Massachusetts Bay Transportation Authority
The Massachusetts Bay Transportation Authority is the public agency responsible for operating most public transportation services in Greater Boston, Massachusetts. Earlier modes of public transportation in Boston were independently operated; the MTA was replaced in 1964 with the present-day MBTA, established as an individual department within the Commonwealth of Massachusetts before becoming a division of the Massachusetts Department of Transportation in 2009. The MBTA and Philadelphia's Southeastern Pennsylvania Transportation Authority are the only U. S. transit agencies that operate all five major types of terrestrial mass transit vehicles: light rail vehicles. In 2016, the system averaged 1,277,200 passengers per weekday, of which heavy rail averaged 552,500 and the light-rail lines 226,500, making it the fourth-busiest subway system and the busiest light rail system in the United States; the MBTA is the largest consumer of electricity in Massachusetts, the second-largest land owner. In 2007, its CNG bus fleet was the largest consumer of alternative fuels in the state.
The MBTA operates an independent law enforcement agency, the Massachusetts Bay Transportation Authority Police. Mass transportation in Boston was provided by private companies granted charters by the state legislature for limited monopolies, with powers of eminent domain to establish a right-of-way, until the creation of the MTA in 1947. Development of mass transportation both shaped economic and population patterns. Shortly after the steam locomotive became practical for mass transportation, the private Boston and Lowell Railroad was chartered in 1830, connecting Boston to Lowell, a major northerly mill town in northeast Massachusetts' Merrimack Valley, via one of the oldest railroads in North America; this marked the beginning of the development of American intercity railroads, which in Massachusetts would become the MBTA Commuter Rail system and the Green Line "D" Branch. Starting with the opening of the Cambridge Railroad on March 26, 1856, a profusion of streetcar lines appeared in Boston under chartered companies.
Despite the change of companies, Boston is the city with the oldest continuously working streetcar system in the world. Many of these companies consolidated, animal-drawn vehicles were converted to electric propulsion. Streetcar congestion in downtown Boston led to the subways in 1897 and elevated rail in 1901; the Tremont Street subway was the first rapid transit tunnel in the United States. Grade-separation avoided delays caused by cross streets; the first elevated railway and the first rapid transit line in Boston were built three years before the first underground line of the New York City Subway, but 34 years after the first London Underground lines, long after the first elevated railway in New York City, its Ninth Avenue El started operations on July 1, 1868 in Manhattan as an elevated cable car line. Various extensions and branches were added at both ends; as grade-separated lines were extended, street-running lines were cut back for faster downtown service. The last elevated heavy rail or "El" segments in Boston were at the extremities of the Orange Line: its northern end was relocated in 1975 from Everett to Malden, MA, its southern end was relocated into the Southwest Corridor in 1987.
However, the Green Line's Causeway Street Elevated remained in service until 2004, when it was relocated into a tunnel with an incline to reconnect to the Lechmere Viaduct. The Lechmere Viaduct and a short section of steel-framed elevated at its northern end remain in service, though the elevated section will be cut back and connected to a northwards viaduct extension in 2017 as part of the Green Line Extension; the old elevated railways proved to be an eyesore and required several sharp curves in Boston's twisty streets. The Atlantic Avenue Elevated was closed in 1938 amidst declining ridership and was demolished in 1942; as rail passenger service became unprofitable due to rising automobile ownership, government takeover prevented abandonment and dismantlement. The MTA purchased and took over subway, elevated and bus operations from the Boston Elevated Railway in 1947. In the 1950s, the MTA ran new subway extensions, while the last two streetcar lines running into the Pleasant Street Portal of the Tremont Street Subway were substituted with buses in 1953 and 1962.
In 1958 the MTA purchased the Highland Branch from the Boston and Albany Railroad, reopening a year as rapid transit line. While the operations of the MTA were stable by the early 1960s, the operated commuter rail lines were in freefall; the New Haven Railroad, New York Central Railroad, Boston and Maine Railroad were all financially struggling. The 1945 Coolidge Commission plan assumed that most of the commuter rail lines would be replaced by shorter rapid transit extensions, or feed into them at reduced service levels. Passenger service on the entire Old Colony Railroad system serving the southeastern part of the state was abandoned by the New Haven Railroad in 1959, triggering calls for state intervention. Between January 1963 and March 1964, the Mass Transportation Commission tested differe
The Eastern Railroad was a railroad connecting Boston, Massachusetts to Portland, Maine. Throughout its history, it competed with the Boston and Maine Railroad for service between the two cities, until the Boston & Maine put an end to the competition by leasing the Eastern in December 1884. Much of the railroad's main line in Massachusetts is used by the MBTA's Newburyport/Rockport commuter rail line, some unused parts of its right-of-way have been converted to rail trails; the Eastern Railroad Company of Massachusetts was first chartered on April 14, 1836. The line followed the coastline, in contrast to the Boston & Maine's inland route through Massachusetts, it served North Shore cities such as Lynn, Salem and Newburyport. In keeping with its coastal route, the Eastern Railroad chose to place its Boston terminus in East Boston, a short ferry ride from downtown Boston, rather than building tracks around Chelsea Creek, the Boston Inner Harbor, the Mystic River into the city. Construction on the railroad began in August 1837 after state loans and a change of route were approved in April.
The first stretch to be built was from East Boston to Salem, completed August 27, 1838. An extension to Ipswich was completed on December 18, 1839, followed by an extension to Newburyport on August 28, 1840, to the New Hampshire state line on November 9, 1840. A branch line to Marblehead opened on December 10, 1839, followed by a branch line to Gloucester in 1847 and a branch line to Amesbury in 1848. In 1861, the Gloucester branch was extended to Rockport. On August 31, 1846, the Eastern leased the Essex Branch Railroad for 5 years, in 1865 it bought the branch outright; the railroad's short segment through New Hampshire was chartered as a separate corporation by the New Hampshire legislature on June 18, 1836. Construction on the New Hampshire segment began in 1839 and was completed on November 9, 1840. On February 18, 1840 the Eastern Railroad of New Hampshire was leased to the Eastern Railroad of Massachusetts for a period of 99 years. By 1843, the Eastern entered into an agreement with the Boston & Maine to share the Portland and Portsmouth Railroad's tracks in Maine, which allowed both railroads to begin providing Boston-to-Portland service.
On April 28, 1847, the Eastern and the Boston & Maine co-leased the Portland, Saco & Portsmouth for a period of 99 years. By the 1850s, the Eastern was experiencing difficulties because of the out-of-the-way location of its East Boston terminal. In 1845, the competing Boston & Maine Railroad had completed its own tracks into Boston so it would no longer have to use the Boston and Lowell Railroad's tracks, it built a terminal in downtown Boston just north of Haymarket. Several independent railroads sought to take advantage of the situation by building branch lines that would connect the Eastern Railroad's North Shore tracks with the Boston & Maine line going into the city. In 1850, the South Reading Branch Railroad opened, connecting the Eastern at Salem to the Boston & Maine at Wakefield, in 1853, the Saugus Branch Railroad opened, connecting the Eastern at Lynn to the Boston & Maine at Malden; the Eastern bought the South Reading Branch Railroad in 1851 and the Saugus Branch Railroad in 1866.
The Eastern Railroad was able to offer service to downtown Boston when it leased the Grand Junction Railroad in 1852. The Grand Junction was a short line chartered in 1847 that connected the East Boston waterfront to the Boston & Maine, Boston & Lowell, Fitchburg railroads in East Somerville, it was extended to connect to the Boston and Worcester Railroad in Allston. After leasing the Grand Junction, the Eastern built a cut-off from the Grand Junction to its own tracks in Chelsea and built a terminal in downtown Boston on the site of the present North Station, it disconnected the Saugus Branch from the Boston & Maine at Medford, redirecting it south to the Grand Junction in Everett. In 1866, the Boston & Worcester bought the Grand Junction, but allowed the Eastern to keep its track rights for the sections it used as part of its main line. In the 1870s, the Eastern expanded its service in New Hampshire, it leased the Portsmouth, Great Falls and Conway Railroad for 60 years on January 6, 1872, the Wolfeborough Railroad for 68 years on August 14, 1872, the Portsmouth and Dover Railroad for 50 years on February 1, 1874.
On August 14, 1872, the Eastern leased the Newburyport City Railroad for 20 years. In 1872, Eastern bought the Portland and Portsmouth Railroad outright. In 1881, the Chelsea Beach Railroad was founded, it was leased by the Eastern on July 2 of the same year. On December 23, 1883, the competition between the Eastern Railroad and the Boston & Maine ended when the Boston & Maine leased the Eastern for 54 years. On May 9, 1890, the Boston & Maine purchased the Eastern outright; the Boston & Maine incorporated the Eastern's tracks into its Portland Division as an alternative route to Maine and for continued service to the North Shore. In 1893, North Station was opened in downtown Boston as a union station, consolidating under one roof the Boston terminals of four different railroads: the Eastern, the Boston & Maine, the Boston & Lowell, the Fitchburg Railroad, and in 1905, the Grand Junction and Eastern Railroads combined their East Boston terminals. On September 28, 1841, noted abolitionist Frederick Douglass and James N. Buffum were forcibly ejected from a train at Lynn station after Douglass refused to sit in the segregated "Jim Crow car" in an early protest against the racial discrimination by the railroad.
Fearing additional incidents, railroad s
Physical accessibility on the Massachusetts Bay Transportation Authority system is incomplete, with accessibility on all buses, all Orange Line stations, all but 2 Red Line stations, all but 1 Blue Line station. As is true for most mass transit systems, much of the Boston subway and commuter rail lines were built before wheelchair access was a requirement under the Americans with Disabilities Act of 1990; the MBTA underwent significant expansion in the 1980s and 1990s, all of the new facilities are ADA-compliant. The MBTA has refurbished some facilities to become more compliant with the ADA. On April 4, 2006, the MBTA announced the settlement of a class-action lawsuit, Joanne Daniels-Finegold, et al. v. MBTA, under which "the T will undertake major improvements in equipment and services that promise to enhance accessibility for people with disabilities while improving service for all T passengers....approximately $310 million in funds will be programmed into the T's Capital Investment Program to improve services and infrastructure."
All stations on the Orange Line, Blue Line, the non-trolley branches of the Red Line have high level platforms on the same level as train car doors, all are accessible except for Bowdoin on the Blue. The Wollaston station on the Red Line is closed until the summer of 2019 for renovations that will make it accessible. Most subway stations and major surface stations on the light rail Green Line have been retrofitted with raised platforms for accessibility; these allow accessible boarding from the newer low-floor Type 8 cars, which have a built-in retractable bridge plate to reduce to gap to the platform. All trains should have at least one Type 8 car; some stations have portable lifts or wooden wayside ramps to allow handicapped passengers to use the older high-floor cars. The Mattapan portion of the Red Line runs older, high floor PCC trolley cars. Wheelchair ramps with hinged metal bridges have been installed at each station except for Valley Road, which has a long staircase from the platform to street level, which makes the platform itself inaccessible for wheelchair users.
Most MBTA subway stations have side platforms but a few have island platforms. The latter make it easier for wheelchair passengers to reverse direction, either because they missed a stop, or because the elevator on one side of a station is out of service; some of these stations are not accessible to wheelchair users wishing to enter them. Island platformed Blue Line stations include: Bowdoin Government Center MaverickIsland platformed Green Line stations include: North Station Haymarket Government Center Park Street Kenmore All Green Line Extension stations will have center island platforms, including the new Lechmere stationIsland platformed Orange Line stations include: all stations between Oak Grove and Community College all stations between Back Bay and Forest HillsIsland platformed Red Line stations include: Alewife Davis Harvard Park Street Broadway JFK/UMass Savin Hill All stations between North Quincy and Braintree. Since the July 2012 closure of the parking garage, Quincy Center is only handicapped accessible, with no wheelchair access from the Burgin Parkway entrance.
As of November 2016, 106 out of 139 MBTA Commuter Rail stations are accessible. Six lines are accessible: the Greenbush Line, Plymouth/Kingston Line, Middleborough/Lakeville Line, Fairmount Line, Providence/Stoughton Line, Needham Line, while the other lines have a mix of accessible and non-accessible stations. All stations built or rebuilt since about 1987 are accessible, many older stations have been retrofitted and several other stations are being rebuilt for accessibility. With the exception of Chelsea and limited-service stops Prides Crossing and River Works, the Newburyport/Rockport Line is accessible. Most of the non-accessible stations are located on the Fitchburg Line, Framingham/Worcester Line, Franklin Line. Of those stations that have wheelchair access, some only have a short elevated platform that serves one or two cars; these "mini-high platforms" are located at the end of the station away from Boston, allowing them to be served by the car nearest the locomotive. They represent most accessible stations on the
Beverly Depot is an MBTA Commuter Rail station in Beverly, Massachusetts. Located in Downtown Beverly, it serves the Newburyport/Rockport Line, it is the junction of the line's two branches to Newburyport and Rockport and is served by every train on both branches, for as many as 34 departures to Boston on weekdays. Tied with Salem and Route 128 station, it has the most frequent inbound service from any MBTA Commuter Rail station. By a 2013 count, Beverly Depot had the third highest inbound ridership on the system with 2,058 inbound riders on a typical weekday; the Eastern Railroad was extended through Beverly to Ipswich in 1839. The 1839 station was replaced in 1855; the station was listed on the National Register of Historic Places in 1979, is a contributing property of the Beverly Depot-Odell Park Historic District, added in 2014. A 500-space parking garage at Beverly opened on August 2, 2014; the current Beverly Depot is this third station to serve Beverly. The first station, opened in 1839, was located next to the Essex Bridge.
The train shed was torn down for the 1897 construction of the Bradford Lee Gilbert station that still stands. A copy was built ten years at Andover; the ticket office closed in 1965 with passenger traffic in free fall as the newly formed MBTA began to subsidize service to Beverly. The station building was sold soon after, it was listed on the National Register of Historic Places in 1979. The modern station facilities, located adjacent to the depot building, consist of two platforms serving the line's two tracks. Short high-level platforms are located on the outbound end of the longer low-level platforms, making the station handicapped accessible. On November 16, 1984, the Beverly Bridge, which carried the line between Salem and Beverly, was destroyed by a fire. For 13 months, Beverly was the connection point between a Salem-Beverly-Ipswich shuttle bus and a Beverly-Rockport shuttle train. Regular service over a new bridge was restored on December 1, 1985. On September 15, 2012, the MBTA approved funding for a new parking garage to be built near the station.
The three-story, 500-space garage more than quintupled former parking capacity and include facilities such as electric car charging stations and roof-mounted solar panels as well as a covered walkway leading over Pleasant Street to the station platforms. The $34.1 million project began construction in November 2012. The garage was planned to open in December 2013, but the opening was delayed several times due to construction difficulties. A retaining wall required additional reinforcement, unusually cold winter temperatures prevented contractors from pouring concrete, contaminated soil had to be unexpectedly brought to out-of-state disposal locations when in-state facilities closed; the city of Beverly contributed $500,000 in city funds to cover additional construction costs from these delays. The garage opened on August 2, 2014. After four weeks, only 100 of the 500 spaces were being used on a daily basis. By September 2015, usage averaged 260 cars on weekdays. On April 3, 2017, the pedestrian bridge linking the garage and station was damaged by an oversized load on a flatbed truck.
MBTA - Beverly
The Newburyport/Rockport Line is a branch of the MBTA Commuter Rail system, running northeast from downtown Boston, Massachusetts towards Cape Ann and the Merrimack Valley, serving the North Shore. The first leg serves Chelsea, Swampscott and Beverly. From there, a northern branch of the line serves Hamilton, Ipswich and Newburyport; the line branches east from Beverly, serving Manchester and Rockport. A bicycle coach is offered on the Rockport branch during the summer; the Eastern Route main line between Boston and Portsmouth, New Hampshire opened in 1836 as the Eastern Railroad. Ferries were used to transport passengers between Boston proper; the line was extended to Portland, Maine, in 1842 under a track-sharing agreement with the Boston and Maine Railroad. The Gloucester Branch was constructed in 1847, but despite local support, it was not extended to Rockport until November 1861. In 1854, with the opening of the Grand Junction Railroad, the Eastern Railroad acquired direct access to downtown Boston.
This access was more convenient than its previous access, which required using the Saugus Branch or the South Reading Branch Railroad. The Boston & Maine leased the Eastern Railroad in 1884, in 1893 the new North Union Station became the terminus of the B&M, its subsidiaries the Eastern Railroad and Boston & Lowell Railroad, the Fitchburg Railroad. In the 1970s, the B&M's passenger services - which, by that time, were exclusively commuter services - began to become financially unviable until the MBTA subsidized, acquired, the services; the line beyond Newburyport was abandoned in 1982. In 1998, service was restored to Newburyport at a cost of $46 million. In the late 1980s, the MBTA planned to construct a park and ride relief station off Route 107 in Saugus. A $400,000 planning study was funded in February 1988; the station was not built. Owing to its position along the North Shore coastline, the Newburyport/Rockport Line has a large number of river crossings, including movable bridges over the Saugus River and Danvers River on the mainline as well as Days Creek and the Annisquam River on the Rockport Branch.
Draw Number 7 over the Mystic River between Somerville and Everett, built in 1877, was the oldest horizontally folding drawbridge in the country until it was replaced by a fixed high-level concrete span on August 26, 1989. The new $34.2 million bridge, completed nine months ahead of schedule, eliminated the 5 miles per hour speed restriction on the old bridge. The Beverly Drawbridge spanning the Danvers River was replaced in 2017; the abutments of the approach spans were repaired, followed by a 21-day service shutdown from July 17 to August 13, 2017, for the complete replacement of the swing bridge section. The MBTA Board approved the $16.2 million contract in February 2016. The line was shut down on weekends from July 8 through August 27, 2017, for the installation of Positive Train Control equipment in order to meet a 2020 federal deadline; the Gloucester Drawbridge over the Annisquam River consists of a steel drawbridge and western approach span with a timber trestle for the eastern approach.
It was built in 1911, modified in 1932, repaired in 1984-85. It will be replaced with a modern box beam bridge on steel piles. By February 2016, bidding was planned to begin by June for the four-year, then-$34 million project, though funding had not been allotted; the MBTA Board approved a $56.9 million contract in October 2017. The 44-month project will require 10 weekend shutdowns of the branch. In February 2001, the MBTA began two parallel planning processes for the North Shore region: a Draft Environment Impact Statement for the Blue Line Extension, a Major Investment Study for other projects north of Salem; the MIS, released in 2004, identified a number of possible improvements to the Newburyport/Rockport Line, including upgrades to current stations, grade crossing eliminations, signal system improvements, increased frequencies, a second Salem tunnel, a branch line to Danvers, new stations at Revere and South Salem. A South Salem station would serve Salem State University, the North Shore Medical Center, residential areas south of downtown Salem - some of which were served by the pre-1987 station, but only by the 455 and 459 buses thereafter.
The station was estimated to cost $12.2 to $13.8 million, with a single island platform serving the line's two tracks, would draw about 600 daily riders. Two possible locations were considered: one with access from Laurel Street and the platform running to the north, one with access from Ocean Avenue and the platform running to the south. None of the projects in the DEIS or MIS was built due to lack of funding, except for parking structures at Salem and Beverly which were mandated as Big Dig mitigation. In January 2015, Salem mayor Kim Driscoll indicated her support for a South Salem station in her State of the City address. A feasibility study, released in March 2016, analyzed four possible station locations, including three sites near the MIS locations plus one at Jefferson Avenue to the south; the station would have two side platforms and cost between $15 million and $20 million depending on the site. The study received mixed reactions from Salem residents, including concerns about construction, lights, an
Beverly is a city in Essex County, a suburb of Boston. The population was 39,502 at the 2010 census. A resort and manufacturing community on the Massachusetts North Shore, Beverly includes Ryal Side, Beverly Farms and Prides Crossing. Beverly is a rival of Marblehead for the title of being the birthplace of the U. S. Navy. Part of Salem and the Naumkeag Territory, the area was first settled by Europeans in 1626 by Roger Conant; because of religious differences with Governor John Endecott, Beverly would be set off and incorporated in 1668, when it was named "Beverley" after Beverley, the county town of the East Riding of Yorkshire, England. Surviving from the settlement's early history is the Balch House, according to dendrochronological testing performed in 2006, about 1679; the first ship commissioned for the US military, by the US Army, was the armed schooner Hannah. It was outfitted at Glover's Wharf and first sailed from Beverly Harbor on September 5, 1775. For this reason Beverly calls itself the "Birthplace of America's Navy"—a claim disputed by other towns, including nearby Marblehead.
The Hannah can be found on the patch of the city's police department. Beverly has been called the "birthplace of the American Industrial Revolution," as the site of the first cotton mill in America, largest cotton mill of its time; the town is the home of one of the country's first Sunday schools. Beverly was incorporated as a city in 1894. In 1902, the United Shoe Machinery Corporation built a quarter-mile stretch of factory buildings in Beverly; the stretch was an early landmark example of reinforced concrete construction, devised by concrete pioneer Ernest L. Ransome. In 1906 it went into production. Closed in 1987, the complex was bought by Cummings Properties in 1996, developed into a campus of hi-tech companies and medical offices. Parker Brothers, makers of Monopoly and other games, has offices in Beverly; the city is home to the Landmark School, known worldwide for the education it provides for students with learning disabilities. President William Howard Taft rented a house for the summer White House from Mrs. Maria Evans in Beverly.
In the summers of 1909 and 1910, he lived in a house located at what is now the site of the Italian Garden in Lynch Park, the city's principal public park, in 1911 and 1912 he rented a different house a mile away, "Parramatta", from Mrs. Robert Peabody. Beverly Hills, was named in 1907 after Beverly Farms in Beverly because Taft vacationed there. Beverly has a former Nike missile site on L. P. Henderson Road east of the Beverly Municipal Airport; this site was in operation from March 1957 until August 1959, when the Army handed it over to the National Guard. It is now used by Beverly as a storage site and is under the scrutiny of many environmental organizations, as it and the surrounding areas—such as Casco Chemical—have polluted the groundwater, which could be hazardous to the nearby Wenham Lake water supply. According to the United States Census Bureau, the city has a total area of 22.6 square miles, of which 15.1 square miles is land and 7.5 square miles, or 33.19%, is water. Beverly is located on the North Shore, the name given to communities north of Boston along Massachusetts Bay.
There are many smaller coves, as well as two islands, the Great and Little Misery Islands, which are part of the city. From Woodbury Point westward lies Beverly Harbor, which lies at the mouth of the Danvers River; the Bass River empties into the Danvers River from within the city. Several other small streams lie within the city as well. A large portion of Wenham Lake, as well as several other lakes and ponds lie within the city; the city has its own city reservation land as well. Much of the western half of the city is urbanized, while the eastern part of the city is more rural. Beverly is home to several parks, five beaches, the Beverly Golf & Tennis Club and two yacht clubs, Jubilee Yacht Club in Beverly Harbor and Bass Haven Yacht Club along the Bass River. Besides Massachusetts Bay to the south, Beverly is bordered by Manchester-by-the-Sea to the east, Wenham to the north, Danvers to the west and Salem to the south. Beverly and Salem are separated by the Danvers River and Beverly Harbor, with three bridges, the Veterans Memorial Bridge, the MBTA railroad bridge, the Kernwood Bridge, connecting the two cities.
Beverly's city center lies 2 miles north of Salem's, is 14 miles west-southwest of Gloucester and 17 miles northeast of Boston. Route 128, the chief circumferential highway of the Boston area, crosses Beverly from east to west and connects the city to Interstate 95 and U. S. Route 1 in Danvers. Route 1A passes through Beverly from south along main streets in downtown Beverly; the city is the terminus of four different state routes: Route 22, which heads northeast from Route 1A. Beverly is the site of the split between the separate lines of the Newburyport/Rockport Line of the MBTA Commuter Rail, which provides service to Boston's North Station. South of the junction lies Beverly Depot near downtown, accessible along both lines. Along the Newburyport portion of the line is the North Beverly stop, just south of the Wenham town line. Along the Rockport portion of the line are three stops, Prides Crossing and Beverly Farms. Additionally, MBTA Bus serves the city with Route 451, with service to downtown Beverl
A side platform is a platform positioned to the side of a pair of tracks at a railway station, tram stop, or transitway. Dual side platform stations, one for each direction of travel, is the basic station design used for double-track railway lines. Side platforms may result in a wider overall footprint for the station compared with an island platform where a single width of platform can be shared by riders using either track. In some stations, the two side platforms are connected by a footbridge running above and over the tracks. While a pair of side platforms is provided on a dual-track line, a single side platform is sufficient for a single-track line. Where the station is close to a level crossing the platforms may either be on the same side of the crossing road or alternatively may be staggered in one of two ways. With the'near-side platforms' configuration, each platform appears before the intersection and with'far-side platforms' they are positioned after the intersection. In some situations a single side platform can be served by multiple vehicles with a scissors crossing provided to allow access mid-way along its length.
Most stations with two side platforms have an'Up' platform, used by trains heading towards the primary destination of the line, with the other platform being the'Down' platform which takes trains heading the opposite way. The main facilities of the station are located on the'Up' platform with the other platform accessed from a footbridge, subway or a track crossing. However, in many cases the station's main buildings are located on whichever side faces the town or village the station serves. Larger stations may have two side platforms with several island platforms in between; some are in a Spanish solution format, with two side platforms and an island platform in between, serving two tracks. Island platform Split platform