A summit is a point on a surface, higher in elevation than all points adjacent to it. The topographic terms acme, apex and zenith are synonymous; the term top is used only for a mountain peak, located at some distance from the nearest point of higher elevation. For example, a big massive rock next to the main summit of a mountain is not considered a summit. Summits near a higher peak, with some prominence or isolation, but not reaching a certain cutoff value for the quantities, are considered subsummits of the higher peak, are considered part of the same mountain. A pyramidal peak is an exaggerated form produced by ice erosion of a mountain top. Summit may refer to the highest point along a line, trail, or route; the highest summit in the world is Everest with height of 8844.43 m above sea level. The first official ascent was made by Sir Edmund Hillary, they reached the mountain`s peak in 1953. Whether a highest point is classified as a summit, a sub peak or a separate mountain is subjective; the UIAA definition of a peak is.
Otherwise, it's a subpeak. In many parts of the western United States, the term summit refers to the highest point along a road, highway, or railroad. For example, the highest point along Interstate 80 in California is referred to as Donner Summit and the highest point on Interstate 5 is Siskiyou Mountain Summit. A summit climbing differs from the common mountaineering. Summit expedition requires: 1+ year of training, a good physical shape, a special gear. Although a huge part of climber’s stuff can be left and taken at the base camps or given to porters, there is a long list of personal equipment. In addition to common mountaineers’ gear, Summit climbers need to take Diamox and bottles of oxygen. There are special requirements for crampons, ice axe, rappel device, etc. Geoid Hill – Landform that extends above the surrounding terrain Nadir Summit accordance Peak finder Summit Climbing Gear List
Boulder County, Colorado
Boulder County is one of the 64 counties of the U. S. state of Colorado of the United States. As of the 2010 census, the population was 294,567; the most populous municipality in the county and the county seat is Boulder. Boulder County comprises the Boulder, CO Metropolitan Statistical Area, included in the Denver-Aurora, CO Combined Statistical Area. Boulder County was one of the original 17 counties created by the Territory of Colorado on November 1, 1861; the county was named for Boulder City and Boulder Creek, so named because of the abundance of boulders in the area. Boulder County retains the same borders as in 1861, although a 27.5 square miles of its southeastern corner and its approximate population of 40,000 became part of the City and County of Broomfield in 2001. According to the U. S. Census Bureau, the county has a total area of 740 square miles, of which 726 square miles is land and 14 square miles is water. Larimer County, Colorado – north Weld County, Colorado – east City and County of Broomfield, Colorado – southeast Jefferson County, Colorado – south Gilpin County, Colorado – south Grand County, Colorado – west Arapaho National Forest Roosevelt National Forest Indian Peaks Wilderness James Peak WildernessRocky Mountain National Park is in Boulder County, Larimer County, Grand County.
Longs Peak, the park's highest summit at 4,345 meters elevation, is located in Boulder County. Eldorado Canyon State Park Continental Divide National Scenic Trail Peak to Peak Scenic and Historic Byway Colorado Chautauqua National Historic District As of the census of 2000, there were 271,651 people, 114,680 households, 68,808 families residing in the county; the population density was 392 people per square mile. There were 119,900 housing units at an average density of 162 per square mile; the racial makeup of the county was 88.54% White, 0.88% Black or African American, 0.61% Native American, 3.06% Asian, 0.06% Pacific Islander, 4.67% from other races, 2.18% from two or more races. 10.46% of the population were Hispanic or Latino of any race. There were 114,680 households out of which 30.70% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 48.90% were married couples living together, 7.70% had a female householder with no husband present, 40.00% were non-families. 26.30% of all households were made up of individuals and 5.50% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older.
The average household size was 2.47 and the average family size was 3.03. In the county, the population was spread out with 22.90% under the age of 18, 13.40% from 18 to 24, 33.60% from 25 to 44, 22.30% from 45 to 64, 7.80% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 33 years. For every 100 females, there were 102.20 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 101.70 males. In 2014, the median income for a household in the county was $69,407, the median income for a family was $94,938. Males had a median income of $65,489 versus $48,140 for females. About 7.0% of families and 14.6% of the population were below the poverty line, including 14.6% of those under age 18 and 5.9% of those age 65 or over. In 2017 Bloomberg ranked the Boulder metropolitan area as the top "brain" area in the US. Boulder County is divided into three districts each represented by a commissioner elected county-wide; the three commissioners comprise the county Board of Commissioners and represent the county as a whole.
Each commissioner must reside in their respective district and may be elected to a maximum of two four-year terms. The Board of County Commissioners are full-time public servants and approve the budget for the entire County government; the Board oversees the management of 10 County departments and the daily operations of the county, work, done by a county manager or a chief administrative officer in some counties. Boulder County has seven other county-wide elected officials, including the District Attorney, who represents the 20th Judicial District; as of June 2013, Boulder County is regarded as one of the most liberal counties in Colorado. Republicans took less than 28% of the vote in Boulder County in both 2008 and 2012 and took only 22% in 2016. In 2000, Green Party presidential candidate Ralph Nader took 11.82% of the vote in Boulder County, more than twice the 5.25% he took statewide in Colorado, more than four times his 2.73% nationwide vote share. Boulder County has demonstrated its liberal leanings in referenda on social issues, such as in 2006, when nearly 2/3 of Boulder County voters voted to reject Amendment 43, a constitutional amendment defining marriage as between one man and one woman.
Although the amendment passed statewide with 55% of the vote, only 33% of Boulder County supported it. In 2012, over 66% of Boulder County voted in favor of Amendment 64, legalizing marijuana in the state of Colorado; the 20th Judicial District of Colorado, the state trial court of general jurisdiction, serves and is coextensive with Boulder County. As of 2009 the 20th Judicial Circuit has eight District Court judges; the Boulder County Court, the state trial court of limited jurisdiction, consists of five judges and six magistrates. Boulder County has two combined courthouses: The Boulder County Justice Center is located in the City of Boulder and is headquarters to the 20th Judicial District of Colorado; the office of the district attorney is here, as is the Juvenile Assessment Center, the county's combined assessment and detention facility. The Longmont Courthouse in the City of Longmont acts as an extension of the County Court and the District Attorney's Office. Boulder Lafayette Longmont Louisville Erie Jamestown Lyons Nederland Superior Town of Ward Caribou Hygiene Jack
Indian Peaks Wilderness
The Indian Peaks Wilderness is a wilderness area in north central Colorado managed jointly by the United States Forest Service and the National Park Service within the Arapaho and Roosevelt National Forests and small parts of the southern section of Rocky Mountain National Park. It borders the James Peak Wilderness to the south, straddles the Continental Divide; the area receives high visitation due to its proximity to the Denver metropolitan area. The area encompasses a stretch of the Front Range, it includes 7 peaks over 13,000 feet in elevation. The highest point is North Arapaho Peak at 13,502 feet; the peaks are all within 100 feet of elevation of each other. A portion of the area, encompassing the headwaters of North Boulder Creek, is closed to the public as it is the City of Boulder watershed. Many of the peaks inside the wilderness area are named after western Native American tribes; the naming scheme was the idea of botany teacher Ellsworth Bethel. By 1914, few of the peaks between Longs Peak and the Arapaho Peaks had names.
In the spring of that year Bethel, inspired by the established name of the Arapaho Peaks, settled on 11 tribal names for various summits along the Divide. The United States Board on Geographic Names kept 6 of his names: Apache Peak, Arikaree Peak, Kiowa Peak, Navajo Peak, Ogalalla Peak and Pawnee Peak, he added Paiute Peak, as his use of the Ute band was denied due to too many other Colorado features sharing that name. Other names, including Shoshoni Peak, Hiamovi Mountain, Satanta Peak and Watanga Mountain were added later; the Indian Peaks were visited by Native Americans for several thousand years. The Arapaho tribe lived and hunted in the area during the summer months, though little evidence remains of their activities. Mining took place in the 1870s near the Arapaho Peaks. A road was built to Arapaho Pass but never completed; the mining turned up little more than low-grade ore, the mines were abandoned. Remnants of mining activity is still found along the Arapaho Pass trail. Arapaho Glacier is one of a few glaciers still left within the Indian Peaks Wilderness, being a part of Boulder's watershed, is off limits to hiking/camping.
Several glaciers however, are still hikable and there are a number of routes to take. One set of glaciers, the Isabelle and Fair glaciers have a connecting trail that will send you over the Continental Divide. Isabelle & Fair glaciers were discovered by Mr. Fair in 1904 and were given their names by Prof. Junius Henderson of the University, who made a study of the glaciers in 1910 at Mr. Fair's request. Mr. Fair believed that water sometime would be run through a tunnel from the Western Slope into Four Mile canyon, that Boulder and the mountain region would continue to grow in popularity, that some day Boulder will have to build a storage dam lower down that those in the Arapahoe glacier region and that a road to the Arapahoe or some other glacier will be constructed and become the most popular drive in the state; the Denver and Interurban Company, which operated an electric line between Boulder and Denver for many years adopted the name "Glacier Route" at Mr. Fair's suggestion; the figure 8 trails in the Arapahoe and Buchanan pass areas were made on the suggestion of Mr. Fair.
A plane crash from the 1940s exists on Navajo Peak, not far from the summit. The area of the Indian Peaks was included in Enos Mills' original proposed boundaries for Rocky Mountain National Park, they were removed from the proposal after compromising with local and mining interests. Park superintendents tried to annex the Indian Peaks over the years, but the area would not receive protected status until 1978 when Congress designated the Indian Peaks Wilderness Area. Most visitors hike along the many trails, visiting high passes and waterfalls en route; the area contains many notable mountaineering routes. The busiest area is Brainard Lake, which hosts a campground. Fishing is found in many of the lakes and streams within the wilderness. In the winter and cross country skiing are popular. Mechanized recreation, such as mountain biking and the use of motorized vehicles, is prohibited in the Indian Peaks Wilderness. Buchholtz, Curt W.. Rocky Mountain National Park: A History. Boulder, CO: University of Colorado Press.
ISBN 0870811460. Arps, Louisa Ward. High Country Names. Rocky Mountain Nature Association. ISBN 1555661335
North America is a continent within the Northern Hemisphere and all within the Western Hemisphere. It is bordered to the north by the Arctic Ocean, to the east by the Atlantic Ocean, to the west and south by the Pacific Ocean, to the southeast by South America and the Caribbean Sea. North America covers an area of about 24,709,000 square kilometers, about 16.5% of the earth's land area and about 4.8% of its total surface. North America is the third largest continent by area, following Asia and Africa, the fourth by population after Asia and Europe. In 2013, its population was estimated at nearly 579 million people in 23 independent states, or about 7.5% of the world's population, if nearby islands are included. North America was reached by its first human populations during the last glacial period, via crossing the Bering land bridge 40,000 to 17,000 years ago; the so-called Paleo-Indian period is taken to have lasted until about 10,000 years ago. The Classic stage spans the 6th to 13th centuries.
The Pre-Columbian era ended in 1492, the transatlantic migrations—the arrival of European settlers during the Age of Discovery and the Early Modern period. Present-day cultural and ethnic patterns reflect interactions between European colonists, indigenous peoples, African slaves and their descendants. Owing to the European colonization of the Americas, most North Americans speak English, Spanish or French, their culture reflects Western traditions; the Americas are accepted as having been named after the Italian explorer Amerigo Vespucci by the German cartographers Martin Waldseemüller and Matthias Ringmann. Vespucci, who explored South America between 1497 and 1502, was the first European to suggest that the Americas were not the East Indies, but a different landmass unknown by Europeans. In 1507, Waldseemüller produced a world map, in which he placed the word "America" on the continent of South America, in the middle of what is today Brazil, he explained the rationale for the name in the accompanying book Cosmographiae Introductio:... ab Americo inventore... quasi Americi terram sive Americam.
For Waldseemüller, no one should object to the naming of the land after its discoverer. He used the Latinized version of Vespucci's name, but in its feminine form "America", following the examples of "Europa", "Asia" and "Africa". Other mapmakers extended the name America to the northern continent, In 1538, Gerard Mercator used America on his map of the world for all the Western Hemisphere; some argue that because the convention is to use the surname for naming discoveries, the derivation from "Amerigo Vespucci" could be put in question. In 1874, Thomas Belt proposed a derivation from the Amerrique mountains of Central America. Marcou corresponded with Augustus Le Plongeon, who wrote: "The name AMERICA or AMERRIQUE in the Mayan language means, a country of perpetually strong wind, or the Land of the Wind, and... the can mean... a spirit that breathes, life itself." The United Nations formally recognizes "North America" as comprising three areas: Northern America, Central America, The Caribbean.
This has been formally defined by the UN Statistics Division. The term North America maintains various definitions in accordance with context. In Canadian English, North America refers to the land mass as a whole consisting of Mexico, the United States, Canada, although it is ambiguous which other countries are included, is defined by context. In the United States of America, usage of the term may refer only to Canada and the US, sometimes includes Greenland and Mexico, as well as offshore islands. In France, Portugal, Romania and the countries of Latin America, the cognates of North America designate a subcontinent of the Americas comprising Canada, the United States, Mexico, Greenland, Saint Pierre et Miquelon, Bermuda. North America has been referred to by other names. Spanish North America was referred to as Northern America, this was the first official name given to Mexico. Geographically the North American continent has many subregions; these include cultural and geographic regions. Economic regions included those formed by trade blocs, such as the North American Trade Agreement bloc and Central American Trade Agreement.
Linguistically and culturally, the continent could be divided into Latin America. Anglo-America includes most of Northern America and Caribbean islands with English-speaking populations; the southern North American continent is composed of two regions. These are the Caribbean; the north of the continent maintains recognized regions as well. In contrast to the common definition of "North America", which encompasses the whole continent, the term "North America" is sometimes used to refer only to Mexico, the United States, Greenland; the term Northern America refers to the northern-most countries and territories of North America: the United States, Bermuda, St. Pierre and Miquelon and Greenland. Although the term does not refer to a unifie
Aspen Mountain (Colorado)
Aspen Mountain is a mountain summit in the Elk Mountains range of the Rocky Mountains of North America. The 10,705-foot peak is located in White River National Forest, 1.4 miles south-southeast of downtown Aspen in Pitkin County, United States. The north face of the mountain is the location of the Aspen Mountain ski area, one of four adjacent ski areas operated collectively as Aspen/Snowmass. Aspen Mountain is not high, relative to other mountains in Colorado, but nonetheless looms over the town of Aspen because of the proximity of the town, founded as a silver mining camp in 1879 during the Colorado Silver Boom; the mountain flank was the site of intense mining activity in the late 1880s and early 1890s, with many remains of mining activity below and on the surface of the mountain. In the middle 20th century it became the site of recreational downhill skiing. In 1946, the newly formed Aspen Skiing Company, founded by Walter Paepcke, built the first chairlift to the top of the mountain and opened the ski area that bears the name of the mountain.
Nowadays, people use a modern gondola, to get to the top of the mountain. Aspen Mountain is alternatively called Ajax by the locals. List of Colorado mountain ranges List of Colorado mountain summits List of Colorado fourteeners List of Colorado 4000 meter prominent summits List of the most prominent summits of Colorado List of Colorado county high points
The Rocky Mountains known as the Rockies, are a major mountain range in western North America. The Rocky Mountains stretch more than 4,800 kilometers from the northernmost part of British Columbia, in western Canada, to New Mexico in the Southwestern United States. Located within the North American Cordillera, the Rockies are somewhat distinct from the Pacific Coast Ranges, Cascade Range, the Sierra Nevada, which all lie farther to the west; the Rocky Mountains formed 80 million to 55 million years ago during the Laramide orogeny, in which a number of plates began sliding underneath the North American plate. The angle of subduction was shallow, resulting in a broad belt of mountains running down western North America. Since further tectonic activity and erosion by glaciers have sculpted the Rockies into dramatic peaks and valleys. At the end of the last ice age, humans began inhabiting the mountain range. After Europeans, such as Sir Alexander Mackenzie, Americans, such as the Lewis and Clark expedition, began exploring the range and furs drove the initial economic exploitation of the mountains, although the range itself never experienced dense population.
Public parks and forest lands protect much of the mountain range, they are popular tourist destinations for hiking, mountaineering, hunting, mountain biking and snowboarding. The name of the mountains is a translation of an Amerindian name, related to Algonquian; the first mention of their present name by a European was in the journal of Jacques Legardeur de Saint-Pierre in 1752, where they were called "Montagnes de Roche". The Rocky Mountains are defined as stretching from the Liard River in British Columbia south to the Rio Grande in New Mexico; the Rockies vary in width from 110 to 480 kilometres. The Rocky Mountains are notable for containing the highest peaks in central North America; the range's highest peak is Mount Elbert located in Colorado at 4,401 metres above sea level. Mount Robson in British Columbia, at 3,954 metres, is the highest peak in the Canadian Rockies; the eastern edge of the Rockies rises above the Interior Plains of central North America, including the Sangre de Cristo Mountains of New Mexico and Colorado, the Front Range of Colorado, the Wind River Range and Big Horn Mountains of Wyoming, the Absaroka-Beartooth ranges and Rocky Mountain Front of Montana and the Clark Range of Alberta.
The western edge of the Rockies includes ranges such as the Wasatch near Salt Lake City and the Bitterroots along the Idaho-Montana border. The Great Basin and Columbia River Plateau separate these subranges from distinct ranges further to the west. In Canada, the western edge of the Rockies is formed by the huge Rocky Mountain Trench, which runs the length of British Columbia from its beginnings in the middle Flathead River valley in western Montana to the south bank of the Liard River. Geographers define three main groups of the Canadian Rockies: the Continental Ranges, Hart Ranges, Muskwa Ranges; the Rockies do not extend into central British Columbia. Other mountain ranges continue beyond the Liard River, including the Selwyn Mountains in Yukon, the Brooks Range in Alaska, but those are not part of the Rockies, though they are part of the American Cordillera; the Continental Divide of the Americas is located in the Rocky Mountains and designates the line at which waters flow either to the Atlantic or Pacific Oceans.
Triple Divide Peak in Glacier National Park is so named because water falling on the mountain reaches not only the Atlantic and Pacific but Hudson Bay as well. Farther north in Alberta, the Athabasca and other rivers feed the basin of the Mackenzie River, which has its outlet on the Beaufort Sea of the Arctic Ocean. Human population is not dense in the Rocky Mountains, with an average of four people per square kilometer and few cities with over 50,000 people. However, the human population grew in the Rocky Mountain states between 1950 and 1990; the forty-year statewide increases in population range from 35% in Montana to about 150% in Utah and Colorado. The populations of several mountain towns and communities have doubled in the last forty years. Jackson, increased 260%, from 1,244 to 4,472 residents, in forty years; the rocks in the Rocky Mountains were formed. The oldest rock is Precambrian metamorphic rock. There is Precambrian sedimentary argillite, dating back to 1.7 billion years ago. During the Paleozoic, western North America lay underneath a shallow sea, which deposited many kilometers of limestone and dolomite.
In the southern Rocky Mountains, near present-day Colorado, these ancestral rocks were disturbed by mountain building 300 Ma, during the Pennsylvanian. This mountain-building produced the Ancestral Rocky Mountains, they consisted of Precambrian metamorphic rock forced upward through layers of the limestone laid down in the shallow sea. The mountains eroded throughout the late Paleozoic and early Mesozoic, leaving extensive deposits of sedimentary rock. Terranes began colliding with the western edge of North America in the Mississippian, causing the Antler orogeny. For 270 million years, the focus of the effects of plate collisions were near the edge of the North American plate boundary, far to the west of the Rocky Mountain region, it was. The current Rocky Mountains arose in the Laramide orogeny from between 55 Ma. For the Canadi
The Maroon Bells are two peaks in the Elk Mountains, Maroon Peak and North Maroon Peak, separated by about half a kilometer. The mountains are on the border between Pitkin County and Gunnison County, United States, about 12 miles southwest of Aspen. Both peaks are fourteeners. Maroon Peak, at 14,163 feet, is the 27th highest peak in Colorado. North Maroon Peak, at 14,019 feet, is the 50th highest; the view of the Maroon Bells to the southwest from the Maroon Creek valley is photographed. The peaks are located in the Maroon Bells–Snowmass Wilderness of White River National Forest. Maroon Bells-Snowmass Wilderness was one of five areas in Colorado designated as wilderness in the original Wilderness Act of 1964; the Wilderness area surrounds the popular Maroon Bells Scenic Area, a major access point for Wilderness travel. Unlike other mountains in the Rockies that are composed of granite and limestone, the Bells are composed of metamorphic sedimentary mudstone that has hardened into rock over millions of years.
Mudstone is weak and fractures giving rise to dangerously loose rock along any route. A US Forest Service sign on the access trail warns would-be climbers of "downsloping, loose and unstable" rock that "kills without warning"; the mudstone is responsible for the Bells' distinctive maroon color. The Bells got their "deadly" reputation in 1965. Maroon Lake elevation 9,580 ft occupies a basin, sculpted by Ice-Age glaciers and dammed by a landslide and rockfall debris from the steep slopes above the valley floor; the Maroon Bells are an popular destination for the day and overnight visitors. Due to the volume of people, a bus service runs everyday from 8am-5pm from mid-June through the first weekend in October. During these times, with just a few exceptions, personal vehicle access is limited to those with handicap placards or disability license plates; the bus runs from Aspen Highlands to Maroon Lake every 20 minutes. The Maroon Bells scenic area features several hiking trails ranging from short hikes near Maroon Lake to longer hikes into the Maroon-Snowmass Wilderness.
Not only is the use of trails and other outdoor recreational space growing, the overall population of Colorado is growing as well. It is expected. By 2050,the population of Colorado is expected to increase from 5.5 million to 8.5 million,and with this population growth recreational tourism will continue to grow. In 2017, 1 in 4 of Colorado’s 86 million visitors spent most of their trip in mountain towns and resorts; this rapid growth poses challenges for Forest Services to properly maintain natural areas, if changes are not made to how the recreational space is utilized, wilderness areas like the Maroon Bells–Snowmass Wilderness trails will feel the impacts of human traffic. Because the Maroon Bells area receives such high levels of visitor use, the USFS has established a long-term plan to protect and preserve the scenic area and larger wilderness areas. Solutions include the required use of bear canisters for backcountry campers, management of day and overnight use, leashed dog education and ticketing, reduction of heavy horse use in high use areas, prohibiting overnight camping and excessive day use at particular sites.
The US Forest Service has come up with a paid permit plan to aid preservation efforts. The permit system was created to allow visitors to stay overnight while mitigating environmental damage and preserving the visited area. A permit is required year-round, limits campers to stay in the Conundrum Creek Valley area from Silver Dollar Pond to Triangle Pass. Campsite limits range depending on the campsite location; the USFS limits the number of permits to 2 permits per person per calendar year and the maximum stay from June 1- September 1 is 3 nights. The Conundrum Hot Springs alone can attract up to 300 people a night. Specific environmental impacts can occur due to the high number of visitors the Maroon Bells experiences each year. See below for more information; the Maroon Bells Recreation area is surrounded by Maroon Creek, which feeds into Crater Lake and Maroon Lake. These natural freshwater ecosystems fill from snowmelt from the surrounding peaks and precipitation, are major sources of water for the city of Aspen,CO.
According to the study Environmental Impacts of Tourism on Lakes, water pollution can occur through indirect and direct methods. Direct pollution to these natural bodies of water occurs when visitors choose to wade or throw items into these bodies of water, disrupting the fragile biodiversity. An increase in human-traffic,such as the increase in the number of visitors who drive up Maroon Creek Road, is an example of indirect pollution; this constant vehicular traffic releases pollutants such as nitrogen and sulfur dioxide into the water and air. U. S. Forest Service officials were concerned about the high nitrogen compound levels in the waters at the Maroon Bells in 2003. Officials mentioned that the increase in population and recreation in Colorado as well as an increase in the number of vehicles could be a cause of the elevated nitrogen compound levels, as these sources emit pollutants; when precipitation forms over peaks like the Maroon Bells, these pollutants fall back to the Earth’s surface and can travel into the river and lakes negatively impacting fish and plants due to high levels of nitrogen.
The U. S. Environmental Protection Agency further supports the relationship bet