West 3rd station
West 3rd is a station on the RTA Waterfront Line in Cleveland, Ohio, USA. The station is located on the east side of West 3rd Street and south of the westboard exit ramp of the Cleveland Memorial Shoreway; the station serves as a destination for those going to Cleveland Browns football games and as an access for those leaving the games. The station's main entrance is from the north platform on its west side from West 3rd Street. There is a small station lobby with an attendant booth and an elevator and stairs leading down to the north side platform. There are ramps on its north side from West 3rd Street and from Lerner Way adjacent to FirstEnergy Stadium; these ramps are closed except during Browns games, there are multiple faregates to handle crowds using the station during the games. Access to the south platform is by crossings that extend across both tracks at each end of the south platform. Foundations for the station were put in place when the Waterfront Line was constructed, but there was no station when the Waterfront Line opened on July 10, 1996, since Cleveland Municipal Stadium was being demolished and construction of FirstEnergy Stadium had not yet begun.
The $5 million station was completed and opened on August 12, 1999, in time for the first home game. FirstEnergy Stadium Justice Center The Warehouse District Port of Cleveland Perry Monument Cuyahoga County Courthouse Justice Center Complex Huntington Convention Center of Cleveland Cleveland Convention Center Global Center for Health Innovation The Mall
Sports in Cleveland
Cleveland's professional sports teams include the Cleveland Indians, Cleveland Browns, Cleveland Cavaliers, Cleveland Monsters, the Cleveland Gladiators. Local sporting facilities include Progressive Field, FirstEnergy Stadium, Rocket Mortgage FieldHouse and the Wolstein Center; the Browns have been among the winningest franchises in American football history winning eight titles during a short period of time—1946, 1947, 1948, 1949, 1950, 1954, 1955, 1964. The Browns have never played in a Super Bowl, getting a game away five times making it to the NFL/AFC Championship Game in 1968, 1969, 1986, 1987, 1989. Former owner Art Modell's relocation of the Browns after the 1995 season, caused tremendous heartbreak and resentment among local fans. Cleveland mayor, Michael R. White, worked with the NFL and Commissioner Paul Tagliabue to bring back the Browns beginning in 1999 season, retaining all team history. In earlier NFL history, the Cleveland Bulldogs won the NFL Championship in 1924, the Cleveland Rams won the NFL Championship in 1945 before relocating to Los Angeles.
The Cleveland Indians won the World Series in 1920 and 1948. They won the American League pennant, making the World Series in the 1954, 1995, 1997, 2016 seasons. Between 1995 and 2001, Progressive Field sold out 455 consecutive games, a Major League Baseball record until it was broken in 2008; the Cavaliers have won the Eastern Conference in 2007, 2015, 2016, 2017 and 2018. The team's first and only NBA championship was won in 2016 after coming back from a 3–1 deficit, defeating the defending champions Golden State Warriors. Afterwards, an estimated 1.3 million people attended a parade held in the Cavs honor on June 22, 2016. This was the first time. Basketball, the Cleveland Rosenblums dominated the original American Basketball League winning three of the first five championships, the Cleveland Pipers, owned by George Steinbrenner, won the American Basketball League championship in 1962. From 1964–2016, the city's failure to win a trophy in any major professional sport earned a reputation of being a cursed sports city, extensively covered by the 2016 ESPN 30 for 30 documentary Believeland.
In addition, changes in the Cleveland sports landscape led to further heartbreak and resentment among local fans, the most notable instances being Art Modell's relocation of the Browns to Baltimore after the 1995 season, Akron native LeBron James' decision to leave the Cavaliers in 2010 for the Miami Heat. The Cleveland city sports curse is seen as having ended in June 2016, when the Cavaliers won the NBA Championship against the defending champion Golden State Warriors. Shortly before the Cavaliers' victory, the Monsters defeated the Hershey Bears to become AHL champions, the first time a Cleveland hockey team had won the Calder Cup since 1964. Notable Cleveland athletes to win top individual accolades include boxer Johnny Kilbane, U. S. Olympic Hall of Fame inductees Jesse Owens and Harrison Dillard, mixed martial artist Stipe Miocic, snowboarder Red Gerard. Kilbane had a 12-year reign as World Featherweight Champion and is an International Boxing Hall of Fame inductee. Owens, who grew up in Cleveland after moving from Alabama when he was nine, participated in the 1936 Summer Olympics in Berlin, where he achieved international fame by winning four gold medals: one each in the 100 meters, the 200 meters, the long jump, as part of the 4 x 100 meter relay team.
Cleveland native Dillard is another four-time Olympic gold medalist, having won his medals during the 1948 and 1952 Summer Olympics in various track and field events. In 2016, Cleveland State University alum and area native Miocic won the UFC World Heavyweight Championship at UFC 198 with a first round knockout. During the 2018 Winter Olympics, area native Gerard won a gold medal for snowboarding; the city has been home to several additional professional sports franchises, including a women's basketball team, multiple soccer teams, a past incarnation of the Cleveland Browns now known as the Baltimore Ravens. Cleveland has been home to several ice hockey franchises, beginning in 1937 with the AHL member Cleveland Barons; the original Barons, although having been the most successful team in AHL history at that point, moved to Jacksonville, where they subsequently folded after one season. The salient cause of the Baron's move came from Nick Mileti's short-lived WHA franchise, the Cleveland Crusaders, which shared the old Cleveland Arena with the Barons in beginning in 1972.
The new league created a financial disparity that the Barons could not compete with. Local philanthropist George Gund III facilitated the relocation of the NHL's California Golden Seals to Cleveland in 1976 and renamed them the Barons. However, this latest incarnation was short lived, with the team merging with the Minnesota North Stars following the 1977–78 season. In 1992 the Cleveland Lumberjacks, of the now-defunct IHL, began play and lasted until 2001. In 2001, a third incarnation of the Barons was established, this time having returned to the AHL; the Barons moved to Massachusetts following the 2006 season. In 1997, Cleveland was awarded one of the original eight franchises in the WNBA, the Cleveland Rockers. Although the Rockers finished first in the WNBA Eastern Conference on two occasions, they never made an appearance in the WNBA Finals; the team folded in 2003. Previous owner Gordon
Children's Museum of Cleveland
The Children's Museum of Cleveland was established in 1981 and is located in the Midtown neighborhood of Cleveland, Ohio. It was located in the University Circle area of Cleveland. One University Circle was built on its former location. After two years of renovation and designing all new exhibits, the museum opened at its new location on November 6, 2017; the Children's Museum of Cleveland is ADA accessible. The museum has four permanent exhibits: Adventure City Wonder Lab Arts & Parts Making Miniatures Official website
Cleveland National Air Show
The Cleveland National Air Show is an annual air show held on Labor Day weekend at Burke Lakefront Airport in Cleveland, Ohio. It was established in 1964 as an indirect successor to the National Air Races; the show includes stunt airplanes, modern fighters and alternates between the U. S. Navy Blue Angels and U. S. Air Force Thunderbirds every other year; the show runs from 9:00 a.m. to around 6:00 p.m. EDT; the show starts with smaller acts, the Blue Angels or Thunderbirds perform last. Another regular attraction is the NASA Glenn Research Center, which has an exhibit located near the back of the show. There is some type of heritage or legacy flight, sometimes both; this section is a list of all aircraft that have performed in the Cleveland National Airshow in recent history. Please note that only the acts are listed, not static displays or other ground attractions. U. S. Navy Blue Angels Unmanned Aircraft Systems Demonstration Nasa Glenn Northern Ohio Unmanned Aircraft Systems Association Art Nalls' Sea Harrier and L-39 Black Jet The 2013 Cleveland National Air Show was canceled due to the federal sequester.
U. S. Navy Blue Angels USMC Fat Albert US Army Golden Knights F/A-18F Super Hornet Sky Soldiers Cobra Helicopter Demonstration Team Sean Tucker Mike Goulian Aerosports Jane Wicker Shockwave Jet Truck Aurora Stearman B-17 Flying Fortress "Yankee Lady" Jim Leavelle Metro Life Flight US Air Force Heritage Flight U. S. Air Force Thunderbirds US Army Golden Knights A-10 Thunderbolt II F/A-18 Hornet F-4 Phantom II P-51 Mustang CP-140 Aurora Jason Newburg- Viper Airshows USAF Heritage Flight Jacquie B Airshows Kent Pietsch Jelly Belly Jim "Fang" Maroney School Time Jet Bus John Klatt B-17 Flying Fortress "Memphis Belle" Metro Life Flight Eurocopter EC-145 U. S. Navy Blue Angels USMC Fat Albert US Army Golden Knights F/A-18F Super Hornet U. S. Navy Legacy Flight F-15E Strike Eagle Red Eagle Air Sports Gene Soucy Teresa Stokes Wingwalking B-17 Flying Fortress "Yankee Lady" Mitsubishi A6M Zero "TORA 101" Shockwave Jet Truck Mad Bomber Pyrotechnics and Wall of Fire Metro Life Flight Eurocopter EC-145 TS-11 Iskra U.
S. Air Force Thunderbirds AV-8B Harrier II F-15E Strike Eagle A-10 Thunderbolt II USCG HH-65C Dolphin C-130 Hercules KC-135 Stratotanker Skip Stewart Franklin's Flying Circus John Klatt AH-64 Apache B-17 Flying Fortress "Memphis Belle" TS-11 Iskra US Army Golden Knights Cleveland Aeromodeling Society USAF Heritage Flight Metro Life Flight Eurocopter EC-145 Shockwave Jet Truck U. S. Navy Blue Angels F/A-18F Super Hornet F-15C Eagle F-16C Fighting Falcon C-130 Hercules Red Star & Dragon B-17 Flying Fortress "Yankee Lady" John Mohr Barnstorming Silent Wings Nikolay Timofeev Sean Tucker TS-11 Iskra Cleveland Aeromodeling Society US Army Golden Knights USN Legacy Flight USAF Heritage Flight Metro Life Flight Sikorsky S-76 Shockwave Jet Truck U. S. Air Force Thunderbirds F/A-18F Super Hornet F-15E Strike Eagle C-17 Globemaster III F-86 Sabre C-130 Hercules Julie Clark T-34 Mentor John Klatt Sean Tucker TS-11 Iskra USAF Heritage Flight Shockwave Jet truck Metro Life Flight Sikorsky S-76 U. S. Navy Blue Angels A-10 Thunderbolt II F-22 Raptor B-1 Lancer F-117 Nighthawk USAF Heritage Flight C-130 Hercules US Army Golden Knights The Red Knight TS-11 Iskra Shockwave Jet Truck Greg Poe Walt Pierce B-25 Mitchell "Panchito" Supermarine Spitfire F4U Corsair Metro Life Flight Sikorsky S-76 Cleveland Aeromodeling Society U.
S. Air Force Thunderbirds A-10 Thunderbolt II B-1 Lancer USAF Heritage Flight F/A-18F Super Hornet USN Legacy Flight C-130 Hercules US Army Golden Knights Sean Tucker Matt Chapman Michael Mancuso Shockwave Jet Truck B-17 Flying Fortress "Yankee Lady" B-25 Mitchell "Yankee Warrior" C-47 Skytrain "Yankee Doodle Dandy" Metro Life Flight Sikorsky S-76 Cleveland Aeromodeling Society Sky Busters Rocketry Club F-16 Fighting Falcon F/A-18 Hornet USAF Heritage Flight USN Legacy Flight P-51 Mustang F4U Corsair B-1 Lancer C-17 Globemaster III C-130 Hercules US Army Golden Knights B-25 Mitchell "Panchito" B-17 Flying Fortress "Memphis Belle" Shockwave Jet truck Jim Leroy US Jet Aerobatic Team Jimmy Franklin Steve Coan Kyle Franklin Jet Wingwalking Metro Life Flight Sikorsky S-76 Cleveland Aeromodeling Society Sky Busters Rocketry Club U. S. Navy Blue Angels US Army Golden Knights F-16 Fighting Falcon F-14 Tomcat Firebirds Delta Team Debbie Gary F4U Corsair P-51 Mustang Hawker Sea Fury US Air Force Reserve Jet Cars Classic Air Racers P-38 Lightning P-40 Warhawk F6F Hellcat Metro Life Flight Sikorsky S-76 Cleveland Aeromodeling Society U.
S. Air Force Thunderbirds US Army Golden Knights A-10 Thunderbolt II F-14 Tomcat CF-18 Hornet AeroShell Aerobatics Hispano HA-200 Learjet 23 Beech 18 Sukhoi Su-31 Shockwave Jet Truck Lockheed Constellation Martin 404 Douglas DC-3 Ford Tri-Motor Air Racing B-25 Mitchell Cleveland Aeromodeling Society U. S. Navy Blue Angels US Army Golden Knights A-10 Thunderbolt II CF-18 Hornet C-130 Hercules B-1 Lancer C-17 Globemaster III Swift Magic aerobatic team F-86 Sabre MiG-15 Aero L-39 Bob & Pat Wagner Jim "Bulldog" Leroy Dan Buchanan Bee Gee replica Walt Linscott Ian Groom Cleveland Aeromodeling Society US Air Force Thunderbirds CASPA Challenge Series F-14 Tomcat F-15 Eagle F/A-18 Hornet RAF Hawker Siddeley Nimrod YAK-55 Greg Poe Gene Soucy (Extra 30
History of Cleveland
This article chronicles the history of Cleveland, Ohio. At the end of the last glacial period, which ended about 15,000 years ago at the southern edge of Lake Erie, there was a tundra landscape, it took about two and a half millennia to turn this wet and cold landscape drier and warmer, so that caribou, deer, wolves and cougars were prevalent. The oldest human, paleo-Indian traces reach back as far as 10500 BC. There was an early settlement in Medina County, dated between 9200 and 8850 BC; some tools consisted of flint from Indiana. Rising temperatures at about 7500 BC led to a stable phase between 7000 and 4500 BC which had similar characteristics to today's climate. Population grew, these members of the so-called Early Archaic Culture lived in large families along the rivers and the shores of the lakes. During the warm seasons they met for gathering; the technology of tools improved but flint was still an important resource in that regard. Important archaeological sites are old Lake Abraham bog as well as sites on Big Creek, Cahoon and Tinker's Creek.
There was a larger settlement. Population density further increased during the Middle Archaic period. Ground and polished stone tools and ornaments, a variety of specialized chipped-stone notched points and knives and drills were found on sites at Cuyahoga, Rocky River, Chippewa Creek, Tinker's, Griswold Creek; the Late Archaic period coincided with a much warmer climate than today. For the first time evidence for regionally specific territories occurs, as well as limited gardening of squash, which became important. A long distance trade of raw materials and finished artifacts with coastal areas, objects which were used in ceremonies and burials; the largest graveyard known is at the junction of the West branches of the Rocky River. Differences in status are revealed by the objects which accompanied the dead, like zoo- and anthropomorphic objects or atlatls; the following Early Woodland and Middle Woodland is a period of increased ceremonial exchange and sophisticated rituals. Crude but elaborately decorated pottery appears.
Squash becomes more important, maize occurs for ritual procedures. The first Mounds were buildings for which Ohio is world-famous; the mound at Eagle St. Cemetery belongs to the Adena culture. Further mounds were found in the east of Tinker's Creek. Horticulture becomes more important, the same with maize; the huge mounds concentrate much more in southern Ohio, but they were found in northern Summit County. Some Hopewellian projectile points, flint-blade knives, ceramics were found in the area of Cleveland itself. One mound, south of Brecksville, contained a cache of trade goods within a 6-sided stone crypt. A smaller mound between Willowick and Eastlake contained several ceremonial spear points of chert from Illinois - altogether signs of a wide range of trade. At Cleveland's W. 54th St. Division waterworks there was a mound and a Hopewellian spear tip was found there. After AD 400 maize dominated. Mounds were built no more, but the number of different groups increased, with winter villages at the Cuyahoga and Lower Chagrin Rivers.
Small, circular houses contained two fire hearths and storage pits. Tools and ornaments made of antler and bone were found. During the spring, people lived camps along the lakeshore ridges, along ponds and bogs, or headwaters of creeks, where they collected plants and fished. Between AD 1000 and 1200 oval houses with single-post constructions dominated the summer villages, the emphasis on burial ceremony declined, but became more personal and consisted of ornaments, or personal tools. From 1200 to 1600 Meso-American influence mediated by the Mississippian culture could be traced, in Cleveland in new ceramic and house styles, new crops, the presence of materials traded from southern centers; this influence was stronger within the Fr. Ancient group ancestors of Shawnees. At this time, there was an obvious difference in archaeological findings from the areas of Black River, Sandusky River and Lake Erie Islands westwards on the one hand and Greater Cleveland eastwards on the other. Between 1300 and 1500 agriculture became predominant beans and new varieties of maize.
Larger villages were inhabited in fall. Small camps diminished and the villages became larger as well as the houses, which became rectangular; some of the villages became real fortresses. During the Whittlesey Tradition burial grounds were placed outside the villages, but still close to them; these villages were in use all year round. The final Whittlesey Tradition, beginning at about 1500, shows long-houses, fortified villages, sweat lodges can be traced, but the villages in and around Cleveland reported by Whittlesey, are gone. It was a warlike time, as the villages were stronger fortified than before. Cases of traumatic injury, nutritional deficiency, disease were found, it is obvious that the population declined until about 1640. One reason is the little ice-age beginning at about 1500; the other reason is permanent warfare. It seems that the region of Cleveland was uninhabited between 1640 and 1740; as one of thirty-six founders of the Connecticut Land Company, General Moses Cleaveland was selected as one of its seven directors and was subsequently sent out as the company's agent to map and survey the company's holdings.
On July 22, 1796, Cleaveland and his surveyors arrived at the mouth of the Cuyahoga River. Cleaveland saw the land, which had belonged to Native Americans, as an ideal location for the "capital city" of the Connecticut Western Reserve. Cleaveland and
Randolph David "Randy" Lerner is an American billionaire investor and former sports-team owner. He became the majority owner of the American football team, the Cleveland Browns, of the National Football League, upon the death of his father Alfred "Al" Lerner in October 2002. In August 2012, he sold the team. Lerner became the owner and chairman of English club Aston Villa F. C. of the Premier League in 2006, subsequently Lerner sold the club at a loss in 2016 following their relegation. His personal fortune has been estimated at over US$1.09 billion. Lerner was born to a Jewish family and graduated from Columbia University in 1984, spending 1983 at Clare College in Cambridge, England, he graduated from Columbia Law School and is a member of the New York and District of Columbia Bar Associations. He has worked as a lawyer in New York City. Lerner began working as an investment analyst at automobile insurers Progressive Corporation. In 1991, he started an independent investment firm with Progressive capital called Securities Advisors, Inc. which he owned and managed until 2001.
SAI specialized in arbitrage before shifting its focus to equity investing. His father, Alfred "Al" Lerner, had been appointed chairman of MBNA Corporation after investing US$800 million in the initial public offering of the company. In 1993, Randy Lerner became a director at MBNA. Upon the death of his father on October 23, 2002, he became MBNA's chairman. On January 1, 2006, Bank of America acquired MBNA Corporation for US$35 billion; when his father, Al Lerner, died in October 2002 – four years to the day after he was awarded the new Browns franchise - the ownership of the team passed on to Lerner. Lerner served as a member of the National Football League's Business Ventures Committee. In 2012, Lerner sold the team to businessman Jimmy Haslam. During his time at Cambridge, Lerner followed English football, taking an interest in three teams: Arsenal and Aston Villa. Although he had grown up in the United States, with a father, involved with the Cleveland Browns franchise under Art Modell, Lerner's interest in England's top flight endured long after he had returned to the States.
In July 2006, it was reported that Lerner intended to purchase Premier League club Aston Villa, following a statement from Cleveland Browns management indicating that Lerner was pursuing "business interests" in the United Kingdom. Lerner pulled out of the bid to buy Aston Villa two days after talks with club chairman Doug Ellis broke down, but the following day, reports emerged that Lerner was still considering a formal GB£ 64-million bid for the club. In August 2006, it was confirmed Lerner had reached a GB£ 62.6 million agreement with Aston Villa to take over the club. The statement to the London Stock Exchange confirmed that 60% of the club's shares, including the 39% stake of Doug Ellis had been sold to Lerner, beating competition from consortia led by Michael Neville, Nicholas Padfield QC, Athole Still. Eleven days after the announcement, the LSE confirmed that Lerner had secured 59.69% of Villa shares, making him the majority shareholder. Lerner appointed himself Chairman of the Board of the club.
The BBC reported in September 2006 that Lerner had moved closer to taking full control of the club, after increasing his share to 85.5%. By the time that the deadline passed in September 2006, Lerner had secured the acceptance of 89.69% of the shareholders. Due to the acceptance only being 0.31% below the conditional limit, Lerner accepted it and made the bid unconditional. On September 19, 2006 Aston Villa PLC executive chairman Doug Ellis and his board resigned, were replaced by Randy Lerner as chairman with General Charles C. Krulak, Bob Kain and Michael Martin serving as non-executive directors. At the close of the deal in 2006, Lerner became only the second American owner of a Premiership club. In June 2011, Lerner appointed manager Alex McLeish, working from local rivals Birmingham City. McLeish's contract was terminated at the end of the 2011–12 season after Villa finished in 16th place, just above the relegation zone. On 2 July 2012, Aston Villa confirmed the appointment of former Norwich City manager Paul Lambert.
In February 2012, the club announced a financial loss of £53.9 million. Lerner put the club up for sale on 12 May 2014, with an estimated value of £200 million. Lambert was sacked on 11 February 2015 and replaced by Tim Sherwood, who saved Villa from relegation in the 2014/15 season and took them to the 2015 FA Cup Final. Sherwood was sacked on 15 October 2015, after six consecutive league losses, with Kevin MacDonald taking over as interim manager. On 2 November 2015, Frenchman Rémi Garde agreed a three-and-a-half year deal to become the manager and was sacked after 147 days. In April 2016, two members of Villa's board of directors, former Football Association chairman David Bernstein and Lord King submitted their resignations to Villa Chairman Steve Hollis, their resignation was due to them being "increasingly frustrated at the lack of progress they were able to make" at the club. There had occurred a "hostile interaction" between them and owner Randy Lerner. In May 2016, Lerner sold Aston Villa to Chinese businessman Tony Xia and his Recon Group following Villa's relegation to the Football League Championship.
Many Aston Villa supporters and former players put the blame on Lerner for being inactive and failing to invest since the departure of manager Martin O'Neill in 2010 and selling their best players. Lerner has supported the UK's National Portrait Gallery since 2002. In January 2008, it was announced that Lerner had donated GB£ 5 million to the gallery, the largest single donation it has received. In recognition, the ground floor galleries were named
FirstEnergy Stadium is a multi-purpose stadium in Cleveland, United States for American football. It is the home field of the Cleveland Browns of the National Football League, serves as a venue for other events such as college and high school football and concerts, it opened in 1999 as Cleveland Browns Stadium and was renovated in two phases in early 2014 and 2015. The initial seating capacity was listed at 73,200 people, but following the first phase of the renovation project in 2014, seating capacity was reduced to 67,431. Since 2017, capacity is listed at 67,895; the stadium sits on 31 acres of land between Lake Erie and the Cleveland Memorial Shoreway in the North Coast Harbor area of downtown Cleveland, adjacent to the Great Lakes Science Center and Rock and Roll Hall of Fame. The site was the location of Cleveland Stadium from 1931 to 1996. FirstEnergy Stadium is located on the site of Cleveland Stadium called Cleveland Municipal Stadium, a multipurpose facility built in 1931 that served as the Browns' home field from their inception in 1946 through the 1995 season.
During the 1995 season, owner Art Modell announced his plans to move the team to Baltimore, which resulted in legal action from the city of Cleveland and Browns season ticket holders. The day after the announcement was made, voters in Cuyahoga County approved an extension of the original 1990 sin tax on alcohol and tobacco products to fund renovations to Cleveland Stadium; as part of the agreement between Modell, the city of Cleveland, the NFL, the city agreed to tear down Cleveland Stadium and build a new stadium on the same site using the sin tax funds. Modell agreed to leave the Browns name and history in Cleveland and create a new identity for his franchise becoming the Baltimore Ravens, while the NFL agreed to reactivate the Browns by 1999 through expansion or relocation of another team. Demolition on the old stadium began in November 1996 and was completed in early 1997. Debris from the former stadium now serves as an artificial reef. Ground was broken for the new stadium on May 15, 1997, it opened in July 1999.
The first event was a preseason game between the Browns and the Minnesota Vikings on August 21, followed the next week by a preseason game against the Chicago Bears. The first regular-season Browns game at the stadium was played the evening of September 12, 1999, a 43–0 loss to the Pittsburgh Steelers. Since 2011, the stadium has been referred to by some as the "Factory of Sadness", a name, first coined that year by comedian and Browns fan Mike Polk. Polk made a video outside the stadium. Through the 2018 season, FirstEnergy Stadium is the only NFL venue that has yet to host a postseason game of any kind; the Browns are one of five teams who have yet to host a home playoff game in their respective stadium, along with the Atlanta Falcons, San Francisco 49ers, Detroit Lions, New York Jets. These teams, have hosted the Super Bowl at their respective stadiums, while the Jets' home, MetLife Stadium, has hosted a New York Giants home playoff game; the stadium was designed by Populous, known at the time as the Sport Venue Event Division of Hellmuth, Obata & Kassabaum.
Indianapolis-based Huber, Hunt & Nichols was the construction manager. The stadium is a concrete and glass structure, using precast concrete and cast in-place for the upper concourse. Natural stone accents were used at the base of the stadium; the construction of the concrete superstructure took more than 6,000 truckloads of concrete, or the equivalent of 60,000 cubic yards, with a weight of 235,000,000 pounds. The playing surface is a Kentucky Bluegrass irrigated field, with a sand-soil root zone and an underground heating system that involves nine boilers and 40 miles of underground piping; the heating system extends the growing season of the turf. Although it was designed for football, the playing surface was built large enough to accommodate international soccer matches; the eastern seating section is the home of a section of bleacher seats. It was designed as a successor to the original Dawg Pound at Cleveland Stadium, the bleacher section located in the east end zone; when FirstEnergy Stadium opened in 1999, the Dawg Pound was a 10,644, double-deck area.
During stadium renovations in 2014, the upper level of the Dawg Pound was reduced to make way for a new, larger scoreboard, auxiliary scoreboard, additional fan areas, the bleacher seating in the upper level was replaced with chairbacks. In 2013, Browns owner Jimmy Haslam announced a modernization project for FirstEnergy Stadium; the project included two phases that took place during the NFL offseasons in 2014 and 2015. Phase one included improving the audio system, installing new scoreboards three times the size of the original scoreboards and at the time the 4th largest in a NFL stadium, adding more seats to the lower bowl. Phase two included concession improvements, upgrades to technology connectivity, graphics throughout the stadium, enhancing the premium suites; the renovations reduced the stadium's capacity to 68,000. The total cost of the renovations was estimated at $120 million with the city of Cleveland paying $30 million over 15 years and the Browns covering the rest of the cost; the city chose not to sell the naming rights to the stadium itself, unusual for major American stadiums built in recent years.
However, it instead sold the naming rights to each of the facility's four main entrance gates. The gates were named for National City Bank, Steris Corp. CoreComm Inc. and the Cleveland Cl