Hells Canyon National Recreation Area
Hells Canyon National Recreation Area is a United States National Recreation Area located on the borders of the U. S. states of Idaho. The recreation area, managed by the United States Forest Service as part of the Wallowa-Whitman National Forest, was established by U. S. Congress and signed by President Gerald Ford in 1975 to protect the historic and archaeological values of the Hells Canyon area and the area of the Snake River between Hells Canyon Dam and the Oregon-Washington border. 215,000 acres of the recreation area are designated the Hells Canyon Wilderness. There are nearly 900 miles of hiking trails in the recreation area; the largest portion of the area lies in eastern Wallowa Oregon. Smaller portions lie in southwestern Idaho County, northwestern Adams County and northeastern Baker County, Oregon. All or included in the HCNRA is the Hells Canyon Archeological District, a 12,000-acre historic district, listed on the U. S. National Register of Historic Places; the district includes 536 contributing sites, 23 contributing buildings, 58 other contributing structures.
The Snake River National Recreation Trail #102 lies within the Hells Canyon National Recreation Area and along the Idaho side of the Snake River, from near Lamont Springs, downstream, to Pittsburg Landing. The SRNRT was designated in 1980 under the National Trails System Act, it was constructed during the period of the late 1800s to about the 1930s. Access to the SRNRT can be gained via road to the trailhead at Pittsburg Landing on the north end of the trail, or, by boat access near Hells Canyon Dam on the south end of the trail. Access can be gained via trails leading from Seven Devils Wilderness Area trail head at Windy Saddle via either the Granite Creek trails or Sheep Creek trails. Ewert, Sara E. Dant. "Evolution of an Environmentalist: Senator Frank Church and the Hells Canyon Controversy." Montana: The Magazine of Western History 51: 36-51. Hells Canyon National Recreation Area
Willamette National Forest
The Willamette National Forest is a National Forest located in the central portion of the Cascade Range of the U. S. state of Oregon. It comprises 1,678,031 acres. Over 380,000 acres are designated wilderness. There are several National Wild and Scenic Rivers within the forest; the forest is named for the Willamette River. The forest headquarters are located in the city of Springfield. There are local ranger district offices in McKenzie Bridge, Sweet Home, Westfir; the forest is famous for being at the center of the controversy between the logging industry and the endangered species status of the northern spotted owl. Environmentalists maintain that the forest was aggressively clear-cut for many years threatening a federally listed endangered species; the timber industry contends that the forest can provide lumber jobs and wildlife habitat. Since April 1994, the forest is governed by the Northwest Forest Plan, which restricts, but does not eliminate, logging in potential spotted owl habitat; the forest stretches for over 100 miles along the western slopes of the Cascade Range in Western Oregon.
It extends from the Mount Jefferson area east of Salem to the Calapooya Ridge which divides the watersheds of the Willamette and Umpqua rivers. Most of the forest is located in Lane County, but there are large areas in Linn and Douglas counties, as well as much smaller areas in Clackamas and Jefferson counties; the elevation of the forest ranges from about 1,500 feet above sea level on the western edge of the forest to 10,500 feet at the top of Mount Jefferson, Oregon's second highest peak. Seven major peaks of the Cascades—Mount Jefferson, Mount Washington, Three Fingered Jack, Diamond Peak, North and South Sisters—as well as numerous high mountain lakes are within these wilderness areas; the McKenzie River and the North Fork Middle Fork Willamette River are Scenic rivers. The Willamette National Forest receives 80 to 150 inches of precipitation each year from moist onshore Pacific Ocean flow which encounters adiabatic cooling rising over the Cascades. Much of the precipitation is received in the form of snow which accumulates in higher elevations from October through April.
The rain and snow melt drain into the McKenzie and Willamette rivers, which flow from the forest and provide high-quality drinking water to Eugene, Salem and Albany. There streams in the forest and over 375 lakes; the forest's dominant tree species is the state tree of Oregon. Douglas-fir is a valuable timber species in the United States; the forest contains some stands of old-growth forest, some of which are over 300 feet tall, among the tallest trees in the world, with tree diameters ranging from 3 to 8 feet.. A 1993 Forest Service study estimated. Over one dozen other conifer species are common on the forest, including western redcedar, incense-cedar, western white pine, ponderosa pine, Pacific yew, western hemlock, mountain hemlock, several species of fir; the Willamette National Forest is home to over 300 species of fish and wildlife, including the northern spotted owl, mule deer, bald eagle, Chinook salmon, black-tailed deer, bull trout, black bear, southern red-backed vole, elk and several other sensitive and threatened species.
This section includes edited text from the Willamette National Forest website, in the public domain. The Cascade Forest Reserve was created in September 1893 by proclamation of President Grover Cleveland; this proclamation was in response to numerous petitions from local citizens requesting protection of the Cascade mountain range. The Cascade Forest Reserve stretched from the Columbia River to the California border. From 1893 to 1897, the Cascade Forest Reserve was managed as a preserve; the Sundry Civil Appropriations Act of June 1897 appropriated funds for management of the national forest reserves and mandated management goals. Those management goals included: "…securing favorable conditions of water flows, to furnish a continuous supply of timber for the use and necessities of the citizens of the United States", protection of the forests from destruction by fire and depredations, development of mineral resources, among other provisions; the Organic Act led to establishment of forest reserve boundaries, forest supervisors, forest ranger patrol districts.
Addie Morris and Cy Bingham were noteworthy early rangers in areas that would become the Willamette National Forest. In 1908, the Cascade Forest Reserve was divided into the Oregon National Forest, the Cascade National Forest, the Umpqua National Forest and the Crater National Forest. In 1911, the Santiam National Forest was created from parts of the Oregon National Forest and the Cascade NF; the Deschutes National Forest was created from the portions. In 1933, the Santiam National Forest and the Cascade National Forest were combined to form the Willamette National Forest; the period of 1905 to 1933 featured decentralized administration for the forests of the western Cascades. Forest and district administrative boundaries were further refined; the Forest Service made efforts to establish relationships with local communities and with the forest users. This was a time of extensive recreation planning in the western Cascades. A fire control organization was built. Mining claims were established, the first large timber sales were sold near Detroit and Oakridge.
Cape Perpetua is a large forested headland projecting into the Pacific Ocean on the central Oregon Coast in Lincoln County, Oregon. The land is managed by the United States Forest Service as part of the Siuslaw National Forest. Cape Perpetua is located about 2 miles south of Yachats, along U. S. Route 101, it is a typical Pacific Northwest headland. At its highest point, Cape Perpetua rises to over 800 feet above sea level. From its crest, an observer can see 70 miles of Oregon coastline and as far as 37 miles out to sea on a clear day. For at least 6,000 years, Native Americans hunted for mussels, sea urchins, clams along the coast near Cape Perpetua. Cape Perpetua was part of the southern territory of the Alsea people. In their language the Cape was named Halqaik, which might mean something like'exposed place'. Evidence of their lives can still be found in the huge piles of discarded mussel shells that lie along the shore near the Cape Perpetua Visitor Center; the cape was named by Captain James Cook on March 7, 1778, as he searched for the Pacific entrance to a Northwest Passage.
Cook named the cape Perpetua. The area became part of the Siuslaw National Forest in 1908. In 1914, the United States Forest Service cut a narrow road into the cliff around Cape Perpetua and constructed a wooden bridge across the Yachats River, opening travel between the small community of Yachats and Florence to the south; the wooden bridge was replaced in 1926 with a steel structure. The Cape Perpetua section of the Roosevelt Memorial Highway was built in the 1930s. In 1933, a Civilian Conservation Corps camp was built at the foot of the cape just north of Cape Creek, near where the Cape Perpetua Visitor Center is located today; the CCC constructed the Cape Perpetua campground, a network of trails, the West Shelter observation point near the top of the cape. During World War II, the West Shelter observation point was used as a coastal watch station, a large coastal defense gun was temporarily installed. An SCR-270B radar was installed at an undetermined location to take advantage of the height of the promontory.
The Cape Perpetua Shelter and Parapet were listed on the National Register of Historic Places in 1989. The Forest Service created the Cape Perpetua Scenic Area and built the Cape Perpetua Visitor Center in the 1960s to highlight the unique beauty of the central Oregon Coast; the scenic area includes 2,700 acres of old growth spruce, Douglas-fir, western hemlock. Camping, hiking, whale watching, a visitor center with daily programs are all available within the Cape Perpetua Scenic Area. There are twenty-six miles of interconnected hiking trails in old growth forests which lead to Pacific Ocean tidal pools. One of the trails leads to a 600-year-old Giant Sitka Spruce known as the Silent Sentinel of the Siuslaw; this tree stands more than 185 feet high, has a 40-foot circumference at its base. On September 15, 2007, this ancient spruce was designated an Oregon Heritage Tree by the State of Oregon to recognize its exceptional age and size and ensure its protection. Along the Cape Perpetua coastline, there are several unique features as well.
The Devil's Churn is a long crack in the coastal rock that fills with each ocean wave exploding as incoming and outgoing waves collide. The Spouting Horn at Cook's Chasm and Thor's Well on the plateau nearby are both salt water fountains driven by the power of the ocean tide. Thor's Well is at 44.278421°N 124.113499°W / 44.278421. Spouting Horn is at 44.277497°N 124.112994°W / 44.277497. Both Thor's Well and Spouting Horn are best seen an hour before high tide to an hour after high tide. How spectacular the sights are is a function of the height of the high tide and the direction and size of the swells; the wind can be a factor. Devil's Churn, Spouting Horn and Thor's Well are popular with visitors; the Cape Perpetua Visitor Center is located two miles south of Yachats. The visitor center has views of the coast from its deck, it is used to watch migrating gray whales. The visitor center has natural history and cultural exhibits, an interactive children's science area, a theater with nature films, a bookstore.
An SCR-270B radar was installed on the site in 1943 in response to the bombing of Mt. Emily, Oregon. Cape Perpetua Visitor Center Siuslaw National Forest
Silver Falls State Park
Silver Falls State Park is a state park in the U. S. state of Oregon, located near Silverton, about 20 miles east-southeast of Salem. It is the largest state park in Oregon with an area of more than 9,000 acres, it includes more than 24 miles of walking trails, 14 miles of horse trails, a 4-mile bike path, its 8.7-mile Canyon Trail/Trail of Ten Falls runs along the banks of Silver Creek and by ten waterfalls, from which the park received its name. Four of the ten falls have an amphitheater-like surrounding that allows the trail to pass behind the flow of the falls; the Silver Falls State Park Concession Building Area and the Silver Creek Youth Camp-Silver Falls State Park are separately listed on the U. S. National Register of Historic Places; the park's most visited waterfall is a 177-foot cascade. Remote Double Falls, however, is listed as the highest waterfall in the park, plunging 178 feet in a small tributary side canyon deep within the Silver Creek Canyon. Silver Falls City formed in 1888 and was a logging community with a few homesteaders, the area was extensively logged.
The small lumber town of Silver Falls City sat atop the South Falls, as the land was cleared, a local entrepreneur sold admission to the Falls area, with attractions such as pushing cars over the falls and hosting a stunt with a daredevil riding over in a canoe. By 1900 a Silverton photographer, June D. Drake, began to campaign for park status, using his photographs of the falls to gain support. In 1926, however, an inspector for the National Park Service rejected the area for park status because of a proliferation of unattractive stumps after years of logging. In 1935 President Franklin D. Roosevelt announced that the Silver Falls area would be turned into a Recreational Demonstration Area. Private land, logged was purchased, workers in the Civilian Conservation Corps were employed to develop park facilities, including the historic South Falls Lodge, completed in the late 1930s, it was used as a restaurant from 1946 until the late 1950s and was listed on the National Register of Historic Places as the Silver Falls State Park Concession Building Area in 1983.
The Silver Creek Youth Camp—Silver Falls State Park was added to the National Register at this time. In January 2008, during the 2008 supplemental legislative session, Fred Girod of the Oregon House of Representatives sought federal designation of the area as a national park via a house joint memorial to the United States Congress, but the bill died in committee; the history of the canyon's formation begins about 26 million years ago to the Oligocene period, when most of Oregon was covered by ocean. After the waters of the ocean receded about 15 million years ago, the flood basalt flows of the Columbia River Basalt Group covered the sandstone, the ocean floor; the softer layers of sandstone beneath the basalt sheet eroded over time, creating pathways behind some of the waterfalls that Civilian Conservation Corps workers widened to make safe for public use. Another geologic feature are many tree "chimneys" or casts, formed when hot lava engulfed living trees and disintegrated them. Within the park are many waterfalls, including ten along the Trail of Ten Falls and five more below the confluence of the North and South forks of Silver Creek.
The South Fork has an average flow rate of 75, the North Fork has an average flow rate of 100. The Trail of Ten Falls passes behind the falls of South Falls, Lower South Falls, Middle North Falls, North Falls. Volunteers inspired by the beauty and history of Silver Falls have been active there since establishment of the park in 1933. In 1986, the citizens and the park staff envisioned a mission and established the Friends of Silver Falls State Park, Inc; that mission is "to further the educational and interpretive opportunities available to park visitors. Since 1992, volunteers of the Friends of Silver Falls State Park have operated the Nature Store in historic South Falls Lodge; this store offers a variety of books and souvenirs in keeping with the park's nature theme. The organization has been responsible for much of the interpretive signage along the Trail of Ten Falls. Other goals of the Friends include compiling oral histories from those who have memories of the park region, keeping alive the history of Silver Falls City, recognizing the work of the Civilian Conservation Corps and the Works Progress Administration in the 1930s and 1940s, maintaining the park's historic district, continuing to place interpretive signs throughout the park's more than 9,000 acres.
The park has been used as a filming location in several movies. The 1981 horror film Just Before Dawn was shot on location in the park. "Silver Falls State Park". Oregon Parks and Recreation Department. Retrieved 2011-06-26. "Silver Falls State Park". Oregon Tourism Commission. Retrieved 2011-06-26. "Friends of Silver Falls State Park". Retrieved 2011-06-26
Umpqua National Forest
Umpqua National Forest, in southern Oregon's Cascade Range, covers an area of 983,129 acres in Douglas and Jackson counties, borders Crater Lake National Park. The four ranger districts for the forest are the Cottage Grove, Diamond Lake, North Umpqua, Tiller ranger districts; the forest is headquartered in Roseburg. Stands of western hemlock, true fir, Douglas-fir and cedar transition to lower-elevation forests of mixed conifers and hardwoods. Timbered valleys of old-growth ponderosa and groves of oak separate mountains like the 9,182-foot Mount Thielsen and the 8,363-foot Mount Bailey. Notable geologic features include volcanic basalt and andesite monolithic spires with descriptive names like Eagle Rock, Rattlesnake Rock, Old Man. Ancestors of the Umpqua, Southern Molala and Cow Creek Band of Umpqua Tribe of Indians lived here before Mount Mazama erupted forming Crater Lake nearly 7,000 years ago; the Indians were moved to reservations in 1856. As Europeans bought reservation lands, the tribes further fragmented to become farmers and ranchers in the Umpqua Valley.
Two translations of the word "umpqua" are "thundering waters" and "across the waters". The Umpqua National Forest was created by the United States Congress on July 2, 1907; the Forest Service staff soon began building trails, constructing bridges, fighting fires, monitoring grazing, erecting lookouts. Logging and mining began in 1925; the Civilian Conservation Corps was active in the Umpqua National Forest by building roads and recreation facilities in the 1930s. The Umpqua National Forest is home to more than 250 wildlife species. Large mammals such as elk, black bear, cougar, as well as the smaller residents, fox and bats are supported by the diverse forest habitats. Raptors such as owls, eagles and peregrine falcons can be seen in the forest. Coho and Chinook salmon and steelhead, rainbow and cutthroat trout swim and spawn in the rivers and streams of the forest. A 1993 Forest Service study estimated that the extent of old growth in the forest was 535,300 acres, 82,200 acres of which were mountain hemlock forests.
Recreational activities in the forest include camping, hiking, horseback riding, mountain biking, rock climbing, boating. Winter activities include both Nordic and downhill skiing, as well as snowmobiling. In 1988, the Oregon Omnibus Wild and Scenic Rivers Act designated a portion of the North Umpqua River as Wild and Scenic. Twenty-six miles of the river run through the forest; the Rogue-Umpqua National Scenic Byway extends 172 miles through the Rogue River–Siskiyou and Umpqua national forests, as well as the Medford and Roseburg districts of the Bureau of Land Management and private lands. The Umpqua National Forest contains three wilderness areas: Boulder Creek, Rogue-Umpqua Divide, Mount Thielsen. Boulder Creek is a 19,100-acre wilderness area located 50 miles east of Roseburg. One popular area in Boulder Creek is Pine Bench. A flat area overlooking Boulder Creek, Pine Bench is home to a grove of majestic old growth ponderosa pines. In 1996 the Spring Fire burned 16,500 acres in the Boulder Creek Wilderness.
The Rogue-Umpqua Divide is a 33,000-acre wilderness area, 26,350 acres of, inside the National Forest. Located 80 miles east of Roseburg, the Rogue-Umpqua Divide ranges in elevation from 3,200 to 6,878 feet and separates the drainages of the Rogue and Umpqua rivers; the wilderness includes old-growth forests. Mount Thielsen is a 55,100-acre wilderness area, 21,593 acres of, located inside the National Forest. Located 80 miles east of Roseburg, this wilderness area is the largest in the Umpqua; the 9,182-foot Mt. Thielsen was born of the same volcanic activity that created Crater Lake and some trails pass over deep pumice, deposited when Mt. Mazama erupted; the Pacific Crest Trail passes through the middle of the wilderness area. High Cascades Complex Fires Forest Service page on Umpqua National Forest Landscape Photos Showing Umpqua National Forest Umpqua National Forest Wilderness Areas
Oregon is a state in the Pacific Northwest region on the West Coast of the United States. The Columbia River delineates much of Oregon's northern boundary with Washington, while the Snake River delineates much of its eastern boundary with Idaho; the parallel 42 ° north delineates the southern boundary with Nevada. Oregon is one of only four states of the continental United States to have a coastline on the Pacific Ocean. Oregon was inhabited by many indigenous tribes before Western traders and settlers arrived. An autonomous government was formed in the Oregon Country in 1843 before the Oregon Territory was created in 1848. Oregon became the 33rd state on February 14, 1859. Today, at 98,000 square miles, Oregon is the ninth largest and, with a population of 4 million, 27th most populous U. S. state. The capital, Salem, is the second most populous city in Oregon, with 169,798 residents. Portland, with 647,805, ranks as the 26th among U. S. cities. The Portland metropolitan area, which includes the city of Vancouver, Washington, to the north, ranks the 25th largest metro area in the nation, with a population of 2,453,168.
Oregon is one of the most geographically diverse states in the U. S. marked by volcanoes, abundant bodies of water, dense evergreen and mixed forests, as well as high deserts and semi-arid shrublands. At 11,249 feet, Mount Hood, a stratovolcano, is the state's highest point. Oregon's only national park, Crater Lake National Park, comprises the caldera surrounding Crater Lake, the deepest lake in the United States; the state is home to the single largest organism in the world, Armillaria ostoyae, a fungus that runs beneath 2,200 acres of the Malheur National Forest. Because of its diverse landscapes and waterways, Oregon's economy is powered by various forms of agriculture and hydroelectric power. Oregon is the top timber producer of the contiguous United States, the timber industry dominated the state's economy in the 20th century. Technology is another one of Oregon's major economic forces, beginning in the 1970s with the establishment of the Silicon Forest and the expansion of Tektronix and Intel.
Sportswear company Nike, Inc. headquartered in Beaverton, is the state's largest public corporation with an annual revenue of $30.6 billion. The earliest evidence of the name Oregon has Spanish origins; the term "orejón" comes from the historical chronicle Relación de la Alta y Baja California written by the new Spaniard Rodrigo Montezuma and made reference to the Columbia River when the Spanish explorers penetrated into the actual North American territory that became part of the Viceroyalty of New Spain. This chronicle is the first topographical and linguistic source with respect to the place name Oregon. There are two other sources with Spanish origins, such as the name Oregano, which grows in the southern part of the region, it is most probable that the American territory was named by the Spaniards, as there are some populations in Spain such as "Arroyo del Oregón" considering that the individualization in Spanish language "El Orejón" with the mutation of the letter "g" instead of "j". Another early use of the name, spelled Ouragon, was in a 1765 petition by Major Robert Rogers to the Kingdom of Great Britain.
The term referred to the then-mythical River of the West. By 1778, the spelling had shifted to Oregon. In his 1765 petition, Rogers wrote: The rout...is from the Great Lakes towards the Head of the Mississippi, from thence to the River called by the Indians Ouragon... One theory is that the name comes from the French word ouragan, applied to the River of the West based on Native American tales of powerful Chinook winds on the lower Columbia River, or from firsthand French experience with the Chinook winds of the Great Plains. At the time, the River of the West was thought to rise in western Minnesota and flow west through the Great Plains. Joaquin Miller explained in Sunset magazine, in 1904, how Oregon's name was derived: The name, Oregon, is rounded down phonetically, from Ouve água—Oragua, Or-a-gon, Oregon—given by the same Portuguese navigator that named the Farallones after his first officer, it in a large way, means cascades:'Hear the waters.' You should steam up the Columbia and hear and feel the waters falling out of the clouds of Mount Hood to understand the full meaning of the name Ouve a água, Oregon.
Another account, endorsed as the "most plausible explanation" in the book Oregon Geographic Names, was advanced by George R. Stewart in a 1944 article in American Speech. According to Stewart, the name came from an engraver's error in a French map published in the early 18th century, on which the Ouisiconsink River was spelled "Ouaricon-sint", broken on two lines with the -sint below, so there appeared to be a river flowing to the west named "Ouaricon". According to the Oregon Tourism Commission, present-day Oregonians pronounce the state's name as "or-uh-gun, never or-ee-gone". After being drafted by the Detroit Lions in 2002, former Oregon Ducks quarterback Joey Harrington distributed "Orygun" stickers to members of the media as a reminder of how to pronounce the name of his home state; the stickers are sold by the University of Oregon Bookstore. Oregon is 295 miles north to south at longest distance, 395 miles east to west. With an area of 98,381 square miles, Oregon is larger than the United Kingdom.
It is the ninth largest state in the United States. Oregon's highest point is the summit of Mount Hood, at 11,249 feet, its lowest point is the sea level of the Pacific Ocean along the Oregon Coas