New South Wales Legislative Council
The New South Wales Legislative Council referred to as the upper house, is one of the two chambers of the parliament of the Australian state of New South Wales. The other is the Legislative Assembly. Both sit at Parliament House in Sydney, it is normal for legislation to be first deliberated on and passed by the Legislative Assembly before being considered by the Legislative Council, which acts in the main as a house of review. The Legislative Council has 42 members, elected by proportional representation in which the whole state is a single electorate. Members serve eight-year terms, which are staggered, with half the Council being elected every four years coinciding with elections to the Legislative Assembly; the parliament of New South Wales is Australia's oldest legislature. It had its beginnings when New South Wales was a British colony under the control of the Governor and was first established in 1823 by the New South Wales Act. A small, 5-member appointed Legislative Council began meeting on 24 August 1824 to advise the Governor on legislative matters.
It grew to seven members in 1825, between ten and fifteen in 1829. Under the Constitution Act 1843, the Legislative Council was expanded to 36 members, of which 12 were appointed by the Governor in the name of the Crown, the remainder elected from among eligible landholders. In 1851 the Council was enlarged to 54 members with 36 of its members elected by adult males who met certain property requirements and 18 appointed members. In 1856, under a new Constitution, the Parliament became bicameral with a elected Legislative Assembly and a appointed Legislative Council with a Government taking over most of the legislative powers of the Governor; the right to vote was extended to all adult males in 1858. On 22 May 1856, the newly constituted New South Wales Parliament sat for the first time. With the new 54-member Legislative Assembly taking over the council chamber, a second meeting chamber for the 21-member upper house had to be added to the Parliament building in Macquarie Street. In 1901, New South Wales became a sovereign state of the Commonwealth of Australia and many government functions were transferred to the new Commonwealth government.
In 1902, women gained the right to vote and the current Constitution of New South Wales was adopted, in 1918, reforms permitted women to be members of parliament. In 1925, 1926 and 1929, Premier Jack Lang made attempts to abolish the Legislative Council, following the example of the Queensland Legislative Council in 1922, but all were unsuccessful; the debate did, result in another round of reforms, in 1933, the law was changed so that a quarter of the Legislative Council was elected every three years by members of the Legislative Assembly and the Legislative Council, rather than being appointed by the Governor. In 1962 Indigenous Australians gained the right to vote in all state elections. In 1978, the Council became a directly elected body in a program of electoral reform introduced by the Wran Labor government; the number of members was reduced to 45, although transitional arrangements meant that there were 43 members from 1978 to 1981, 44 from 1981 to 1984. Further reform in 1991 by the Greiner Liberal-National government saw the size of the Legislative Council cut to 42 members, with half being elected every 4 years.
In 1991, the Legislative Assembly reduced from 109 to 99 Members and to 93 members in 1999. As with the federal parliament and other Australian states and territories, voting in the election to select members for the Council is compulsory for all New South Wales citizens over the age of 18; as the result of a 1995 referendum, every four years half the seats in the Council come up for election on the fourth Saturday in March, barring exceptional circumstances. The Queen of Australia has a throne in the Legislative Council, Queen Elizabeth II has opened the New South Wales Parliament on two occasions, on 4 February 1954, as part of her first visit to Australia, the first occasion in which the monarch of Australia had opened a session of any Australian parliament; the other occasion was on 20 February 1992, during her visit to Sydney to celebrate the sesquicentenary of the incorporation of the City of Sydney, on which occasion she stated: From 1846 to 1856 the title of the presiding officer was Speaker of the Legislative Council, after that date it has been President of the Legislative Council.
The Legislative Council chamber is a prefabricated cast-iron building, intended as an "iron store and dwelling with ornamental front", manufactured in Scotland and shipped to Victoria. In 1856, when plans for a new chamber for the Legislative Council were not ready in time, this building was purchased and shipped to Sydney, where it was erected as an extension to Parliament House; the Legislative Council chamber is furnished in red, which follows the British tradition for the upper house. Proportional representation, with the whole state as a single electorate, means that the quota for election is small; this guarantees the representation of minor parties in the Legislative Council, including micro-parties that might attract less than 2% of the primary vote but are elected through preferences. In the 1999 elections, a record number of parties contested seats in the Council, resulting in an unwieldy ballot paper, a complex exchange of preferences between the numerous parties running candidates.
As a result, party registration requirements have since been made more restrictive, the replacement of party preference arrangements with optional preferential voting. This re
History of Barbados
Barbados was inhabited by its indigenous peoples - the Arawaks and Caribs - at the time of European colonization of the Americas in the 16th century. The island was an English and British colony from 1625 until 1966. Since 1966, it has been a constitutional monarchy and parliamentary democracy, modelled on the Westminster system, with Elizabeth II, Queen of Barbados, as head of state; some evidence suggests that Barbados may have been settled in the second millennium BC, but this is limited to fragments of conch lip adzes found in association with shells that have been radiocarbon-dated to about 1630 BC. Documented Amerindian settlement dates to between about 350 and 650 AD; the arrivals were a group known as the Saladoid-Barrancoid from mainland South America. A second wave of settlers appeared around the year 800 and a third in the mid-13th century; this last group came to rule over the others. The Portuguese were the first Europeans to discover the island. Portuguese navigator Pedro. Frequent slave-raiding missions by the Spanish Empire in the early 16th century led to a massive decline in the Amerindian population, so that by 1541 a Spanish writer claimed they were uninhabited.
The Amerindians were either captured for use as slaves by the Spanish or fled to other, more defensible mountainous islands nearby. From about 1600 the English and Dutch began to found colonies in the North American mainland and the smaller islands of the West Indies. Although Spanish and Portuguese sailors had visited Barbados, the first English ship touched the island on 14 May 1625, England was the first European nation to establish a lasting settlement there from 1627. England is said to have made its initial claim to Barbados in 1625, although an earlier claim may have been made in 1620. Nonetheless, Barbados was claimed from 1625 in the name of King James I of England. There were earlier English settlements in The Americas, several islands in the Leeward Islands were claimed by the English at about the same time as Barbados. Barbados grew to become the third major English settlement in the Americas due to its prime eastern location; the settlement was established as a proprietary colony and funded by Sir William Courten, a City of London merchant who acquired the title to Barbados and several other islands.
So the first colonists were tenants and much of the profits of their labor returned to Courten and his company. The first English ship, which had arrived on 14 May 1625, was captained by John Powell; the first settlement began on 17 February 1627, near what is now Holetown, by a group led by John Powell's younger brother, consisting of 80 settlers and 10 English laborers. The latter were young indentured laborers who according to some sources had been abducted making them slaves. Courten's title was transferred to James Hay, 1st Earl of Carlisle, in what was called the "Great Barbados Robbery." Carlisle chose as governor Henry Hawley, who established the House of Assembly in 1639, in an effort to appease the planters, who might otherwise have opposed his controversial appointment. In the period 1640–60, the West Indies attracted over two-thirds of the total number of English emigrants to the Americas. By 1650, there were 44,000 settlers in the West Indies, as compared to 12,000 on the Chesapeake and 23,000 in New England.
Most English arrivals were indentured. After five years of labor, they were given "freedom dues" of about ₤10 in goods. Around the time of Cromwell a number of rebels and criminals were transported there. Timothy Meads of Warwickshire was one of the rebels sent to Barbados at that time, before he received compensation for servitude of 1000 acres of land in North Carolina in 1666. Parish registers from the 1650s show, for the white population, four times as many deaths as marriages; the death rate was high. Before this, the mainstay of the infant colony's economy was the growth export of tobacco, but tobacco prices fell in the 1630s, as Chesapeake production expanded. Around the same time, fighting during the War of the Three Kingdoms and the Interregnum spilled over into Barbados and Barbadian territorial waters; the island was not involved in the war until after the execution of Charles I, when the island's government fell under the control of Royalists. To try to bring the recalcitrant colony to heel, the Commonwealth Parliament passed an act on 3 October 1650 prohibiting trade between England and Barbados, because the island traded with the Netherlands, further navigation acts were passed prohibiting any but English vessels trading with Dutch colonies.
These acts were a precursor to the First Anglo-Dutch War. The Commonwealth of England sent an invasion force under the command of Sir George Ayscue, which arrived in October 1651. After some skirmishing, the Royalists in the House of Assembly led by Lord Willoughby surrendered; the conditions of the surrender were incorporated into the Charter of Barbados, signed at the Mermaid's Inn, Oistins, on 17 January 1652. Sugar cane cultivation in Barbados began in the 1640s, after its introduction in 1637 by Pieter Blower. Rum was produced but by
Crown Colony of Malta
The Crown Colony of the Island of Malta and its Dependencies was a British colony in the present-day Republic of Malta. It was established when the Malta Protectorate was transformed into a British Crown colony in 1813, this was confirmed by the Treaty of Paris in 1814. From 1530 to 1798, Malta had been ruled by the Order of Saint John; the Order was ousted during the War of the Second Coalition and Malta was occupied by Napoleon. The Maltese asked Britain for help; the French capitulated in 1800 and Malta voluntarily became a British protectorate. Britain was supposed to evacuate the island according to the terms of the Treaty of Amiens of 1802, but failed to keep this obligation – one of several mutual cases of non-adherence to the treaty, which led to its collapse and the resumption of war between Britain and France a year later. Malta became a Crown Colony on 23 July 1813, when Sir Thomas Maitland was appointed as Governor of Malta; that year, Malta was granted the Bathurst Constitution. Malta's status as a Crown Colony was confirmed by the Treaty of Paris of 1814, itself reaffirmed by the Congress of Vienna of 1815.
The plague broke out in Malta in March 1813, when a British merchant ship infected with the disease arrived from Alexandria. The disease began to spread in Valletta and the Grand Harbour area, when Governor Maitland arrived, stricter quarantine measures were enforced; the plague spread to Gozo by January 1814, but the islands were free of the disease by March of that year. Overall, 4,486 people were killed. After the eradication of the plague, Maitland made several reforms, he was autocratic since he refused to form an advisory council made up of Maltese representatives, so he was informally known as "King Tom". He formed the Malta Police Force in 1814, while the local Italian-speaking Università was dissolved in 1819. Various reforms were undertaken in the law courts as well. Maitland remained Governor until his death on 17 January 1824. In 1825, the Maltese scudo and the other circulating currencies at the time were replaced by the pound sterling, with the lowest-valued coin being a one-third farthing coin minted at irregular intervals, the last such issue occurring in 1913, keeping alive the tradition of the Maltese "grano," equal to one-twelfth of a penny.
Despite this and other foreign coinage continued to circulate in limited amounts, the last scudi were withdrawn over 60 years in October and November 1886. During the Greek War of Independence, Malta became an important base for British and Russian naval forces after the Battle of Navarino of 1827; the local economy improved and there was a boom in business, but shortly after the war ended in 1832 there was an economic decline. The year 1828 saw the revocation of the right of sanctuary, following the Vatican Church-State proclamation. Three years the See of Malta was made independent of the See of Palermo. In 1839, press censorship was abolished, the construction of the Anglican St Paul's Pro-Cathedral began. Following the 1846 Carnival riots, in 1849 a Council of Government with elected members under British rule was set up. In 1870 a referendum was held on ecclesiastics serving on Council of Government, in 1881 an Executive Council under British rule was created. In 1878 a Royal Commission recommended in its report the Anglicisation of the educational and judicial systems.
A backlash came in 1903, with the Return to the 1849 form of Council of Government under British rule. Despite this, home rule was refused to the Maltese until 1921, the locals sometimes suffered considerable poverty; this was due to the island being overpopulated and dependent on British military expenditure which varied with the demands of war. Throughout the 19th century, the British administration instituted several liberal constitutional reforms which were resisted by the Church and the Maltese elite who preferred to cling to their feudal privileges. Political organisations, like the Nationalist Party, were created to protect the Italian language in Malta; the last quarter of the century saw technical and financial progress in line with the Belle Epoque: the following years saw the foundation of the Anglo-Egyptian Bank and the beginning of operation of the Malta Railway. In 1886 Surgeon Major David Bruce discovered the microbe causing the Malta Fever, in 1905 Themistocles Zammit discovered the fever's sources.
In 1912, Dun Karm Psaila wrote his first poem in Maltese. During World War I, Malta became known as the Nurse of the Mediterranean due to the number of wounded soldiers who came to be treated. In 1919, the Sette Giugno riots over the excessive price of bread led to greater autonomy for the locals during the 1920s. After Filippo Sciberras had convened a National Assembly, in 1921 self-government was granted under British rule. Malta obtained a bicameral parliament with an elected Legislative Assembly. Joseph Howard was named Prime Minister. In 1923 the Innu Malti was played for the first time in public, the same year Francesco Buhagiar became Prime Minister, followed in 1924 by Sir Ugo Pasquale Mifsud and in 1927 by Sir Gerald Strickland; the 1930s saw a period of instability in the relations between the Maltese political elite, the Maltese church, the British rulers. First in 1930–32, following a clash between
Malta Protectorate was the political term for Malta when it was part of the Kingdom of Sicily but under British protection. This protectorate happened between the capitulation of the French forces in Malta in 1800 and the transformation of the islands to a Crown colony in 1813. During the Maltese uprising against the French, the Maltese people formed a National Assembly as a provisional government. Messengers were sent to the British fleet in Sicily for help, a British convoy consisting of 13 battered ships under Captain Sir James Saumarez appeared off the island in late September 1798. In October Sir Alexander Ball arrived in Malta, a year he was appointed as Civil Commissioner; the French garrison under General Vaubois had been driven to Valletta, surrendered on 4 September 1800. Malta therefore became a British Protectorate. In August 1801, the Civil Commissioner, Charles Cameron, appointed Emmanuel Vitale as Governor of Gozo instead of Saverio Cassar; this brought an end to Gozo's independence as la Nazione Gozitana.
Under the terms of the 1802 Treaty of Amiens, Britain was supposed to evacuate the islands, but failed to keep this obligation — one of several mutual cases of non-adherence to the treaty, which led to its collapse and the resumption of war between Britain and France. In June 1802, 104 representatives from the Maltese towns and villages signed a declaration entitled La Dichiarazione dei Diritti degli abitanti delle Isole di Malta e Gozo by which they proclaimed George III to be their king, that he had no right to surrender Malta to another power. By the Declaration they proclaimed that Malta should be self-governing while under British protection. Politically, Lampedusa was part of the Kingdom of Sicily. In the late 18th century, while Malta was still under the Knights, the Prince of Lampedusa had let the island to Salvatore Gatt, a Maltese entrepreneur, who settled on the island with a few Maltese workers; the British considered taking over Lampedusa as a naval base instead of Malta, but the idea was dropped as the island did not have deep harbours and was not well developed.
Despite this, the authorities in Malta and the British government still attempted to take over the island as they believed that it could be used to supply Malta with food in case Sicily fell to Napoleon. In 1800, Ball sent a Commissariat to Lampedusa to assess the feasibility of this and the result was that the island could be used to supply Malta with food at a low cost as there was grazing ground and an adequate water supply. In 1803, some Maltese farmers settled on Lampedusa with cattle and sheep, they began to grow barley. In 1810, Salvatore Gatt transferred the lease to Alexander Fernandez, the British Commissariat, the latter attempted to create a large Maltese colony on the island; this never materialized as a Royal Commission in 1812 stated that this was just a business venture and Britain refused to help Fernandez. Further problems arose when the plague devastated Malta in 1813–14, on 25 September 1814, Sir Thomas Maitland withdrew British troops from Lampedusa. Fernandez remained proprietor of the island until 1818, when Gatt returned and remained there with his family up to 1824.
In 1813 the island was transformed into a British Crown colony by the Bathurst Constitution. On 23 July Sir Thomas Maitland replaced Sir Hildebrand Oakes and was the first Civil Commissioner to be given the title of "Governor". Malta became a colony by the Treaty of Paris in 1814. Ġonna tal-Kmand 1806 Birgu polverista explosion Froberg mutiny
Central Australia known as the Alice Springs Region, is one of the five regions in the Northern Territory of Australia. The term Central Australia is used to describe an area centred on Alice Springs, it is sometimes referred to as Centralia. The region is located in the southern part of the Northern Territory spanning from the west on the Western Australian Border to the east on the Queensland border; the main town in Central Australia is Alice Springs. Whilst a few of these townships are stations, the vast majority of them are indigenous Australian communities; the region covers an area of 546,046 square kilometres, which makes up forty percent of the Northern Territory. The following Local Government Areas make up the region: Town of Alice Springs Central Desert Region MacDonnell Region Yulara The total population of Central Australia is estimated to be 41,000. Alice Springs, the main urban area of Central Australia, is predominantly Anglo-Celtic Australian, with 25% Aboriginal population. Altogether, the population of the region is between 40% to 45% Aboriginal.
The region is dry, has a tropical climate receiving on average just 150 millimetres of rainfall annually. Regions of the Northern Territory Centre points of Australia Alice Springs Region Alice Springs Film and Television
A Commonwealth realm is a sovereign state in which Queen Elizabeth II is the reigning constitutional monarch and head of state. Each realm is independent from the other realms; as of 2019, there are 16 Commonwealth realms: Antigua and Barbuda, The Bahamas, Belize, Grenada, New Zealand, Papua New Guinea, Saint Kitts and Nevis, Saint Lucia, Saint Vincent and the Grenadines, Solomon Islands and the United Kingdom. All 16 Commonwealth realms are members of the Commonwealth of Nations, an intergovernmental organisation of 53 member states. Elizabeth II is Head of the Commonwealth. In 1952, Britain's proclamation of Elizabeth II's accession used the term realms to describe the seven sovereign states of which she was queen—the United Kingdom, Australia, New Zealand, South Africa and Ceylon. Since new realms have been created through independence of former colonies and dependencies and some realms have become republics. There are 16 Commonwealth realms with a combined area of 18.7 million km2 and a population of 144 million, of which all but about two million live in the six most populous: the United Kingdom, Australia, Papua New Guinea, New Zealand, Jamaica.
The Commonwealth realms are, for purposes of sovereign states. They are united only in their voluntary connection with the institution of the monarchy, the succession, the Queen herself. Political scientist Peter Boyce called this grouping of countries associated in this manner, "an achievement without parallel in the history of international relations or constitutional law." Terms such as personal union, a form of personal union, shared monarchy, among others, have all been advanced as definitions since the beginning of the Commonwealth itself, though there has been no agreement on which term is most accurate, or whether personal union is applicable at all. Since the Balfour Declaration of 1926, the realms have been considered "equal in status, in no way subordinate one to another in any aspect of their domestic or external affairs, though united by a common allegiance to the Crown." and the monarch is "equally and explicitly of separate, autonomous realms." Andrew Michie wrote in 1952 "Elizabeth II embodies in her own person many monarchies: she is Queen of Great Britain, but she is Queen of Canada, New Zealand, South Africa, Ceylon... it is now possible for Elizabeth II to be, in practice as well as theory Queen in all her realms."
Still, Boyce holds the counter-opinion the crowns of all the non-British realms are "derivative, if not subordinate" to the crown of the United Kingdom. The United Kingdom no longer possesses any legislative power over any country besides itself, although some countries continue to use, by their own volition, the Judicial Committee of the Privy Council as part of their own judiciary. Since each realm has the same person as its monarch, the diplomatic practice of exchanging ambassadors with letters of credence and recall from one head of state to another is redundant. Diplomatic relations between the Commonwealth realms are thus at a cabinet level only and high commissioners are exchanged between realms. A high commissioner's full title will thus be High Commissioner for Her Majesty's Government in. For certain ceremonies, the order of precedence for the realms' high commissioners or national flags is set according to the chronological order of, when the country became a Dominion and the date on which the country gained independence.
Conflicts of interest have arisen from this relationship amongst independent states, ranging from minor diplomatic matters—such as the monarch expressing on the advice of one of her cabinets views that counter those of another of her cabinets—to more serious conflicts regarding matters of armed conflict, wherein the monarch, as head of state of two different realms, may be at war and at peace with a third country, or at war with herself as head of two hostile nations. In such cases, viceroys have tended to avoid placing the sovereign directly in the centre of the conflict, meaning that a governor-general may have to take controversial actions on his or her own initiative through the exercise of the reserve powers. In recent years, advocates have argued for free movement of citizens among a subset of the Commonwealth realms: the United Kingdom, Canada and New Zealand, which they argue "share the same head of state, the same native language, the same respect for the common law." Opinion on the prospect of the plan coming to fruition is mixed.
British Eurosceptics have expressed a preference for a relationship "similar in nature and goals to the EU" between the same four countries: the CANZUK Union without repeating the "mistakes of Europe"—though this possibility has been characterised as "difficult and in some ways far-fetched". Despite this, public opinion polling conducted by organisations such as CANZUK International and YouGov have indicated widespread support for free movement of goods and people across Canada, New Zealand and the United Kingdom, with support for the proposals ranging from between 58–64% in the United Kingdom, 70–72% in Australia, 75–77% in Canada and 81–82% in New Zealand; the evolution of the Commonwealth realms has resulted in the Crown having both a shared and a separate character, with the one individual being mona
The British Empire comprised the dominions, protectorates and other territories ruled or administered by the United Kingdom and its predecessor states. It originated with the overseas possessions and trading posts established by England between the late 16th and early 18th centuries. At its height, it was the largest empire in history and, for over a century, was the foremost global power. By 1913, the British Empire held sway over 412 million people, 23% of the world population at the time, by 1920, it covered 35,500,000 km2, 24% of the Earth's total land area; as a result, its political, legal and cultural legacy is widespread. At the peak of its power, the phrase "the empire on which the sun never sets" was used to describe the British Empire, because its expanse around the globe meant that the sun was always shining on at least one of its territories. During the Age of Discovery in the 15th and 16th centuries and Spain pioneered European exploration of the globe, in the process established large overseas empires.
Envious of the great wealth these empires generated, England and the Netherlands began to establish colonies and trade networks of their own in the Americas and Asia. A series of wars in the 17th and 18th centuries with the Netherlands and France left England and following union between England and Scotland in 1707, Great Britain, the dominant colonial power in North America, it became the dominant power in the Indian subcontinent after the East India Company's conquest of Mughal Bengal at the Battle of Plassey in 1757. The independence of the Thirteen Colonies in North America in 1783 after the American War of Independence caused Britain to lose some of its oldest and most populous colonies. British attention soon turned towards Asia and the Pacific. After the defeat of France in the Revolutionary and Napoleonic Wars, Britain emerged as the principal naval and imperial power of the 19th century. Unchallenged at sea, British dominance was described as Pax Britannica, a period of relative peace in Europe and the world during which the British Empire became the global hegemon and adopted the role of global policeman.
In the early 19th century, the Industrial Revolution began to transform Britain. The British Empire expanded to include most of India, large parts of Africa and many other territories throughout the world. Alongside the formal control that Britain exerted over its own colonies, its dominance of much of world trade meant that it controlled the economies of many regions, such as Asia and Latin America. During the 19th century, Britain's population increased at a dramatic rate, accompanied by rapid urbanisation, which caused significant social and economic stresses. To seek new markets and sources of raw materials, the British government under Benjamin Disraeli initiated a period of imperial expansion in Egypt, South Africa, elsewhere. Canada and New Zealand became self-governing dominions. By the start of the 20th century and the United States had begun to challenge Britain's economic lead. Subsequent military and economic tensions between Britain and Germany were major causes of the First World War, during which Britain relied upon its empire.
The conflict placed enormous strain on the military and manpower resources of Britain. Although the British Empire achieved its largest territorial extent after World War I, Britain was no longer the world's pre-eminent industrial or military power. In the Second World War, Britain's colonies in East and Southeast Asia were occupied by Japan. Despite the final victory of Britain and its allies, the damage to British prestige helped to accelerate the decline of the empire. India, Britain's most valuable and populous possession, achieved independence as part of a larger decolonisation movement in which Britain granted independence to most territories of the empire; the Suez Crisis confirmed Britain's decline as a global power. The transfer of Hong Kong to China in 1997 marked for many the end of the British Empire. Fourteen overseas territories remain under British sovereignty. After independence, many former British colonies joined the Commonwealth of Nations, a free association of independent states.
The United Kingdom is now one of 16 Commonwealth nations, a grouping known informally as the Commonwealth realms, that share a monarch Queen Elizabeth II. The foundations of the British Empire were laid when Scotland were separate kingdoms. In 1496, King Henry VII of England, following the successes of Spain and Portugal in overseas exploration, commissioned John Cabot to lead a voyage to discover a route to Asia via the North Atlantic. Cabot sailed in 1497, five years after the European discovery of America, but he made landfall on the coast of Newfoundland, mistakenly believing that he had reached Asia, there was no attempt to found a colony. Cabot led another voyage to the Americas the following year but nothing was heard of his ships again. No further attempts to establish English colonies in the Americas were made until well into the reign of Queen Elizabeth I, during the last decades of the 16th century. In the meantime, the 1533 Statute in Restraint of Appeals had declared "that this realm of England is an Empire".
The subsequent Protestant Reformation turned Catholic Spain into implacable enemies. In 1562, the English Crown encouraged the privateers John Hawkins and Francis Drake to engage in slave-raiding attacks against Spanish and Portuguese ships off the coast of West Africa with the aim of breaking into the Atlantic slave tr