Changtse is a mountain situated between the Main Rongbuk and East Rongbuk Glaciers in Tibet, immediately north of Mount Everest. It is connected to Mount Everest via the North Col, the given elevation of 7,543 metres is from modern Chinese mapping. The Changtse Glacier flows north into the East Rongbuk Glacier and it is possible that the third highest lake in the world is in the Changtse Glacier at 6,216 metres. 1924 George Mallory and Andrew Irvine first to set foot on Changtse and they climbed the east ridge of Changtse to reconnoiter camp sites on the East Rongbuk Glacier. 1935 During the Mount Everest Reconnaissance a team with Eric Shipton, Edmund Wigram, on August 21 they got to within 1,500 feet of the summit before very deep and soft snow forced them to turn back. 1952 Reconnaissance of Changtse via Changtse Glacier by Edmund Hillary and George Lowe and they reached an estimated elevation of 21,500 feet before turning back after running low on supplies. 1982 The first ascent of Changtse was unofficially made on October 3,1982 by Johan Taks of the Dutch Everest Expedition who were officially climbing Everest from the north side, Taks climbed Changtse without a permit.
The ascent was made via the four kilometre-long NE Ridge from the junction of the East Rongbuk Glacier,1983 The next ascent and the first solo was made by Chilean climber Gino Casassa May 14,1983 by the same route used by the Germans. 1986 Changtse was climbed again by a large Chinese-Japanese expedition in 1986 and this expedition put eight Japanese and 16 Chinese on the summit May 10 and May 11,1986 again via the NE Ridge from the Changtse Glacier. Also included the first ascent by a woman, Mrs. Gunsung,1986 American climber Ed Webster made the first solo ascent via the SE face from the foot of the North Col on August 28,1986. Most of this climb was done at night, taking advantage of more stable snow,1987 Australian climbers Rob Turner and Glen Nash reached the summit September 29,1987 via the north face icewall despite high winds
International Space Station
The International Space Station is a space station, or a habitable artificial satellite, in low Earth orbit. Its first component launched into orbit in 1998, and the ISS is now the largest man-made body in space, the ISS consists of pressurised modules, external trusses, solar arrays, and other components. ISS components have been launched by Russian Proton and Soyuz rockets, the ISS serves as a microgravity and space environment research laboratory in which crew members conduct experiments in biology, human biology, astronomy and other fields. The station is suited for the testing of systems and equipment required for missions to the Moon. The ISS maintains an orbit with an altitude of between 330 and 435 km by means of reboost manoeuvres using the engines of the Zvezda module or visiting spacecraft and it completes 15.54 orbits per day. The ISS is the space station to be inhabited by crews, following the Soviet and Russian Salyut, Almaz. The station has continuously occupied for 16 years and 156 days since the arrival of Expedition 1 on 2 November 2000.
This is the longest continuous presence in low Earth orbit. It has been visited by astronauts and space tourists from 17 different nations, Soyuz has very limited downmass capability. The ISS programme is a joint project among five participating space agencies, NASA, Roscosmos, JAXA, ESA, the ownership and use of the space station is established by intergovernmental treaties and agreements. The station is divided two sections, the Russian Orbital Segment and the United States Orbital Segment, which is shared by many nations. As of January 2014, the American portion of ISS is being funded until 2024, Roscosmos has endorsed the continued operation of ISS through 2024 but has proposed using elements of the Russian Orbital Segment to construct a new Russian space station called OPSEK. On 28 March 2015, Russian sources announced that Roscosmos and NASA had agreed to collaborate on the development of a replacement for the current ISS. NASA issued a statement expressing thanks for Russias interest in future co-operation in space exploration.
According to the original Memorandum of Understanding between NASA and Rosaviakosmos, the International Space Station was intended to be a laboratory and factory in low Earth orbit. It was planned to provide transportation and act as a base for possible future missions to the Moon, Mars. In the 2010 United States National Space Policy, the ISS was given roles of serving commercial, diplomatic. The ISS provides a platform to conduct scientific research, the ISS simplifies individual experiments by eliminating the need for separate rocket launches and research staff
The icefall is considered one of the most dangerous stages of the South Col route to Everests summit. The Khumbu glacier that forms the icefall moves at speed that large crevasses open with little warning. Huge blocks of ice tumble down the glacier from time to time and it is estimated that the glacier advances 0.9 to 1.2 m down the mountain every day. Most climbers try to cross the icefall during the early morning, before sunrise. As the intense sunlight warms the area, the friction between the ice structure lessens and increases the chances of crevasses opening or blocks falling, the most dangerous time to cross the Khumbu Icefall is generally mid- to late-afternoon. Camp I on Everests South Col route is slightly beyond the top of the Khumbu Icefall. On occasion, a climber will experience a large block of ice crashing down in their vicinity, the resulting blast of displaced air and snow can result in a dusting. To those that have experienced it, it is an unnerving experience. It is virtually impossible to run away or even to know which way to run and those bodies have been recovered and given proper burials.
Since the structures are changing, crossing the Khumbu Icefall is extremely dangerous. Even extensive rope and ladder crossings cannot prevent loss of life, many people have died in this area, such as a climber who was crushed by a 12-story block of solid ice. Exposed crevasses may be easy to avoid, but some may be hidden under dangerous snow bridges, around 6,30 am local time, on the morning of 18 April 2014,16 Nepalese climbers were killed by an avalanche in the Khumbu Icefall. As of 22 April,13 bodies had been recovered, the climbers were preparing the route through the dangerous icefall for the spring climbing season when the avalanche engulfed them. Nine others sustained blunt trauma injuries
Lhagba La or Lhakpa La is a 6, 849-metre col about 7 kilometres northeast of Mount Everest in the Tibet Autonomous Region. It was unknown to local inhabitants until it was discovered and named by the 1921 British Mount Everest reconnaissance expedition when reconnoitring a route to climb the mountain, Lhagba La is the starting point of the Kada Glacier which descends eastwards along the valley towards Kada. The Kada River is a tributary of the Arun River, on the western side of the col is the East Rongbuk Glacier which flows north from Everest. Lhagba Pool,500 metres below and to 1 kilometre southwest, is reportedly the second highest lake in the world, expeditions attempting Everest via the North Col generally arrive up the East Rongbuk Glacier and so do not reach Lhagba La at all. However, when George Mallory and Guy Bullock were trying to reach the North Col, instead they approached from the east only to find the glacier did not extend to the North Col. The climbing team eventually had to cross the pass and descend some 460 metres to the East Rongbuk Glacier before ascending to the North Col and their discovery allowed the 1922 British Mount Everest expedition to take the more direct route from the north
The North Col refers to the sharp-edged pass carved by glaciers in the ridge connecting Mount Everest and Changtse in Tibet, It forms the head of the East Rongbuk Glacier. When climbers attempt to climb Everest via the North ridge, the first camp on the mountain itself is established on the North Col. From this point at approximately 7,020 metres above sea level, climbers make their final push to the summit from Camp VI at 8,230 meters altitude. The North Col was first climbed by George Mallory, Edward Oliver Wheeler and this was the first time a Westerner had set foot on Mount Everest. All subsequent expeditions in the 1920s and 1930s attempted to reach the summit of Everest by using the North Col and this map is inverted, south is up and north is down. The North Col is lower than South Col, and farther from the Everest peak, South Col Sagarmatha National Park Geology of the Himalaya Geography of China Painting of the Camp on North-Col Description of the climbing route to the summit via the North Col
Cho Oyu is the sixth highest mountain in the world at 8,188 metres above sea level. Cho Oyu means Turquoise Goddess in Tibetan, the mountain is the westernmost major peak of the Khumbu sub-section of the Mahalangur Himalaya 20 km west of Mount Everest. The mountain stands on the China-Nepal border, just a few kilometres west of Cho Oyu is Nangpa La, a glaciated pass that serves as the main trading route between the Tibetans and the Khumbus Sherpas. This pass separates the Khumbu and Rolwaling Himalayas, due to its proximity to this pass and the generally moderate slopes of the standard northwest ridge route, Cho Oyu is considered the easiest 8,000 metre peak to climb. It is an objective for professionally guided parties. Cho Oyus height was measured at 26,750 feet and at the time of the first ascent it was considered the 7th highest mountain on earth. A1984 estimate of 8,201 metres made it move up to 6th place, Cho Oyu was first attempted in 1952 by an expedition organised and financed by the Joint Himalayan Committee of Great Britain as preparation for an attempt on Mount Everest the following year.
The expedition was led by Eric Shipton and included Edmund Hillary, the mountain was first climbed on October 19,1954, via the north-west ridge by Herbert Tichy, Joseph Jöchler and Sherpa Pasang Dawa Lama of an Austrian expedition. Cho Oyu was the fifth 8000 metre peak to be climbed, after Annapurna in June 1950, Mount Everest in May 1953, Nanga Parbat in July 1953 and K2 in July 1954. Until the ascent of Mount Everest by Reinhold Messner and Peter Habeler in 1978,1952 First reconnaissance of north-west face by Edmund Hillary and party. 1954 First ascent by Austrians Joseph Jöchler and Herbert Tichy, and Pasang Dawa Lama 1958 Second ascent of the peak, Sherpa Pasang Dawa Lama reached the peak for the second time. First death on Cho Oyu.1959 Four members killed in an avalanche during an international womens expedition. 1964 Controversial third ascent by a German expedition as there is no proof of reaching the summit, two mountaineers die of exhaustion in camp 4 at 7,600 m.1978 Edi Koblmüller and Alois Furtner of Austria summit via the extremely difficult southeast face.
1983 Reinhold Messner succeeds on his attempt, with Hans Kammerlander. 1985 On February 12, Poles Maciej Berbeka and Maciej Pawlikowski make the first winter ascent and it is the only winter ascent on eight-thousander made on a new route. Repeated three days by Andrzej Heinrich and Jerzy Kukuczka,1994 On May 13 Carlos Carsolio sets a world record speed ascent from base camp to summit, ascending in 18 hours and 45 minutes. 1994 First solo ascent via the South West face by Yasushi Yamanoi,2004 Second summit by a double amputee 2007 Second Indian ascent. Expedition led by Abhilekh Singh Virdi,2011 Dutch climber Ronald Naar dies after becoming unwell at 8,000 m
The Rongbuk Glacier is located in the Himalaya of southern Tibet. Two large tributary glaciers, the East Rongbuk Glacier and the West Rongbuk Glacier and it flows north and forms the Rongbuk Valley north of Mount Everest. The famous Rongbuk Monastery is located at the end of the Rongbuk valley. Mount Everest is the source of the Rongbuk Glacier and East Rongbuk Glacier, the East Rongbuk glacier was first explored by Edward Oliver Wheeler in August 1921 on the same expedition. Wheelers exploration below the Lhakpa La pass led him on 3 August 1921 to realise that the East Rongbuk valley provided the key to a route to the summit of Everest. Climbing expeditions attempting the normal route from Tibet use this glacier to reach the Advanced Base Camp of Mount Everest at the end of the East Rongbuk Glacier. From there, climbing expeditions try to summit Everest by the North Col, since 2007, American mountaineer and film-maker David Breashears has been chronicling the rapid disappearance of the Rongbuk glacier due to global climate change.
Breashears has retraced the steps of Mallorys 1921 expedition, revealing a significant loss of ice mass across the West, Main, in partnership with Asia Society and MediaStorm, Breashears GlacierWorks has made the photos available online. In 80 years, the Rongbuk has shrunk by more than 300 vertical feet across the entire glacier, retreat of glaciers since 1850 Rongbuk Monastery List of glaciers Charles Howard-Bury, George Herbert Leigh-Mallory. East Rongbuk Glacier, Mt. Qomolangma Expedition documents melting Himalayan glaciers Asia Societys On Thinner Ice Project--Photos from the Rongbuk
George Herbert Leigh Mallory was an English mountaineer who took part in the first three British expeditions to Mount Everest in the early 1920s. The pair were last seen when they were about 800 vertical feet from the summit, Mallorys ultimate fate was unknown for 75 years, until his body was discovered on 1 May 1999 by an expedition that had set out to search for the climbers remains. Whether Mallory and Irvine reached the summit before they died remains a subject of speculation, Mallory was born in Mobberley, the son of Herbert Leigh Mallory, a clergyman who changed his surname from Mallory to Leigh-Mallory in 1914. His mother was Annie Beridge, the daughter of a clergyman in Walton, George had two sisters and a younger brother, Trafford Leigh-Mallory, the World War II Royal Air Force commander. He was raised in 10-bedroom house on Hobcroft Lane in Mobberley, in 1896, Mallory attended Glengorse, a preparatory boarding school in Eastbourne on the south coast of England, having transferred from another preparatory school in West Kirby.
At the age of 13, he won a scholarship to Winchester College. In his final year there, he was introduced to climbing and mountaineering by a master, R. L. G. Irving. In October 1905, Mallory entered Magdalene College, Cambridge, to study history, Mallory was a keen oarsman, rowing for his college while at Cambridge. In 1909 Lytton Strachey wrote of Mallory, Mon dieu. —George Mallory, after gaining his degree, Mallory stayed in Cambridge for a year writing an essay he published as Boswell the Biographer. He lived briefly in France afterwards, in 1910, he began teaching at Charterhouse School, Surrey, where he met the poet Robert Graves, a pupil. In his autobiography, Goodbye to All That, Graves remembered Mallory fondly both for his encouragement of Graves interest in literature and poetry and his instruction in climbing, Graves recalled, He was wasted at Charterhouse. He tried to treat his class in a way, which puzzled and offended them. While at Charterhouse, Mallory met his wife, Ruth Turner, who lived in Godalming and Ruth had two daughters and a son, Frances Clare, Beridge Ruth, known as Berry, and John.
After the war, Mallory returned to Charterhouse, resigning in 1921 in order to join the first Everest expedition, between expeditions, he attempted to make a living from writing and lecturing, with only partial success. In 1923, he took a job as lecturer with the Cambridge University Extramural Studies Department and he was given temporary leave so that he could join the 1924 Everest attempt. In 1910, in a party led by Irving, Mallory and an attempted to climb Mont Vélan in the Alps. In 1911, Mallory climbed Mont Blanc, as well as making the ascent of the Frontier ridge of Mont Maudit in a party again led by Irving. To which he responded, None but ourselves, by 1913, he had ascended Pillar Rock in the English Lake District, with no assistance, by what is now known as Mallorys Route—currently graded Hard Very Severe 5a
Reinhold Messner is an Italian mountaineer, adventurer and author from the autonomous Italian province of South Tyrol. He made the first ascent of Mount Everest without supplemental oxygen, along with Peter Habeler and he was the first person who crossed the Antarctica and Greenland without snowmobiles or dog sleds. Furthermore he crossed the Gobi Desert alone, Messner published more than 80 books about his experiences as a climber and explorer. Born in Brixen, Messner is an Italian citizen whose mother tongue is German and he is fluent in Italian and English. He grew up in Villnöß and spent his early climbing in the Alps. His father, Josef Messner, was a teacher and he was very strict and sometimes severe with Reinhold. Josef led Reinhold to his first summit at the age of five, Reinhold had eight brothers and one sister, he climbed with his brother Günther and made Arctic crossings with his brother Hubert. When Reinhold was 13, he began climbing with his brother Günther, by the time Reinhold and Günther were in their early twenties, they were among Europes best climbers.
Messner considered the expedition style disrespectful toward nature and mountains. Messners first major Himalayan climb in 1970, the unclimbed Rupal face of Nanga Parbat, both he and his brother Günther reached the summit, but Günther died two days on the descent of the Diamir face. Reinhold lost seven toes, which had become badly frostbitten during the climb, Reinhold was severely criticized for persisting on this climb with the less experienced Günther. The 2010 movie Nanga Parbat by Joseph Vilsmaier is based on his account of the events. While Messner and Peter Habeler were noted for fast ascents in the Alps of the Eiger North Wall, standard route and Les Droites and this was unheard of at the time. In the 1970s, Messner championed the cause for ascending Mount Everest without supplementary oxygen, in 1978, he reached the summit of Everest with Habeler. This was the first time anyone had been that high without bottled oxygen and Messner and Habeler proved what certain doctors, specialists and he repeated the feat, without Habeler, from the Tibetan side in 1980, during the monsoon season.
This was Everests first solo summit, in 1978, he made a solo ascent of the Diamir face of Nanga Parbat. In 1986, Messner became the first to all fourteen eight-thousanders. Messner has crossed Antarctica on skis, together with fellow explorer Arved Fuchs and he has written over 60 books about his experiences, a quarter of which have been translated