial meat production, medium-sized does are preferred, as they produce the same number of kids, but require less feed to do so; as a general rule, the more kids born per the greater profit margins for the owner. Boer goats are polyestrous, they reach sexual maturity at five months of age. A typical breeding program is to produce three kid crops every two years, meaning the does are pregnant for five months, nurse their kids for three months, are rebred.
Multiple births are common, a 200% kid crop is achievable in managed herds. First-time does have one kid, but they may have more. After that, they have two kids every other breeding; the kids can be brown, white, or mixed. While purebred bucks are preferred for breeding purposes, crossbred does are used for kid production, with the resulting offspring being 7/8 or more Boer. Common crosses are Boer x Spanish goat, Boer x Angora goat, Boer x Kiko goat, Boer x Nubian goat, Boer x Sirohi, Boer x Osmanabadi, Boer x Jamnapari goat. An effort to crossbreed with the Malabari goat has been controversial. Percentage Boer goats are common in commercial meat herds, with those just starting out in the Boer goat business due to ease of acquisition and affordability. Over time, percentage animals can be bred up to American purebred status. An American purebred is a Boer goat of 15/16ths Boer blood for does and 31/32nds blood for Boer bucks. Bucks must be one generation of Boer breeding higher than does to achieve this status because they have the potential to spread their genetic pool much further than any single doe.
Although American purebreds can never be registered as Fullblood, many breeders still use a good American purebred buck with excellent results. Many producers still prefer purebred or fullblood bucks and does, intentional crossbreeding is far from universal. Note: The'F' designation is the used shorthand for indicating the percentage of pure blood resulting from crossbreeding of a Pureblood boer buck with does of other breeds: F1: 1/2 boer blood F2: 3/4 boer blood F3: 7/8 boer blood F4: 15/16 boer blood F5: 31/32 boer blood Although Boer goats raised for show purposes may seem to have little in common with pastured commercial goats, the difference is superficial, they are bred to be larger than normal goats, meet specific visual appearances, but these characteristics are valuable genes to add to the commercial herd. Boer goats were imported into the US and other countries for this reason, their value to ranchers lies in the improvement the addition of their unique genes can offer any breed of goats being raised for meat.
Few producers could afford to maintain a herd of useless animals. Show goats are bred to represent the most desirable characteristics of the Boer goat, their main purpose is to introduce these animals to the public, it is a method of recognizing the best of the best, although some superior goats are not shown preference. Bucks and does bred for show can be and are used for commercial breeding stock. To show, most Boer goats have to be registered with either the CMGA, ABGA, IBGA, or USBGA. Though Boer goats are bred to be shown, they can make good pets. First Boer Goat Studies Europe American Boer Goat Association United States Boer Goat Association International Boer Goat Association American Meat Goat Association Information on the Boer Goat from South Africa Information on the Boer
Beef cattle are cattle raised for meat production. The meat of mature or mature cattle is known as beef. In beef production there are three main stages: cow-calf operations and feedlot operations; the production cycle of the animals start at cow-calf operations. From here the calves are backgrounded for a feedlot. Animals grown for the feedlot are known as feeder cattle, the goal of these animals is fattening. Animals not grown for a feedlot are female and are known as replacement heifers. While the principal use of beef cattle is meat production, other uses include leather, beef by-products used in candy, cosmetics and inhalers. Besides breeding to meet the demand for beef production, owners use selective breeding to attain specific traits in their beef cattle. An example of a desired trait could be leaner resistance to illness. Breeds known as dual-purpose are used for beef production; these breeds have been selected for two purposes at once, such as both beef and dairy production, or both beef and draught.
Dual-purpose breeds include many of the Zebu breeds of India such as Ongole Cattle. There are multiple continental breeds; the original Simmental/Fleckvieh from Switzerland is a prime example. Not only are they a dual-purpose breed for beef and dairy, but in the past they were used for draught. However, throughout the generations, the breed has diverged into two groups through selective breeding. Most beef cattle are mated whereby a bull is released into a cowherd 55 days after the calving period, depending on the cows body condition score. If it was her first time calving, she will take longer to re-breed by at least 10 days. However, beef cattle can be bred through artificial insemination, depending on the cow and the size of the herd. Cattle are bred during the summer so that calving may occur the following spring. However, cattle breeding can occur at other times of year. Depending on the operation, calving may occur all year round. Owners can select the breeding time based on a number of factors, including reproductive performance, seasonal cattle pricing and handling facilities.
There are many factors. Some of the most important factors are disease prevention/spread. Buying a bull who hasn't been tested for common diseases is a risk, it would more than transmit to a whole herd. Purchasing genetics that will improve the original herd rather than remaining the same or decreasing; some breed for mothering abilities, some for size, some for meat properties, etc. Breeding Soundness Examination or BSE are essential to the quality of any bull, a general physical exam and inspection of both the genital organs and their productivity. Knowing more information about the animal will help make an educated decision. Cattle handlers are expected to maintain a low stress environment for their herds, involving constant safety, comfort and humane handling. According to the Canadian National Farm Animal Care Council, beef cattle must have access to shelter from extreme weather, safe handling and equipment, veterinary care and humane slaughter. If an animal is infected or suspected to have an illness, it is the responsibility of the owners to report it to a practicing veterinarian for either treatment or euthanasia.
Depending on a multitude of factors and disease can spread through the herd from animal to animal. Owners are expected to monitor their cattle's condition for early detection and treatment, as some cattle illnesses can threaten both cattle and human health as witnessed with Mad cow disease and Tuberculosis. On average, cattle will consume 1.4 to 4% of their body weight daily. There are a range of types of feed available for these animals; the standard text in the United States, Nutrient Requirements of Beef Cattle, has been through eight editions over at least seventy years. The 1996 seventh edition substituted the concept of metabolizeable protein for the sixth edition's crude protein. In the 20th century, Canadian practice followed the American guidance. In 1970, the Food and Drug Administration was regulating pharmaceutical supplements in beef cattle feed such as hormones and prophylactic antibiotics; some animals live on pasture their entire lives and therefore only experience fresh grass, these are cow-calf operations in more tropical climates.
Backgrounded calves and feedlot animals tend to have different diets that contain more grain than the pasture type. Grain is more expensive than pasture but the animals grow faster with the higher protein levels. Since cattle are herbivores and need roughage in their diet, hay and/or haylage are all viable feed options. Despite this 3/4th of the 32 pounds of feed cattle consume. Cattle weighing 1000 lbs. will drink an average of 41 L a day, 82 L in hot weather. They need a constant supply of good quality feed and potable water according to the 5 Freedoms of Animal Welfare. Most Beef cattle are finished in feedlots; the first feedlots were constructed in the early 1950s. Some of these feedlots grew so large they warranted a new designation, "Concentrated Animal Feeding Operation". Most American beef cattle spend the last half of their lives in a CAFO. A steer that weighs 1,000 lb when alive makes a carcass weighing 615 lb, once the blood, feet, skin and guts are removed; the carcass is th
A draft horse, draught horse or dray horse, less called a carthorse, work horse or heavy horse, is a large horse bred to be a working animal doing hard tasks such as plowing and other farm labor. There are a number of breeds, with varying characteristics, but all share common traits of strength, a docile temperament which made them indispensable to generations of pre-industrial farmers. Draft horses and draft crossbreds are versatile breeds used today for a multitude of purposes, including farming, draft horse showing, logging and other uses, they are commonly used for crossbreeding to light riding breeds such as the Thoroughbred, for the purpose of creating sport horses of warmblood type. While most draft horses are used for driving, they can be ridden and some of the lighter draft breeds are capable performers under saddle. Draft horses are recognizable by their tall stature and muscular build. In general, they tend to have a more upright shoulder, producing more upright movement and conformation, well-suited for pulling.
They tend to have broad, short backs with powerful hindquarters, again best suited for the purpose of pulling. Additionally, the draft breeds have heavy bone, a good deal of feathering on their lower legs. Many have a straight profile or "Roman nose". Draft breeds range from 16 to 19 hands high and from 1,400 to 2,000 lb. Draft horses crossbred on light riding horses adds height and weight to the ensuing offspring, may increase the power and "scope" of the animal's movement; the largest horse in recorded history was a Shire named Sampson, born in 1846. He stood 21.2 hands high, his peak weight was estimated at 1,524 kilograms. At over 19 hands, a Shire gelding named Goliath was the Guinness Book of World Records record holder for the world's tallest horse until his death in 2001. Humans needed them to perform a variety of duties. One type of horse-powered work was the hauling of heavy loads, plowing fields, other tasks that required pulling ability. A heavy, patient, well-muscled animal was desired for this work.
Conversely, a light, more energetic horse was needed for rapid transport. Thus, to the extent possible, a certain amount of selective breeding was used to develop different types of horse for different types of work, it is a common misunderstanding that the Destrier that carried the armoured knight of the Middle Ages had the size and conformation of a modern draft horse, some of these Medieval war horses may have provided some bloodlines for some of the modern draft breeds. The reality was that the high-spirited, quick-moving Destrier was closer to the size and temperament of a modern Andalusian or Friesian. There were working farm horses of more phlegmatic temperaments used for pulling military wagons or performing ordinary farm work which provided bloodlines of the modern draft horse. Records indicate that medieval drafts were not as large as those today. Of the modern draft breeds, the Percheron has the closest ties to the medieval war horse. By the 19th century, horses weighing more than 1,600 pounds that moved at a quick pace were in demand.
Tall stature, muscular backs, powerful hindquarters made the draft horse a source of “horsepower” for farming, hauling freight and moving passengers. The railroads increased demand for working horses, as a growing economy still needed transport over the'last mile' between the goods yard or station and the final customer. In the 20th century, draft horses were used for practical work, including over half a million used during World War I to support the military effort, until motor vehicles became an affordable and reliable substitute. In the late 19th century and early 20th century, thousands of draft horses were imported from Western Europe into the United States. Percherons came from Belgians from Belgium, Shires from England, Clydesdales from Scotland. Many American draft registries were founded in the late 19th century; the Percheron, with 40,000 broodmares registered as of 1915, was America's most numerous draft breed at the turn of the 20th century. A breed developed in the U. S. was the American Cream Draft.
Beginning in the late 19th century, with increasing mechanization in the 20th century following World War I in the US and after World War II in Europe, the popularity of the internal combustion engine, the tractor, reduced the need for the draft horse. Many were sold to slaughter for horsemeat and a number of breeds went into significant decline. Today draft horses are most seen at shows, pulling competition and entered in competitions called "heavy horse" trials, or as exhibition animals pulling large wagons. However, they are still seen on some smaller farms in the Europe, they are popular with groups such as Amish and Mennonite farmers, as well as those individuals who wish to farm with a renewable source of power. They are sometimes used during forestry management to remove logs from dense woodland where there is insufficient space for mechanized techniques. Crossbred draft horses played a significant role in the development of a number of warmblood breeds, popular today in international FEI competition up to the Olympic Equestrian level.
Small areas still exist where draft horses are used as transportation, d
The domestic goat or goat is a subspecies of C. aegagrus domesticated from the wild goat of Southwest Asia and Eastern Europe. The goat is a member of the animal family Bovidae and the goat—antelope subfamily Caprinae, meaning it is related to the sheep. There are over 300 distinct breeds of goat. Goats are one of the oldest domesticated species of animal, have been used for milk, meat and skins across much of the world. Milk from goats is turned into goat cheese. Female goats are referred to as does or nannies, intact males are called bucks or billies and juvenile goats of both sexes are called kids. Castrated males are called wethers. While the words hircine and caprine both refer to anything having a goat-like quality, hircine is used most to emphasize the distinct smell of domestic goats. In 2011, there were more than 924 million goats living in the world, according to the UN Food and Agriculture Organization; the Modern English word goat comes from Old English gāt "she-goat, goat in general", which in turn derives from Proto-Germanic *gaitaz from Proto-Indo-European *ǵʰaidos meaning "young goat", itself from a root meaning "jump".
To refer to the male, Old English used bucca until ousted by hegote, hegoote in the late 12th century. Nanny goat originated in the 18th billy goat in the 19th. Goats are among the earliest animals domesticated by humans; the most recent genetic analysis confirms the archaeological evidence that the wild Bezoar ibex of the Zagros Mountains is the original ancestor of all domestic goats today. Neolithic farmers began to herd wild goats for easy access to milk and meat, as well as to their dung, used as fuel, their bones and sinew for clothing and tools; the earliest remnants of domesticated goats dating 10,000 years before present are found in Ganj Dareh in Iran. Goat remains have been found at archaeological sites in Jericho, Choga Mami, Çayönü, dating the domestication of goats in Western Asia at between 8000 and 9000 years ago. Studies of DNA evidence suggests 10,000 years BP as the domestication date. Goat hide has been used for water and wine bottles in both traveling and transporting wine for sale.
It has been used to produce parchment. Each recognized breed of goat has specific weight ranges, which vary from over 140 kg for bucks of larger breeds such as the Boer, to 20 to 27 kg for smaller goat does. Within each breed, different strains or bloodlines may have different recognized sizes. At the bottom of the size range are miniature breeds such as the African Pygmy, which stand 41 to 58 cm at the shoulder as adults. Most goats have two horns, of various shapes and sizes depending on the breed. There have been incidents of polycerate goats, although this is a genetic rarity thought to be inherited. Unlike cattle, goats have not been bred to be reliably polled, as the genes determining sex and those determining horns are linked. Breeding together two genetically polled goats results in a high number of intersex individuals among the offspring, which are sterile, their horns are made of living bone surrounded by keratin and other proteins, are used for defense and territoriality. Goats are ruminants.
They have a four-chambered stomach consisting of the rumen, the reticulum, the omasum, the abomasum. As with other mammal ruminants, they are even-toed ungulates; the females have an udder consisting in contrast to cattle, which have four teats. An exception to this is the Boer goat. Goats have slit-shaped pupils; because goats' irises are pale, their contrasting pupils are much more noticeable than in animals such as cattle, most horses and many sheep, whose horizontal pupils blend into a dark iris and sclera. Both male and female goats have beards, many types of goat may have wattles, one dangling from each side of the neck. Goats expressing the tan pattern have coats pigmented with phaeomelanin; the allele which codes for this pattern is located at the agouti locus of the goat genome. It is dominant to all other alleles at this locus. There are multiple modifier genes which control how much tan pigment is expressed, so a tan-patterned goat can have a coat ranging from pure white to deep red. Goats reach puberty depending on breed and nutritional status.
Many breeders prefer to postpone breeding. However, this separation is possible in extensively managed, open-range herds. In temperate climates and among the Swiss breeds, the breeding season commences as the day length shortens, ends in early spring or before. In equatorial regions, goats are able to breed at any time of the year. Successful breeding in these regions depends more on available forage than on day length. Does of any breed or region come into estrus every 21 days for two to 48 hours. A doe in heat flags her tail stays near the buck if one is present, becomes more vocal, may show a decrease in appetite and milk production for the duration of the heat. Bucks of Swiss and northern breeds come into rut in the fall. Bucks of equatorial breeds may show seasonal reduced fertility