Race and ethnicity in the United States Census
Race and ethnicity in the United States Census, defined by the federal Office of Management and Budget and the United States Census Bureau, are self-identification data items in which residents choose the race or races with which they most identify, indicate whether or not they are of Hispanic or Latino origin. The racial categories represent a social-political construct for the race or races that respondents consider themselves to be and, "generally reflect a social definition of race recognized in this country." OMB defines the concept of race as outlined for the US Census as not "scientific or anthropological" and takes into account "social and cultural characteristics as well as ancestry", using "appropriate scientific methodologies" that are not "primarily biological or genetic in reference." The race categories include both national-origin groups. Race and ethnicity are considered separate and distinct identities, with Hispanic or Latino origin asked as a separate question. Thus, in addition to their race or races, all respondents are categorized by membership in one of two ethnic categories, which are "Hispanic or Latino" and "Not Hispanic or Latino".
However, the practice of separating "race" and "ethnicity" as different categories has been criticized both by the American Anthropological Association and members of US Commission on Civil Rights. In 1997, OMB issued a Federal Register notice regarding revisions to the standards for the classification of federal data on race and ethnicity. OMB developed race and ethnic standards in order to provide "consistent data on race and ethnicity throughout the Federal Government; the development of the data standards stem in large measure from new responsibilities to enforce civil rights laws." Among the changes, OMB issued the instruction to "mark one or more races" after noting evidence of increasing numbers of interracial children and wanting to capture the diversity in a measurable way and having received requests by people who wanted to be able to acknowledge their or their children's full ancestry rather than identifying with only one group. Prior to this decision, the Census and other government data collections asked people to report only one race.
The OMB states, "many federal programs are put into effect based on the race data obtained from the decennial census. Race data are critical for the basic research behind many policy decisions. States require these data to meet legislative redistricting requirements; the data are needed to monitor compliance with the Voting Rights Act by local jurisdictions". "Data on ethnic groups are important for putting into effect a number of federal statutes. Data on Ethnic Groups are needed by local governments to run programs and meet legislative requirements." The 1790 United States Census was the first census in the history of the United States. The population of the United States was recorded as 3,929,214 as of Census Day, August 2, 1790, as mandated by Article I, Section 2 of the United States Constitution and applicable laws."The law required that every household be visited, that completed census schedules be posted in'two of the most public places within, there to remain for the inspection of all concerned...' and that'the aggregate amount of each description of persons' for every district be transmitted to the president."
This law along with U. S. marshals were responsible for governing the census. One third of the original census data has been lost or destroyed since documentation; the data was lost in 1790–1830 time period and included data from: Connecticut, Maryland, New Hampshire, New York, North Carolina, Rhode Island, South Carolina, Delaware, New Jersey, Virginia. Census data included the name of the head of the family and categorized inhabitants as follows: free white males at least 16 years of age, free white males under 16 years of age, free white females, all other free persons, slaves. Thomas Jefferson the Secretary of State, directed marshals to collect data from all thirteen states, from the Southwest Territory; the census was not conducted in Vermont until 1791, after that state's admission to the Union as the 14th state on March 4 of that year. There was some doubt surrounding the numbers, President George Washington and Thomas Jefferson maintained the population was undercounted; the potential reasons Washington and Jefferson may have thought this could be refusal to participate, poor public transportation and roads, spread out population, restraints of current technology.
No microdata from the 1790 population census is available, but aggregate data for small areas and their compatible cartographic boundary files, can be downloaded from the National Historical Geographic Information System. In 1800 and 1810, the age question regarding free white males was more detailed; the 1820
Catholic schools are parochial schools or education ministries of the Roman Catholic Church. As of 2011, the Church operates the world's largest non-governmental school system. In 2016, the church supported 43,800 secondary schools, 95,200 primary schools. Catholic schools participate in the evangelizing mission of the Church, integrating religious education as a core subject within their curriculum. Irish immigration provides the main contribution to the increases in Catholic communities across the globe; the Irish immigration established the revival of Catholicism through movement to countries across North America, United Kingdom and Australia. The establishment of Catholic schools in Europe encountered various struggles following the creation of the Church of England in the Elizabethan Religious settlements of 1558-63. Anti-Catholicism in this period encouraged Catholics to create modern Catholic education systems to preserve their traditions; the Relief Acts of 1782 and the Catholic Emancipation Act of 1829 increased the possibility to practice Catholicism in England and to create charitable institutions by the Church.
This led to the development of numerous native religious congregations which established schools, orphanages and workhouses. Traditionally, Catholic schools originated as single sex schools. Catholic schools were required to depend on school fees and endowments. Endowments dropped off causing fees to rise; this prevented some students from enrolling due to their inability to pay. Catholic schools are distinct from their public school counterparts in focusing on the development of individuals as practitioners of the Catholic faith; the leaders and students are required to focus on four fundamental rules initiated by the Church and school. This includes the Catholic identity of the school, education in regards to life and faith, celebration of life and faith, action and social justice. Like other Christian-affiliated institutions, Catholic schools are nondenominational, in that they accept anyone regardless of religion or denominational affiliation, race or ethnicity, or nationality, provided the admission or enrollment requirements and legal documents are submitted, rules & regulations are obeyed for a fruitful school life.
However, non-Catholics, whether Christian or not, may need to participate in or be exempted from required activities those of a religious nature. These are in keeping with the spirit of social inclusiveness; the religious education as a core subject is a vital element of the curriculum where individuals are to develop themselves: “intellectually, physically emotionally and of course, spiritually.” The education involves: “the distinct but complementary aspect of the school's religious dimension of liturgical and prayer life of the school community.” In Catholic schools, teachers teach a Religious Education Program provided by the Bishop. Both teacher and Bishop therefore, contribute to the planning and teaching Religious Education Lessons. Catholic education has been identified as a positive fertility factor. Catholic schools in Malaysia have been the backbone of formal education in the country. Catholic schools have undergone many changes since independence in the late early 60s; the education policy in Malaysia is centralized.
In 1988, all Catholic religious brothers older than 55 were asked to retire with immediate effect, creating vacancies for lay teachers to take over. Any new brother wanting to join the teaching profession in Malaysia have to be in the civil service and share the same status as lay teachers. Many of the Lasallian traditions such as inter-La Salle games or sports are now integrated into other larger government funded programmes. With Islam being the state religion, compulsory or elective Bible lessons today are limited only to those of the Catholic faith; the missionaries who opened schools in Malaysia gave a solid education framework. Today, there are 68 Sisters of the Infant Jesus,11 Parish Convents and 46 La Salle Brothers schools in the country; the Catholic Church in Pakistan is active in education, managing leading schools in addition to its spiritual work. The Catholic Church runs 534 schools, 53 hostels, 8 colleges, 7 technical institutes, according to 2008 statistics; the Catholic Board of Education is the arm of the Catholic Church in Pakistan, responsible for education.
Each diocese has its own board. The Government of Pakistan nationalised most church schools and colleges in Punjab and Sindh in 1972. Leading schools such as St Patrick's High School, Karachi, St Joseph's Convent School and St Michael's Convent School were never nationalised; the Government of Sindh oversaw a denationalization program from 1985 to 1995, the Government of Punjab began a similar program in 1996. In 2001, the Federal Government and the courts ordered the provincial governments to complete the denationalization process. In the Philippines, private schools have been operated by the Catholic Church since the time of Spanish colonization; the Philippines is one of two predominantly Roman Catholic nations in Southeast Asia, the other being East Timor, with a 2004 study by UNESCO indicating that 83% of the population as identifying themselves as Catholics. The oldest existing university in Asia, University of Santo Tomas, is located in the Philippines, it is the largest single Catholic university in the world.
The university was established by the Order of Preachers known as the Dominican Order, on
The Hoover Company
Hoover is a vacuum cleaner company founded in Ohio in the US. It established a major base in the United Kingdom and in the 20th century it dominated the electric vacuum cleaner industry, to the point where the Hoover brand name became synonymous with vacuum cleaners and vacuuming in the United Kingdom and Ireland. Hoover was part of the Whirlpool Corporation but was sold in 2006 to Techtronic Industries for $107 million. Hoover Europe/UK split from Hoover US in 1993 and was acquired by Techtronic Industries, a company based in Hong Kong. In addition to producing floorcare products, Hoover was an iconic domestic appliance brand in Europe well known for its washing machines and tumble dryers in the UK and Ireland, had significant sales in many parts of Europe. Today, the Hoover Europe brand, as part of the portfolio of brands owned by Candy Group, remains a major player in the European white goods and floor care sectors in a number of countries; the first upright vacuum cleaner was invented in June 1908 by Canton, Ohio department store janitor and occasional inventor James Murray Spangler.
Spangler was an asthmatic, suspecting the carpet sweeper he was using at work was the cause of his ailment, he created a basic suction-sweeper by mounting an electric fan motor on a Bissell brand carpet sweeper adding a soap box and a broom handle. After refining the design and obtaining a patent for the Electric Suction Sweeper he set about producing it himself, assisted by his son, who helped him assemble the machines, his daughter, who assembled the dust bags. Production was slow, just two to three machines completed a week. Spangler gave one of his Electric Suction Sweepers to his cousin Susan Troxel Hoover, who used it at home. Impressed with the machine, she told her son about it. William Henry "Boss" Hoover and son Herbert William Hoover Sr. were leather goods manufacturers in North Canton, which at the time was called New Berlin. Hoover bought the patent from Spangler in 1908, founding the Electric Suction Sweeper Company with $36,000 capital, retaining Spangler as production supervisor with pay based on royalties in the new business.
Spangler continued to contribute to the company, patenting numerous further Suction Sweeper designs until his death in 1915, when the company name was changed to the Hoover Suction Sweeper Company, with Spangler's family continuing to receive royalties from his original patent until 1925. In the early 1930s the company retained the services of Henry Dreyfuss, an up-and-coming industrial designer, to give the Hoover line-up a much needed update. Prior to Dreyfuss's involvement with the company, the majority of the machines manufactured consisted of a black motor and an aluminum base; when Hoover introduced the'Hedlite' in 1932, it was rather unattractive. Dreyfuss integrated this into the housing of the cleaner, making the machine more aesthetically pleasing and echoing the trends of streamline design. Of Dreyfuss's designs before 1936, he was able to update the basic Hoover machine and keep the company's products relevant with the times. In 1935, he was commissioned to redesign the Hoover cleaner.
In 1936, for a fee of 25,000 USD, Dreyfuss sold Hoover the design which would become the Model 150 cleaner. For the first time since the introduction of the Hoover vacuum cleaner, the mechanical workings were concealed from sight by a Bakelite cover; this cover was a tear-drop styled shell. He revamped the base of the machine. Since the release of this design, all Hoover cleaners consisted of a fluid base and a hood to cover the electric motor; these designs suggested efficiency and speed. Dreyfuss brought style to an otherwise mundane household appliance, his final design for the Hoover Company was the 1957 Convertible. Faced with a total lack of interest by the public in his expensive and unfamiliar new gadget, Hoover placed an ad in The Saturday Evening Post offering customers ten days' free use of his vacuum cleaner to anyone who requested it. Using a network of local retailers to facilitate the offer, Hoover thus developed a national network of retailers for the vacuums. By the end of 1908, the company had sold 372 Model 0s.
By 1912, sales had been made to Norway, Russia, Belgium and Scotland. In 1919, Gerald Page-Wood – an art director of Erwin, Wasey & Company, Hoover's advertising agency – came up with a succinct slogan which summed up the Hoover's cleaning action:'It Beats...as it Sweeps...as it Cleans'. At this time, it referred to the action of the revolving brushes, which vibrated the carpet and helped loosen the trodden-in grit; this offered an advantage over competitors' machines, which used suction alone to remove dirt, therefore were not as efficient as the Hoover. Seven years the famous slogan would adapt to more significance. Hoover's business began to flourish, and, a year after Hoover acquired the patent from Spangler, he established a research and development department for his new business. By 1926, Hoover had developed the'beater bar' - a metal bar attached to the rotating brush roll, situated in the floor nozzle cavity of the upright vacuum cleaner. Introduced on Models 543 and 700, the beater bars alternated with the sweeping brushes to vibrate the carpet while sucking.
It provided a more distinct'tap' than the bristle tufts used on the former machines, led to a 101% increase in efficiency. This cleaning action was marketed by Hoover as "Positive Agitation".'It Beats...as it Sweeps...as it Cleans' rang more true now than ever. In 1929, Hoover in
Nimishillen Creek is a tributary of Sandy Creek, 24.5 miles long, in northeastern Ohio in the United States. Via Sandy Creek and the Tuscarawas and Ohio Rivers, it is part of the watershed of the Mississippi River, draining an area of 187 square miles, including the city of Canton. Nimishillen Creek flows on both glaciated and unglaciated portions of the Allegheny Plateau, in Stark and Tuscarawas Counties, it is formed in Canton by the confluence of the East Branch Nimishillen Creek and the Middle Branch Nimishillen Creek. The East Branch flows through Louisville. Shortly downstream of this confluence, the stream collects the West Branch Nimishillen Creek, nine miles long and flows through North Canton and Canton. From Canton, Nimishillen Creek flows southwardly, past East Sparta, into northern Tuscarawas County, where it flows into Sandy Creek from the north. According to the Geographic Names Information System, Nimishillen Creek has been known as: Memenshehelas Creek Nanashehelas Creek Nemenshehela Creek Nemenshehelas Creek Nenenchelus Creek Nimishillen Run Nine Shilling Creek List of rivers of Ohio
2010 United States Census
The 2010 United States Census is the twenty-third and most recent United States national census. National Census Day, the reference day used for the census, was April 1, 2010; the census was taken via mail-in citizen self-reporting, with enumerators serving to spot-check randomly selected neighborhoods and communities. As part of a drive to increase the count's accuracy, 635,000 temporary enumerators were hired; the population of the United States was counted as 308,745,538, a 9.7% increase from the 2000 Census. This was the first census in which all states recorded a population of over half a million, as well as the first in which all 100 largest cities recorded populations of over 200,000; as required by the United States Constitution, the U. S. census has been conducted every 10 years since 1790. The 2000 U. S. Census was the previous census completed. Participation in the U. S. Census is required by law in Title 13 of the United States Code. On January 25, 2010, Census Bureau Director Robert Groves inaugurated the 2010 Census enumeration by counting World War II veteran Clifton Jackson, a resident of Noorvik, Alaska.
More than 120 million census forms were delivered by the U. S. Post Office beginning March 15, 2010; the number of forms mailed out or hand-delivered by the Census Bureau was 134 million on April 1, 2010. Although the questionnaire used April 1, 2010 as the reference date as to where a person was living, an insert dated March 15, 2010 included the following printed in bold type: "Please complete and mail back the enclosed census form today." The 2010 Census national mail participation rate was 74%. From April through July 2010, census takers visited households that did not return a form, an operation called "non-response follow-up". In December 2010, the U. S. Census Bureau delivered population information to the U. S. President for apportionment, in March 2011, complete redistricting data was delivered to states. Identifiable information will be available in 2082; the Census Bureau did not use a long form for the 2010 Census. In several previous censuses, one in six households received this long form, which asked for detailed social and economic information.
The 2010 Census used only a short form asking ten basic questions: How many people were living or staying in this house, apartment, or mobile home on April 1, 2010? Were there any additional people staying here on April 1, 2010 that you did not include in Question 1? Mark all that apply: Is this house, apartment, or mobile home – What is your telephone number? What is Person 1's name? What is Person 1's sex? What is Person 1's age and Person 1's date of birth? Is Person 1 of Hispanic, Latino, or Spanish origin? What is Person 1's race? Does Person 1 sometimes live or stay somewhere else? The form included space to repeat all of these questions for up to twelve residents total. In contrast to the 2000 census, an Internet response option was not offered, nor was the form available for download. Detailed socioeconomic information collected during past censuses will continue to be collected through the American Community Survey; the survey provides data about communities in the United States on a 1-year or 3-year cycle, depending on the size of the community, rather than once every 10 years.
A small percentage of the population on a rotating basis will receive the survey each year, no household will receive it more than once every five years. In June 2009, the U. S. Census Bureau announced. However, the final form did not contain a separate "same-sex married couple" option; when noting the relationship between household members, same-sex couples who are married could mark their spouses as being "Husband or wife", the same response given by opposite-sex married couples. An "unmarried partner" option was available for couples; the 2010 census cost $13 billion $42 per capita. Operational costs were $5.4 billion under the $7 billion budget. In December 2010 the Government Accountability Office noted that the cost of conducting the census has doubled each decade since 1970. In a detailed 2004 report to Congress, the GAO called on the Census Bureau to address cost and design issues, at that time, had estimated the 2010 Census cost to be $11 billion. In August 2010, Commerce Secretary Gary Locke announced that the census operational costs came in under budget.
Locke credited the management practices of Census Bureau director Robert Groves, citing in particular the decision to buy additional advertising in locations where responses lagged, which improved the overall response rate. The agency has begun to rely more on questioning neighbors or other reliable third parties when a person could not be reached at home, which reduced the cost of follow-up visits. Census data for about 22% of U. S. househol
Stark County, Ohio
Stark County is a county located in the U. S. state of Ohio. As of the 2010 census, the population was 375,586, its county seat is Canton. The county was organized the next year, it is named for an officer in the American Revolutionary War. Stark County is included in the Canton-Massillon, OH Metropolitan Statistical Area, included in the Cleveland-Akron-Canton, OH Combined Statistical Area. Stark County was named in honor of American Revolutionary War General John Stark. John Stark was a general who served in the American Continental Army during the American Revolutionary War, he became known as the "Hero of Bennington" for his exemplary service at the Battle of Bennington in 1777. During the early 20th century, Stark County was an important location in the early development of professional football; the rivalry between the Massillon Tigers and Canton Bulldogs helped bring the Ohio League to prominence in the mid-1900s and again in the late 1910s. The Bulldogs ended up a charter member of the National Football League, where it played for several years.
Two large football stadiums, Fawcett Stadium in Canton and Paul Brown Tiger Stadium in Massillon, are still in use, with Fawcett Stadium hosting the NFL's annual Pro Football Hall of Fame Game each year. In the 20th century, Stark County's voting record swung from one party to another tracking the winner of the U. S. Presidential election. Within the swing state of Ohio, Stark County is regarded as a quintessential bellwether, thus presidential candidates have made multiple visits to the region. Major media outlets pay close attention to the election results in the county; the New York Times in particular has covered the county's citizens and their voting concerns in a series of features each election cycle for over a decade. According to the U. S. Census Bureau, the county has a total area of 581 square miles, of which 575 square miles is land and 5.3 square miles is water. First Ladies National Historic Site As of the census of 2000, there were 378,098 people, 148,316 households, 102,782 families residing in the county.
The population density was 656 people per square mile. There were 157,024 housing units at an average density of 272 per square mile; the racial makeup of the county was 90.28% White, 7.20% Black or African American, 0.24% Native American, 0.54% Asian, 0.02% Pacific Islander, 0.29% from other races, 1.43% from two or more races. 0.92% of the population were Hispanic or Latino of any race. There were 148,316 households out of which 31.00% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 54.20% were married couples living together, 11.50% had a female householder with no husband present, 30.70% were non-families. 26.10% of all households were made up of individuals and 10.90% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.49 and the average family size was 3.00. In the county, the population was spread out with 24.80% under the age of 18, 8.30% from 18 to 24, 27.80% from 25 to 44, 24.00% from 45 to 64, 15.10% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 38 years.
For every 100 females there were 92.40 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 88.40 males. The median income for a household in the county was $39,824, the median income for a family was $47,747. Males had a median income of $37,065 versus $23,875 for females; the per capita income for the county was $20,417. About 6.80% of families and 9.20% of the population were below the poverty line, including 12.90% of those under age 18 and 6.60% of those age 65 or over. As of the 2010 census, there were 375,586 people, 151,089 households, 100,417 families residing in the county; the population density was 652.9 inhabitants per square mile. There were 165,215 housing units at an average density of 287.2 per square mile. The racial makeup of the county was 88.7% white, 7.6% black or African American, 0.7% Asian, 0.3% American Indian, 0.5% from other races, 2.2% from two or more races. Those of Hispanic or Latino origin made up 1.6% of the population. In terms of ancestry, 33.6% were German, 15.5% were Irish, 10.1% were English, 10.1% were Italian, 7.7% were American.
Of the 151,089 households, 30.2% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 49.2% were married couples living together, 12.7% had a female householder with no husband present, 33.5% were non-families, 28.1% of all households were made up of individuals. The average household size was 2.42 and the average family size was 2.96. The median age was 41.1 years. The median income for a household in the county was $44,941 and the median income for a family was $55,976. Males had a median income of $44,238 versus $31,896 for females; the per capita income for the county was $24,015. About 9.5% of families and 12.7% of the population were below the poverty line, including 19.5% of those under age 18 and 6.7% of those age 65 or over. Stark county used to be Republican, but since 1992 it has become a swing county that tilts Democratic. In 2016, Donald Trump won the county by the largest margin of any presidential candidate since Ronald Reagan in 1984. Commissioners: Janet Weir Creighton, Bill Smith, Richard Regula Auditor: Alan Harold Clerk of Courts: Louis P. Giavasis Judges of the Court of Common Pleas: Hon. Kristin Farmer, Hon. John G. Haas, Hon. Taryn L. Heath, Hon. Francis G. Forchione, Hon Chryssa Hartnett Coroner: P.
S. Murthy M. D. Engineer: Keith Bennett Family Court: Hon. Rosemarie Hall, Hon Jim D. James, Hon
A census is the procedure of systematically acquiring and recording information about the members of a given population. The term is used in connection with national population and housing censuses; the United Nations defines the essential features of population and housing censuses as "individual enumeration, universality within a defined territory and defined periodicity", recommends that population censuses be taken at least every 10 years. United Nations recommendations cover census topics to be collected, official definitions and other useful information to co-ordinate international practice; the word is of Latin origin: during the Roman Republic, the census was a list that kept track of all adult males fit for military service. The modern census is essential to international comparisons of any kind of statistics, censuses collect data on many attributes of a population, not just how many people there are. Censuses began as the only method of collecting national demographic data, are now part of a larger system of different surveys.
Although population estimates remain an important function of a census, including the geographic distribution of the population, statistics can be produced about combinations of attributes e.g. education by age and sex in different regions. Current administrative data systems allow for other approaches to enumeration with the same level of detail but raise concerns about privacy and the possibility of biasing estimates. A census can be contrasted with sampling in which information is obtained only from a subset of a population. Modern census data are used for research, business marketing, planning, as a baseline for designing sample surveys by providing a sampling frame such as an address register. Census counts are necessary to adjust samples to be representative of a population by weighting them as is common in opinion polling. Stratification requires knowledge of the relative sizes of different population strata which can be derived from census enumerations. In some countries, the census provides the official counts used to apportion the number of elected representatives to regions.
In many cases, a chosen random sample can provide more accurate information than attempts to get a population census. A census is construed as the opposite of a sample as its intent is to count everyone in a population rather than a fraction. However, population censuses rely on a sampling frame to count the population; this is the only way to be sure that everyone has been included as otherwise those not responding would not be followed up on and individuals could be missed. The fundamental premise of a census is that the population is not known and a new estimate is to be made by the analysis of primary data; the use of a sampling frame is counterintuitive as it suggests that the population size is known. However, a census is used to collect attribute data on the individuals in the nation; this process of sampling marks the difference between historical census, a house to house process or the product of an imperial decree, the modern statistical project. The sampling frame used by census is always an address register.
Thus it is not known how many people there are in each household. Depending on the mode of enumeration, a form is sent to the householder, an enumerator calls, or administrative records for the dwelling are accessed; as a preliminary to the dispatch of forms, census workers will check any address problems on the ground. While it may seem straightforward to use the postal service file for this purpose, this can be out of date and some dwellings may contain a number of independent households. A particular problem is what are termed'communal establishments' which category includes student residences, religious orders, homes for the elderly, people in prisons etc; as these are not enumerated by a single householder, they are treated differently and visited by special teams of census workers to ensure they are classified appropriately. Individuals are counted within households and information is collected about the household structure and the housing. For this reason international documents refer to censuses of housing.
The census response is made by a household, indicating details of individuals resident there. An important aspect of census enumerations is determining which individuals can be counted from which cannot be counted. Broadly, three definitions can be used: de facto residence; this is important to consider individuals who have temporary addresses. Every person should be identified uniquely as resident in one place but where they happen to be on Census Day, their de facto residence, may not be the best place to count them. Where an individual uses services may be more useful and this is at their usual, or de jure, residence. An individual may be represented at a permanent address a family home for students or long term migrants, it is necessary to have a precise definition of residence to decide whether visitors to a country should be included in the population count. This is becoming more important as students travel abroad for education for a period of several years. Other groups causing problems of enumeration are new born babies, people away on holiday, people moving home around census day, people without a fixed address.
People having second homes because of working in another part of the country or retaining a holiday cottage are dif