West Grand Bahama
West Grand Bahama is one of 31 districts of The Bahamas. The district covers the western portion of Grand Bahama island, excluding the city of Freeport. West Ends development has been dominated by a hotel and marina located at the tip of Grand Bahama Island. The Florida-based Ginn Company sought to develop a new project in the area. In 2009, the now former Ginn Company defaulted on a $650 million Credit Suisse which a portion of the loan was used to fund Ginn Sur Mer. The project once pegged at $5 billion would have included thousands of sites,4 star resort hotel. The lawsuits filed in the U. S. and Bahamas courts are still ongoing, as for the name of each settlement, they basically got their name from the families that settled there. For example, Pinders Point was inhabited by the Pinders, russell town by the Russells and so on. At one point, there was even a town called Coopers town but over time, West Grand Bahama is divided into four town areas or townships. Each township has its own chairperson and they are, Township of West End Township of Eight Mile Rock West Township of Eight Mile Rock East Township of Pinders Point
Eleuthera /iˈluːθərə/ refers both to a single island in the archipelagic state of The Commonwealth of the Bahamas and to its associated group of smaller islands. Eleuthera forms a part of the Great Bahama Bank, the island of Eleuthera incorporates the smaller Harbour Island. Eleuthera derives from the feminine Greek adjective ἐλεύθερος, meaning free, known in the 17th century as Cigateo, it lies 80 km east of Nassau. It is long and thin—180 km long and in little more than 1.6 km wide. Its eastern side faces the Atlantic Ocean, and its side faces the Great Bahama Bank. The topography of the island varies from wide rolling pink sand beaches to large outcrops of ancient coral reefs, the principle economy of the island is tourism. Eleuthera forms part of the Great Bahama Bank on its western edge, the main island lies 80 km east of Nassau. It is a long and thin island,180 km long, the island has an estimated area of 457.4 square-kilometers, and presents 336 km of coastline. The topography of the varies, including wide rolling pink sand beaches, large outcrops of ancient coral reefs, caves.
The island features, among other flora and fauna,13 catalogued species of amphibian and reptile species. The main island is home to a 25 acre nature preserve, the Leon Levy Native Plant Reserve, the waters around Eleuthera contain an abundance of Sharks and Rays, which is attributed by the local Cape Eleuthera Institute to the banning of long-line fishing in local waters. The islands first settlers are believed to have originated from the continent of the Americas. This included the population of Taino, or Arawaks. An intact wooden duho or ritual seat that was made by the Taino people was found on the island of Eleuthera in the century and is now in the collections of the British Museum. The island in its history was known as Cigateo. The island is believed to have been unoccupied until the first European settlers arrived in volume. The difficulties of settlement ultimately left only a few of the settlers on the island, the island was stated to have been agriculturally prosperous in the period from 1950 to 1980.
This included a crop of pineapples for exports
Bimini /ˈbɪmᵻniː/ is the westernmost district of the Bahamas and comprises a chain of islands located about 80 kilometres due east of Miami. Bimini is the closest point in the Bahamas to the mainland United States, the population is 1,988 as of the 2010 census. Bimini has three islands, North Bimini, South Bimini, and East Bimini, the largest islands are North Bimini and South Bimini. The District of Bimini includes Cay Sal Bank, more than 100 km further south, North Bimini is about 11 km long and 200 m wide. Its main settlement is Alice Town, a collection of shops, the second major road is called Queens Highway and runs almost the length of the island parallel to Kings Highway. South Bimini houses an airstrip, South Bimini Airport, and offers an alternative to the slow bustle of North Bimini. There is a community of homes on South Bimini known as Port Royale. For many years, South Bimini tourists were limited to boaters because there were few accommodations other than private homes, the ocean surrounding the islands is considered to be one of the worlds top big-game fishing spots.
Because Bimini is close to Miami, many American anglers go to the islands by boat to fish or to enjoy the local nightlife. Scuba diving and snorkeling are popular activities, as there are many shipwrecks in the area, such as the wreck of the SS Sapona. The top of the ship is exposed to the air while the bottom half is submerged, parts of the wreck were stripped over the years and some of the wood was used in the construction of the Compleat Angler Hotel and bar on North Bimini. Bimini is home to several landmarks said to contain mystical properties of obscure origins, much of the historical data about these places is speculative in nature, and experts in various fields have opined across the full spectrum of explanation. The most contentious of these sites is The Bimini Road, the first inhabitants on the island were the Lucayans, and the name Bimini means two islands in the Lucayan language. During the period of Prohibition in the United States, Bimini was a favorite haven, as goods on the island were expensive because of shipping costs, many locals used Chalks flights to buy cheaper goods in Florida and take the goods to Bimini.
A Grumman Turbo Mallard of Flight 101 was en route to Bimini when it crashed on December 19,2005, killing all 18 passengers and 2 crew, locals on Bimini mourned the dead. On January 13,2006, one of the most famous establishments in Bimini, the bar is remembered for the photographs and memorabilia of Ernest Hemingway that lined its walls and were lost in the fire, which took the life of owner Julian Brown. Juan Ponce de León and his search for the Fountain of Youth included references to Bimini, arawak and/or Taíno spoke of a land called Beimini where the fountain could be found. Although the location was associated with the Bahamas, the natives referred to a location in the Gulf of Honduras
North Andros is one of the 31 districts of the Bahamas. It is the largest district in the country and it has some of the largest settlements on Andros Island and many churches as well. There are a number of denominations represented within Andros. In North Andros, the Anglican Episcopal Church has a presence through St. Margarets Parish and this parish consist of two churches, St. Margarets, located in the settlement of Nicholls Town, and St. Mary Magdalene, located in the settlement of Mastic Point. There are two denominations of Methodist Churches, Wesley Methodist church is located in Mastic Point, while Wesley Mt. Zion is at Nicholls Town. Wesley Methodist is located at Mastic Point, there is the Church of God of Prophecy. Branches may be found in Lowe Sound, Mastic Point, Staniard Creek and Conch Sound, the Church of God of Prophecy in Conch Sound is home for the Rushin Bahamian Culture that is held on a yearly basis around New Years time
Spanish Wells is one of the districts of the Bahamas. Spanish Wells is a town on the island of St. Georges Cay 610 m wide by 2,860 m long. According to the 2010 census, it has a population of 1,551 residents, Spanish Wells is extended, however, by a bridge that links it to neighboring Russell Island, which is 5.8 km long and has become an integral part of the community. Spanish Wells is so small that many residents get around the island using golf carts instead of full-sized cars, the first colonists were the Eleutheran adventurers from Bermuda, who suffered shipwreck on a reef, known as the Devils Backbone off Eleuthera in 1647. After living in a known as Preachers Cave on Eleuthera. Among other, groups of settlers were Crown loyalists, the area suffered extensive property damage during a direct hit from Hurricane Andrew in 1992 and Floyd in 1999. Currently, Spanish Wells is a centre for fishing in the Bahamas. In the late 1970s and early 1980s, Spanish Wells served as a transhipment point for illicit recreational pharmaceutical products, everild Young, Eleuthera the island called Freedom, Regency Press
Freeport is a city and free trade zone on the island of Grand Bahama of the northwest Bahamas. Freeport has grown to become the second most populous city in the Bahamas, Freeport is served by domestic Bahamian ferry services to other islands and by a regular international service to Fort Lauderdale, Florida, USA operated by Baleària Bahamas Express. The city of Freeport emerged from a grant comprising 50,000 acres of swamp. The Grand Bahama Port Authority operates the free zone, under special powers conferred by the government under the Hawksbill Creek Agreement. The agreement increased the land grants to 138,000 acres, Freeport is located just 80 miles off the coast of Palm Beach, and on the major EW–NS shipping routes. This has positioned it as a centre for international business. Consequently, a number of international companies use Freeport for a business site. The Lucayan National Park is 40 acres in extent and includes five ecological zones stretching from the shore to the pineyard. There is an underwater cave system beneath the park.
One cave entrance is accessible by stairs at the national park, other caves are accessible for certified scubas. Freeport features a tropical rainforest climate according to Köppen Climate Classification, more specifically with mild winters and hot, seldom do temperatures drop below 60 °F. Average temperatures range in the low to upper 80s, with temperature varying between 72 to 78 °F. The winters are mild and dry, while the summers are usually hot. Although a freeze has never reported in the Bahamas, snow was reported to have mixed with rain in Freeport in January 1977. The temperature was about 4.5 °C at the time, several cruise ships stop weekly at the island. Much of the tourist industry is centered on the suburb of Lucaya. Freeport features at least two Junkanoo festivals near New Years, the city is often promoted as Freeport/Lucaya. Most hotels on the island are located along the shore facing the Northwest Providence Channel
Hope Town is one of the districts of the Bahamas, on the Abaco islands as well as a small village on Elbow Cay, located in Abaco. The area had a population of 458 in 2010, golf carts are the main source of transportation, and most of the supplies for the area are brought in by barge each week. In Hope Town, neither cars nor golf carts are permitted in the part of town. Only bicycles and walking are permitted and golf carts are permitted on the outskirts of town, however. All the buildings that are built must adhere to Bahamian Architecture at the discretion of Town Planning, the seat of the Hope Town District Council is in Hope Town, and most of the meetings are held there. Elbow Cay offers mostly private homes for rent, however, a few hotels and inns are available as well, most notably, the Hope Town Harbor Lodge. Hope Town features one of the last operational kerosene-fueled lighthouses in the world and this lighthouse was built in 1862 and became operational two years later, it is striped horizontally red and white.
Its light can be seen from 23 nmi away, the Elbow Cay Lighthouse is one of only three manual lighthouses left in the world. It has a mechanism that has to be hand cranked every several hours to maintain the sequence of five white flashes every 15 seconds. The lamp burns kerosene oil with a wick and mantle, at the rate of 1 gallon per night, the light is focused as it passes through the optics of a first order Fresnel lens which floats on a bed of mercury. The weather in Hope Town is very similar to that of south Florida, Hope Town and the surrounding islands of Abaco generally follow five weather patterns throughout the year. The winter cold fronts that pass down to south Florida affect the Abacos and they are often over by the end of April, and from that point, Hope Towns temperature increases, staying warm until September. During September and October showers recommence and Hope Town often experiences rain, in November and December the cold fronts hit Abaco again. Hope Town experiences hurricanes as often as Florida, and over the last decade the number has stayed high, Hope Towns most notable hurricane is considered to be Hurricane Floyd, that hit on September 14,1999 as a Category 4 on the Saffir-Simpson scale.
In 2009, TV comedy Scrubs filmed a special on location in Hope Town. The episodes featured Hope Town landmarks and points of interest such as the Elbow Cay lighthouse, eighty-four cast and crew members turned up in Hope Town, temporarily increasing its population of 300 by over a quarter. Season 3 of TLCs Little People, Big World features the Roloff family visiting the Bahamas, a visit to the lighthouse is featured, as well as a scene with the local Methodist church. Red Hot Chili Peppers drummer, Chad Smith, was married by the lighthouse in Hope Town, list of lighthouses in the Bahamas
Ragged Island, Bahamas
Ragged Island is a small island and district in the southern Bahamas. Ragged Island is part of the Jumentos Cays and Ragged Island Chain, the crescent-shaped chain measures over 110 miles in length and includes cays known as Raccoon Cay, Hog Cay and Double-Breasted Cay. Until recently it had a salt industry, the salt ponds having been developed in the 19th Century by a Mr. Duncan Taylor, after whom Duncan Town. Fishermen say that the best bonefishing can be found on the Ragged Island, the population of Ragged Island in the 2010 census was just 72. Duncan Town is the settlement in the entire chain and is situated within a bay of shallow water. The island relies on the boat for transportation to and from the major islands, as well as for freight. The island contains an air strip, a harbor. A tower on the end of the island is easily visible from ships transiting the Old Bahama Channel. Most of the inhabitants are the descendants of the original settlers and they bear their original family names, such as Curling, Maycock, Munroe, Wallace.
The familiar heritage and their remoteness have resulted in the islands being part of the “family islands” or “out island”, although the island is remote and sparsely populated, many of its descendants have taken important roles within politics, athletics and business. The island is served by Duncan Town Airport, upgrades to the Duncan Town Airport were commenced in 2006, at a cost of $650,000. Dock/dredging - The dredging and the building of a dock in Ragged Island commenced in 2006, at an estimated cost of some $3.5 million
The Bahamas, known officially as the Commonwealth of the Bahamas, is an archipelagic state within the Lucayan Archipelago. The capital is Nassau on the island of New Providence, the designation of the Bahamas can refer either to the country or to the larger island chain that it shares with the Turks and Caicos Islands. As stated in the mandate/manifesto of the Royal Bahamas Defence Force, the Bahamas is the site of Columbus first landfall in the New World in 1492. At that time, the islands were inhabited by the Lucayan, although the Spanish never colonised the Bahamas, they shipped the native Lucayans to slavery in Hispaniola. The islands were mostly deserted from 1513 until 1648, when English colonists from Bermuda settled on the island of Eleuthera, the Bahamas became a British Crown colony in 1718, when the British clamped down on piracy. After the American War of Independence, the Crown resettled thousands of American Loyalists in the Bahamas, they brought their slaves with them, Africans constituted the majority of the population from this period.
Slavery in the Bahamas was abolished in 1834, Today the descendants of slaves and free Africans make up nearly 90% of the population, issues related to the slavery years are part of society. The Bahamas became an independent Commonwealth realm in 1973, retaining Queen Elizabeth II as its monarch, in terms of gross domestic product per capita, the Bahamas is one of the richest countries in the Americas, with an economy based on tourism and finance. The name Bahamas is derived from either the Taino ba ha ma, alternatively, it may originate from Guanahani, a local name of unclear meaning. In English, the Bahamas is one of two countries whose self-standing short name begins with the word the, along with The Gambia. Taino people moved into the uninhabited southern Bahamas from Hispaniola and Cuba around the 11th century and they came to be known as the Lucayan people. An estimated 30,000 Lucayan inhabited the Bahamas at the time of Christopher Columbus arrival in 1492, Columbuss first landfall in the New World was on an island he named San Salvador.
Some researchers believe this site to be present-day San Salvador Island, an alternative theory holds that Columbus landed to the southeast on Samana Cay, according to calculations made in 1986 by National Geographic writer and editor Joseph Judge, based on Columbuss log. Evidence in support of this remains inconclusive, on the landfall island, Columbus made first contact with the Lucayan and exchanged goods with them. The Spanish forced much of the Lucayan population to Hispaniola for use as forced labour, the slaves suffered from harsh conditions and most died from contracting diseases to which they had no immunity, half of the Taino died from smallpox alone. The population of the Bahamas was severely diminished, in 1648, the Eleutherian Adventurers, led by William Sayle, migrated from Bermuda. These English Puritans established the first permanent European settlement on an island which they named Eleuthera—the name derives from the Greek word for freedom and they settled New Providence, naming it Sayles Island after one of their leaders.
To survive, the settlers salvaged goods from wrecks, in 1670 King Charles II granted the islands to the Lords Proprietors of the Carolinas in North America
The common octopus is a mollusc belonging to the class Cephalopoda. Octopus vulgaris is the most studied of all octopus species, global in its range in the eastern Atlantic extends from the Mediterranean Sea and the southern coast of England to at least Senegal in Africa. It occurs off the Azores, Canary Islands, and Cape Verde Islands, the species is common in the Western Atlantic. Octopus vulgaris grows to 25 cm in length with arms up to 1 m long. O. vulgaris is caught by bottom trawls on a huge scale off the northwestern coast of Africa, more than 20,000 tonnes are harvested annually. The common octopus hunts at dusk, crabs and bivalve mollusks are preferred, although the octopus will eat almost anything it can catch. It is able to change colour to blend in with its surroundings, the prey is paralyzed by a nerve poison, which the octopus secretes in its saliva, and the octopus is able to grasp its prey using its powerful arms with their two rows of suckers. If the victim is a mollusc, the octopus uses its beak to punch a hole in the shell before sucking out the fleshy contents.
Training experiments have shown the common octopus can distinguish the brightness, size and they are intelligent enough to learn how to unscrew a jar and are known to raid lobster traps. O. vulgaris was the first invertebrate animal protected by the Animals Act 1986 in the UK, the common octopus is typically found in tropical waters throughout the world, such as the Mediterranean Sea and East Atlantic. They prefer the floor of shallow, coastal waters. Although they prefer around 36 grams per liter, salinity throughout their habitat is found to be between roughly 30 and 45 grams of salt per liter of water. They are exposed to a variety of temperatures in their environments. In especially warm seasons, the octopus can often be found deeper than usual in order to escape the warmer layers of water, in moving vertically throughout the water, the octopus is subjected to various pressures and temperatures which affect the concentration of oxygen available in the water. This can be understood through Henry’s Law, which states that the concentration of a gas in a substance is proportional to pressure and solubility and these various discrepancies in oxygen availability introduce a requirement for regulation methods.
When it does move, most of the time it is along the ocean or sea floor and this crawling increases metabolic demands greatly, requiring they increase their oxygen intake by approximately 2.4 times the amount that is required for a resting octopus. This increased demand is met by an increase in the volume of the octopus’ heart. The octopus does sometimes swim throughout the water, exposing itself completely, in doing so, the octopus uses a jet mechanism that involves creating a much higher pressure in their mantle cavity that allows them to propel themselves through the water
A blue hole is a large marine cavern or sinkhole, which is open to the surface and has developed in a bank or island composed of a carbonate bedrock. Blue holes typically contain tidally-influenced water of fresh, marine, or mixed chemistry and they extend below sea level for most of their depth and may provide access to submerged cave passages. Well-known examples can be found in South China Sea, the Bahamas, Australia, Blue holes are distinguished from cenotes in that the latter are inland voids usually containing fresh groundwater rather than seawater. Blue holes are circular, steep-walled depressions, and so named for the dramatic contrast between the dark blue, deep waters of their depths and the lighter blue of the shallows around them. Their water circulation is poor, and they are commonly anoxic below a depth, this environment is unfavorable for most sea life. The deep blue color is caused by the transparency of water. The deepest blue hole in the world at 300.89 meters deep is in the South China Sea and is named the Dragon Hole, or Longdong.
The second deepest blue hole in the world with underwater entrance at 202 metres is Deans Blue Hole, located in a bay west of Clarence Town on Long Island, other blue holes are about half that depth at around 100–120 metres. The diameter of the top entrance ranges typically from 25–35 metres to 300 metres, Blue holes formed during past ice ages, when sea level was as much as 100–120 metres lower than at present. Most blue holes contain freshwater and saltwater, the halocline is the point in these blue holes where the freshwater meets the saltwater and where a corrosive reaction takes place that eats away at the rock. Over time this can create side passages, or horizontal arms and these side passages can be quite long, e. g. over 600 metres in the case of the Sawmill Sink in the Bahamas. Many deep spring basins formed by karst processes and located inland are called holes, for example. Many different fossils have been discovered that indicate the type of forms that existed in blue holes. Other life forms such as life and marine fossils have been noticed and tortoise fossils.
The 12th Symposium on the Geology of the Bahamas and other Carbonate Regions, worlds deepest blue hole found in South China Sea PBS TV program Extreme Cave Diving Bahamas Blue Holes Guide Bahamas Introduction The Blue Holes Foundation Belize Audubon Society Whats a Blue Hole. Explanation at the Bahamas Caves Research Foundation