Atlanta is the capital of, the most populous city in, the U. S. state of Georgia. With an estimated 2017 population of 486,290, it is the 38th most-populous city in the United States; the city serves as the cultural and economic center of the Atlanta metropolitan area, home to 5.8 million people and the ninth-largest metropolitan area in the nation. Atlanta is the seat of the most populous county in Georgia. A small portion of the city extends eastward into neighboring DeKalb County. Atlanta was founded as the terminating stop of a major state-sponsored railroad. With rapid expansion, however, it soon became the convergence point between multiple railroads, spurring its rapid growth; the city's name derives from that of the Western and Atlantic Railroad's local depot, signifying the town's growing reputation as a transportation hub. During the American Civil War, the city was entirely burned to the ground in General William T. Sherman's famous March to the Sea. However, the city rose from its ashes and became a national center of commerce and the unofficial capital of the "New South".
During the 1950s and 1960s, Atlanta became a major organizing center of the civil rights movement, with Dr. Martin Luther King Jr. Ralph David Abernathy, many other locals playing major roles in the movement's leadership. During the modern era, Atlanta has attained international prominence as a major air transportation hub, with Hartsfield–Jackson Atlanta International Airport being the world's busiest airport by passenger traffic since 1998. Atlanta is rated as a "beta" world city that exerts a moderate impact on global commerce, research, education, media and entertainment, it ranks in the top twenty among world cities and 10th in the nation with a gross domestic product of $385 billion. Atlanta's economy is considered diverse, with dominant sectors that include transportation, logistics and business services, media operations, medical services, information technology. Atlanta has topographic features that include rolling hills and dense tree coverage, earning it the nickname of "the city in a forest."
Revitalization of Atlanta's neighborhoods spurred by the 1996 Summer Olympics, has intensified in the 21st century, altering the city's demographics, politics and culture. Prior to the arrival of European settlers in north Georgia, Creek Indians inhabited the area. Standing Peachtree, a Creek village where Peachtree Creek flows into the Chattahoochee River, was the closest Indian settlement to what is now Atlanta; as part of the systematic removal of Native Americans from northern Georgia from 1802 to 1825, the Creek were forced to leave the area in 1821, white settlers arrived the following year. In 1836, the Georgia General Assembly voted to build the Western and Atlantic Railroad in order to provide a link between the port of Savannah and the Midwest; the initial route was to run southward from Chattanooga to a terminus east of the Chattahoochee River, which would be linked to Savannah. After engineers surveyed various possible locations for the terminus, the "zero milepost" was driven into the ground in what is now Five Points.
A year the area around the milepost had developed into a settlement, first known as "Terminus", as "Thrasherville" after a local merchant who built homes and a general store in the area. By 1842, the town had six buildings and 30 residents and was renamed "Marthasville" to honor the Governor's daughter. J. Edgar Thomson, Chief Engineer of the Georgia Railroad, suggested the town be renamed Atlanta; the residents approved, the town was incorporated as Atlanta on December 29, 1847. By 1860, Atlanta's population had grown to 9,554. During the American Civil War, the nexus of multiple railroads in Atlanta made the city a hub for the distribution of military supplies. In 1864, the Union Army moved southward following the capture of Chattanooga and began its invasion of north Georgia; the region surrounding Atlanta was the location of several major army battles, culminating with the Battle of Atlanta and a four-month-long siege of the city by the Union Army under the command of General William Tecumseh Sherman.
On September 1, 1864, Confederate General John Bell Hood made the decision to retreat from Atlanta, he ordered the destruction of all public buildings and possible assets that could be of use to the Union Army. On the next day, Mayor James Calhoun surrendered Atlanta to the Union Army, on September 7, Sherman ordered the city's civilian population to evacuate. On November 11, 1864, Sherman prepared for the Union Army's March to the Sea by ordering the destruction of Atlanta's remaining military assets. After the Civil War ended in 1865, Atlanta was rebuilt. Due to the city's superior rail transportation network, the state capital was moved from Milledgeville to Atlanta in 1868. In the 1880 Census, Atlanta surpassed Savannah as Georgia's largest city. Beginning in the 1880s, Henry W. Grady, the editor of the Atlanta Constitution newspaper, promoted Atlanta to potential investors as a city of the "New South" that would be based upon a modern economy and less reliant on agriculture. By 1885, the founding of the Georgia School of Technology and the Atlanta University Center had established Atlanta as a center for higher education.
In 1895, Atlanta hosted the Cotton States and International Exposition, which attracted nearly 800,000 attendees and promoted the New South's development to the world. During the first decades of the 20th century, Atlanta experienced a period of unprecedented growth. In three decades' time, Atlanta's population tripled as the city limits expanded to include nearby streetcar suburbs; the city's skyline emerged with the construction of the
South Africa the Republic of South Africa, is the southernmost country in Africa. It is bounded to the south by 2,798 kilometres of coastline of Southern Africa stretching along the South Atlantic and Indian Oceans. South Africa is the largest country in Southern Africa and the 25th-largest country in the world by land area and, with over 57 million people, is the world's 24th-most populous nation, it is the southernmost country on the mainland of the Eastern Hemisphere. About 80 percent of South Africans are of Sub-Saharan African ancestry, divided among a variety of ethnic groups speaking different African languages, nine of which have official status; the remaining population consists of Africa's largest communities of European and multiracial ancestry. South Africa is a multiethnic society encompassing a wide variety of cultures and religions, its pluralistic makeup is reflected in the constitution's recognition of 11 official languages, the fourth highest number in the world. Two of these languages are of European origin: Afrikaans developed from Dutch and serves as the first language of most coloured and white South Africans.
The country is one of the few in Africa never to have had a coup d'état, regular elections have been held for a century. However, the vast majority of black South Africans were not enfranchised until 1994. During the 20th century, the black majority sought to recover its rights from the dominant white minority, with this struggle playing a large role in the country's recent history and politics; the National Party imposed apartheid in 1948. After a long and sometimes violent struggle by the African National Congress and other anti-apartheid activists both inside and outside the country, the repeal of discriminatory laws began in 1990. Since 1994, all ethnic and linguistic groups have held political representation in the country's liberal democracy, which comprises a parliamentary republic and nine provinces. South Africa is referred to as the "rainbow nation" to describe the country's multicultural diversity in the wake of apartheid; the World Bank classifies South Africa as an upper-middle-income economy, a newly industrialised country.
Its economy is the second-largest in Africa, the 34th-largest in the world. In terms of purchasing power parity, South Africa has the seventh-highest per capita income in Africa; however and inequality remain widespread, with about a quarter of the population unemployed and living on less than US$1.25 a day. South Africa has been identified as a middle power in international affairs, maintains significant regional influence; the name "South Africa" is derived from the country's geographic location at the southern tip of Africa. Upon formation, the country was named the Union of South Africa in English, reflecting its origin from the unification of four separate British colonies. Since 1961, the long form name in English has been the "Republic of South Africa". In Dutch, the country was named Republiek van Zuid-Afrika, replaced in 1983 by the Afrikaans Republiek van Suid-Afrika. Since 1994, the Republic has had an official name in each of its 11 official languages. Mzansi, derived from the Xhosa noun umzantsi meaning "south", is a colloquial name for South Africa, while some Pan-Africanist political parties prefer the term "Azania".
South Africa contains human-fossil sites in the world. Archaeologists have recovered extensive fossil remains from a series of caves in Gauteng Province; the area, a UNESCO World Heritage site, has been branded "the Cradle of Humankind". The sites include one of the richest sites for hominin fossils in the world. Other sites include Gondolin Cave Kromdraai, Coopers Cave and Malapa. Raymond Dart identified the first hominin fossil discovered in Africa, the Taung Child in 1924. Further hominin remains have come from the sites of Makapansgat in Limpopo Province and Florisbad in the Free State Province, Border Cave in KwaZulu-Natal Province, Klasies River Mouth in Eastern Cape Province and Pinnacle Point and Die Kelders Cave in Western Cape Province; these finds suggest that various hominid species existed in South Africa from about three million years ago, starting with Australopithecus africanus. There followed species including Australopithecus sediba, Homo ergaster, Homo erectus, Homo rhodesiensis, Homo helmei, Homo naledi and modern humans.
Modern humans have inhabited Southern Africa for at least 170,000 years. Various researchers have located pebble tools within the Vaal River valley. Settlements of Bantu-speaking peoples, who were iron-using agriculturists and herdsmen, were present south of the Limpopo River by the 4th or 5th century CE, they displaced and absorbed the original Khoisan speakers, the Khoikhoi and San peoples. The Bantu moved south; the earliest ironworks in modern-day KwaZulu-Natal Province are believed to date from around 1050. The southernmost group was the Xhosa people, whose language incorporates certain linguistic traits from the earlier Khoisan people; the Xhosa reached the Great Fish River, in today's Eastern Cape Province. As they migrated, these larger Iron Age populations
This article refers to the waterfalls and gorge. For the state park, see Tallulah Gorge State Park, for the town, see Tallulah Falls, for the lake, see Lake Tallulah Falls and for the river, see Tallulah River; the Tallulah Gorge is a gorge formed by the Tallulah River cutting through the Tallulah Dome rock formation. The gorge is 2 miles long and features rocky cliffs up to 1,000 feet high. Through it, a series of falls known. Tallulah Falls is composed of six separate falls: l'Eau d'Or, Hurricane, Bridal Veil, Lovers Leap; the Tallulah Gorge is located next to the town of Georgia. Tallulah Gorge State Park protects much of its waterfalls; the gorge is one of the Seven Natural Wonders of Georgia. Just above the falls is Tallulah Falls Lake, created in 1913 by a hydroelectric dam built by Georgia Railway and Power in order to run Atlanta's streetcars; the dam still collects and redirects most of the water via a 6,666-foot tunnel sluice or penstock around the falls to an electricity generation station downstream, 608 feet lower than the lake, except for a few days each year.
The days when water is released are popular for recreation, such as kayaking and whitewater rafting. Since the early 19th century, Tallulah Gorge and its waterfalls have been a tourist attraction. In 1882, Tallulah Falls Railway was built, increasing the accessibility of the area to tourists from Atlanta and south Georgia, the gorge became North Georgia's first tourist attraction. Resort hotels and bars sprang up to serve the tourist trade which, after the addition of the railway, swelled to as many as 2,000 people on any given Sunday. In 1883, tightrope walker Professor Bachman crossed the gorge as part of a publicity stunt for one hotel. On July 18, 1970, Karl Wallenda became the second man to walk across the gorge on a tightrope. In the 1910s, Georgia Railway and Power began building dams on the river; the town of Burton, was purchased and flooded as Lake Burton in 1919. Many area residents opposed the dams, including the widow of Confederate general James Longstreet, Helen Dortch Longstreet, who led a campaign in 1911 to have Tallulah Gorge protected by the state.
The Georgia Assembly was unable to raise the $1 million required to purchase the gorge. When the dam was completed in 1913, the roar of the Tallulah Falls was quieted, tourism dwindled; the park was created by Georgia governor Zell Miller in cooperation with Georgia Power. Although tourism promoters in the late 19th century described the word Tallulah as meaning "loud waters" in Cherokee, it has no meaning in that language. Talula is the Itsate Creek word for a small town with one mound; the same word in Muskogee-Creek is talufa. Some references state. However, the Choctaw word for water is oka; the opening credits of the 1976 film Grizzly were filmed flying through the gorge, several establishing shots were shot in one of the gift shops on the gorge rim. On July 18, 1970, a 65-year-old Karl Wallenda performed a high-wire walk across the Tallulah Gorge. Parts of the 1972 film Deliverance were filmed in the gorge. Parts of the 2018 film Avengers: Infinity War were filmed in the state park. Tallulah Dome is a rock formation caused by the double folding of the Earth's crust during the formation of Pangaea, about 500 to 250 million years ago.
The dome is made up of quartzite along with schist. Because of the variation in sunlight and moisture caused by the steep cliffs, several different ecosystems exist in and around the canyon-like gorge; the Persistent Trillium, an endangered species of trillium, grows in this river basin and only few other parts of the South Carolina/Georgia area. Template:BotanicalEdwards, Leslie. "Tallulah Gorge Article." Georgia Botanical Society. Accessed January 20, 2006. Georgia Botanical Society-Home Page Tallulah Falls and Gorge, New Georgia Encyclopedia Tallulah Gorge State Park, About North Georgia ParkMaps website
Clayton is a city in Rabun County, United States. The population was 2,047 at the 2010 census; the city is located in the Blue Ridge Mountains. The area that would become Clayton was called the Dividings because it sat at the intersection of three important Cherokee people trails. Explorer and naturalist William Bartram came through the Dividings in May 1775 while exploring what would be organized as Rabun County. Much after Clayton had grown to include the Dividings, two of the old Cherokee trails were improved as the main roads for Clayton and the county: U. S. 23/441 and U. S. 76. Claytonsville was founded by European-American settlers in 1821 as the seat of Rabun County. In 1823, the town was renamed Clayton, it was named after a prominent jurist and congressman, Judge Augustin S. Clayton, who served in both the Georgia House of Representatives and Georgia Senate before being elected as a US Representative from Georgia, serving two terms from 1831–1835. In 1824, 67 acres were purchased from Solomon Beck for $150, city representatives laid out a site for a courthouse and the surrounding streets.
In 1904, the Tallulah Falls Railway was completed to Clayton from Georgia. Clayton has had public water and sanitary sewer service since the 1920s; the water supply was two springs on nearby Buzzard Roost Mountain, but today Clayton uses Lake Rabun as its water supply. In 1936, Clayton recorded 30.0 inches of total snowfall, making that year the snowiest year in the city. The recorded snowfall in Clayton in 1936 is a state record. Part of Disney's Old Yeller was shot in Clayton in 1957. Much of William Gibson's 2014 novel The Peripheral is set in Clayton in the not too distant future. Clayton is located at 34°52′40″N 83°24′6″W and is situated at the southern base of 3,640-foot Black Rock Mountain. To the east of the city is 3,000-foot Screamer Mountain. Other Blue Ridge Mountain peaks between 2,500 and 3,500 feet surround the city. According to the United States Census Bureau, the city has a total area of 3.1 square miles, all of it land. The elevation of Clayton's downtown area is 1,925 feet. A number of hilltops within the city limits exceed 2,200 feet.
As of the 2010 United States Census, there were 2,047 people residing in the city. The racial makeup of the city was 74.5% White, 1.4% Black, 0.5% Native American, 0.7% Asian, 0.3% from some other race and 1.9% from two or more races. 20.8% were Hispanic or Latino of any race. As of the census of 2000, there were 2,019 people, 816 households, 497 families residing in the city; the population density was 653.2 people per square mile. There were 1,006 housing units at an average density of 325.5 per square mile. The racial makeup of the city was 84.55% White, 2.77% African American, 0.89% Native American, 1.34% Asian, 0.15% Pacific Islander, 9.41% from other races, 0.89% from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 14.71% of the population. There were 816 households out of which 22.7% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 44.7% were married couples living together, 11.2% had a female householder with no husband present, 39.0% were non-families. 33.8% of all households were made up of individuals and 18.1% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older.
The average household size was 2.29 and the average family size was 2.79. In the city, the population was spread out with 19.2% under the age of 18, 9.4% from 18 to 24, 26.3% from 25 to 44, 21.7% from 45 to 64, 23.4% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 40 years. For every 100 females, there were 99.1 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 93.0 males. The median income for a household in the city was $26,600, the median income for a family was $36,164. Males had a median income of $25,823 versus $18,304 for females; the per capita income for the city was $15,977. About 7.9% of families and 14.6% of the population were below the poverty line, including 14.3% of those under age 18 and 11.2% of those age 65 or over. The Rabun County School District holds pre-school to grade twelve, consists of two elementary schools, a middle school, a high school; the district has 140 full-time teachers and over 2,221 students. Rabun County Elementary School Rabun County Primary School Rabun County Middle School Rabun County High School Rabun Gap-Nacoochee School The area around Clayton has long been the location for a number of camps for young people operated during the summertime.
Camp Ramah Darom is located in the Persimmon Valley northwest of Clayton. Camp Rainey Mountain is located 4 miles southeast of Clayton. Camp Blue Ridge Mike Ciochetti - stock car racer Billy Redden - actor who played the young banjo player in the film Deliverance Nancy Schaefer - Georgia State Senator Lillian Smith, - author and civil rights activist Jordan Green - Mayor of Clayton and hero firefighter Official website
Transportation in Georgia (U.S. state)
The transportation system of Georgia is a cooperation of complex systems of infrastructure comprising over 1,200 miles of interstates and more than 120 airports and airbases serving a regional population of 59,425 people. MARTA is composed of both heavy rail rapid transit and a bus transit system that operates within the boundaries of Clayton, DeKalb, Fulton counties. In addition to Atlanta itself, the transit agency serves the following incorporated places within these core counties: Alpharetta, Avondale Estates, Clarkston, College Park, Doraville, East Point, Forest Park, Jonesboro, Lovejoy, Palmetto, Pine Hill, Roswell, Sandy Springs, Stone Mountain, Union City. Outside of the immediate service area, MARTA operates one bus route to Cobb County's Cumberland Boulevard Transfer Center. In 2015, MARTA resumed bus service to Clayton County after a referendum in which the county agreed to a 1% sales tax increase to fund MARTA's return to most of the county, without public transit service since the closure of C-TRAN in 2010.
Introducing some form of high-capacity transit service into Clayton County is being studied by MARTA. Amtrak maintains two rail lines through Georgia, Alabama to Greenville South Carolina traveling through Atlanta and Toccoa, another line traveling from Charleston, South Carolina to Jacksonville, traveling through the two cities of Savannah and Jesup. Major freight railroads in Georgia include Norfolk Southern Railway. Passenger service in Georgia is available on two Amtrak routes: the Crescent, which travels from New York to Washington, D. C. through North Georgia and Atlanta to New Orleans and the other, Silver Meteor / Silver Star, travels from New York to the Georgia coast and from there to Florida. The River Street Streetcar is a heritage streetcar line in Savannah, it began regular operation on February 11, 2009, shuttles between seven stops along River Street, next to the Savannah River. The BeltLine is a former railway corridor around the core of Atlanta, under development in stages as a multi-use trail.
Using existing rail track easements, it aims to improve not only transportation, but to add green space and promote redevelopment. There are part of the corridor. Georgia lacks a united bus system and is instead, served by various separate systems that serve various areas of the state; the state of Georgia has 1,244 miles of Interstate Highways within its borders. Georgia's major Interstate Highways are Interstate 16, I-20, I-75, I-85, I-95. Other important interstate highways are I-24 and I-59. I-285 is Atlanta, Georgia's perimeter route and I-575 connects counties in North Georgia to I-75; the Georgia Department of Transportation maintains only 16% of the roads in the state. The other 84 % are the responsibility of the cities. All of Georgia's Interstate highways are as follows: I-16 I-516 I-20 I-520 I-24 I-59 I-75 I-175 I-475 I-575 I-675 I-85 I-185 I-285 I-985 I-95 The state of Georgia has an extensive system of U. S. Highways. All of Georgia's U. S. Highways are as follows: US 1 US 301 US 11 US 411 US 17 US 19 US 319 US 23 US 123 US 25 US 27 US 29 US 129 US 41 US 341 US 441 US 76 US 78 US 278 US 378 US 80 US 280 US 82 US 84 US 221 The state of Georgia has an extensive system of state routes.
The Sidney Lanier Bridge is a cable-stayed bridge that spans the Brunswick River in Brunswick, carrying four lanes of US 17/SR 25. The current bridge was built as a replacement to the original lift bridge, twice struck by ships, it is the longest-spanning bridge in Georgia and is 480 feet tall. It is the 76th-largest cable-stayed bridge in the world, it was named for poet Sidney Lanier. Each year, there is the "Bridge Run" sponsored by Southeast Georgia Health System when the south side of the bridge is closed to traffic and people register to run the bridge; the Chetoogeta Mountain Tunnel refers to two different railroad tunnels traveling through Chetoogeta Mountain in the northwestern part of the state. The first tunnel was completed on May 7, 1850, as part of the construction of the Western and Atlantic Railroad, the first state road in Georgia, it is 1,447 feet in length. It was renovated in 1998-2000 and is now open to the public as a owned historic site; the second tunnel is 1,557 feet long.
It is still under lease from the Georgia Department of Transportation. It, like the entire A subdivision, is a major route between Atlanta and Chattanooga; the nearby town of Tunnel Hill, Georgia was founded and named for the first tunnel, was the supply base for its construction materials and worker housing. Georgia has a system of State Bicycle Routes; the city of Atlanta limits the number of CPNCs to 1,600 and is the maximum number of licensed taxis allowed within the city. Hartsfield-Jackson Atlanta International Airport, the world's busiest airport as measured by passenger traffic and by aircraft traffic, offers air service to over 150 U. S. destinations and more than 80 international destinations in 52 countries, with over 2,700 arrivals and departures daily. Delta Air Lines and AirTra
Georgia (U.S. state)
Georgia is a state in the Southeastern United States. It began as a British colony in 1733, the last and southernmost of the original Thirteen Colonies to be established. Named after King George II of Great Britain, the Province of Georgia covered the area from South Carolina south to Spanish Florida and west to French Louisiana at the Mississippi River. Georgia was the fourth state to ratify the United States Constitution, on January 2, 1788. In 1802–1804, western Georgia was split to the Mississippi Territory, which split to form Alabama with part of former West Florida in 1819. Georgia declared its secession from the Union on January 19, 1861, was one of the original seven Confederate states, it was the last state to be restored to the Union, on July 15, 1870. Georgia is the 8th most populous of the 50 United States. From 2007 to 2008, 14 of Georgia's counties ranked among the nation's 100 fastest-growing, second only to Texas. Georgia is known as the Empire State of the South. Atlanta, the state's capital and most populous city, has been named a global city.
Atlanta's metropolitan area contains about 55% of the population of the entire state. Georgia is bordered to the north by Tennessee and North Carolina, to the northeast by South Carolina, to the southeast by the Atlantic Ocean, to the south by Florida, to the west by Alabama; the state's northernmost part is in the Blue Ridge Mountains, part of the Appalachian Mountains system. The Piedmont extends through the central part of the state from the foothills of the Blue Ridge to the Fall Line, where the rivers cascade down in elevation to the coastal plain of the state's southern part. Georgia's highest point is Brasstown Bald at 4,784 feet above sea level. Of the states east of the Mississippi River, Georgia is the largest in land area. Before settlement by Europeans, Georgia was inhabited by the mound building cultures; the British colony of Georgia was founded by James Oglethorpe on February 12, 1733. The colony was administered by the Trustees for the Establishment of the Colony of Georgia in America under a charter issued by King George II.
The Trustees implemented an elaborate plan for the colony's settlement, known as the Oglethorpe Plan, which envisioned an agrarian society of yeoman farmers and prohibited slavery. The colony was invaded by the Spanish during the War of Jenkins' Ear. In 1752, after the government failed to renew subsidies that had helped support the colony, the Trustees turned over control to the crown. Georgia became a crown colony, with a governor appointed by the king; the Province of Georgia was one of the Thirteen Colonies that revolted against British rule in the American Revolution by signing the 1776 Declaration of Independence. The State of Georgia's first constitution was ratified in February 1777. Georgia was the 10th state to ratify the Articles of Confederation on July 24, 1778, was the 4th state to ratify the United States Constitution on January 2, 1788. In 1829, gold was discovered in the North Georgia mountains leading to the Georgia Gold Rush and establishment of a federal mint in Dahlonega, which continued in operation until 1861.
The resulting influx of white settlers put pressure on the government to take land from the Cherokee Nation. In 1830, President Andrew Jackson signed the Indian Removal Act, sending many eastern Native American nations to reservations in present-day Oklahoma, including all of Georgia's tribes. Despite the Supreme Court's ruling in Worcester v. Georgia that U. S. states were not permitted to redraw Indian boundaries, President Jackson and the state of Georgia ignored the ruling. In 1838, his successor, Martin Van Buren, dispatched federal troops to gather the tribes and deport them west of the Mississippi; this forced relocation, known as the Trail of Tears, led to the death of over 4,000 Cherokees. In early 1861, Georgia became a major theater of the Civil War. Major battles took place at Chickamauga, Kennesaw Mountain, Atlanta. In December 1864, a large swath of the state from Atlanta to Savannah was destroyed during General William Tecumseh Sherman's March to the Sea. 18,253 Georgian soldiers died in service one of every five who served.
In 1870, following the Reconstruction Era, Georgia became the last Confederate state to be restored to the Union. With white Democrats having regained power in the state legislature, they passed a poll tax in 1877, which disenfranchised many poor blacks and whites, preventing them from registering. In 1908, the state established a white primary, they constituted 46.7% of the state's population in 1900, but the proportion of Georgia's population, African American dropped thereafter to 28% due to tens of thousands leaving the state during the Great Migration. According to the Equal Justice Institute's 2015 report on lynching in the United States, Georgia had 531 deaths, the second-highest total of these extralegal executions of any state in the South; the overwhelming number of victims were male. Political disfranchisement persisted through the mid-1960s, until after Congress passed the Voting Rights Act of 1965. An Atlanta-born Baptist minister, part of the educated middle class that had developed in Atlanta's African-American community, Martin Luther King, Jr. emerged as a national leader in the civil rights movement.
King joining with others to form the Southern Christian Leadership Conference in Atlanta in 1957 to provide political leadership for the Civil Rights Movement across the South. By the 1960s, the proportion of
North America is a continent within the Northern Hemisphere and all within the Western Hemisphere. It is bordered to the north by the Arctic Ocean, to the east by the Atlantic Ocean, to the west and south by the Pacific Ocean, to the southeast by South America and the Caribbean Sea. North America covers an area of about 24,709,000 square kilometers, about 16.5% of the earth's land area and about 4.8% of its total surface. North America is the third largest continent by area, following Asia and Africa, the fourth by population after Asia and Europe. In 2013, its population was estimated at nearly 579 million people in 23 independent states, or about 7.5% of the world's population, if nearby islands are included. North America was reached by its first human populations during the last glacial period, via crossing the Bering land bridge 40,000 to 17,000 years ago; the so-called Paleo-Indian period is taken to have lasted until about 10,000 years ago. The Classic stage spans the 6th to 13th centuries.
The Pre-Columbian era ended in 1492, the transatlantic migrations—the arrival of European settlers during the Age of Discovery and the Early Modern period. Present-day cultural and ethnic patterns reflect interactions between European colonists, indigenous peoples, African slaves and their descendants. Owing to the European colonization of the Americas, most North Americans speak English, Spanish or French, their culture reflects Western traditions; the Americas are accepted as having been named after the Italian explorer Amerigo Vespucci by the German cartographers Martin Waldseemüller and Matthias Ringmann. Vespucci, who explored South America between 1497 and 1502, was the first European to suggest that the Americas were not the East Indies, but a different landmass unknown by Europeans. In 1507, Waldseemüller produced a world map, in which he placed the word "America" on the continent of South America, in the middle of what is today Brazil, he explained the rationale for the name in the accompanying book Cosmographiae Introductio:... ab Americo inventore... quasi Americi terram sive Americam.
For Waldseemüller, no one should object to the naming of the land after its discoverer. He used the Latinized version of Vespucci's name, but in its feminine form "America", following the examples of "Europa", "Asia" and "Africa". Other mapmakers extended the name America to the northern continent, In 1538, Gerard Mercator used America on his map of the world for all the Western Hemisphere; some argue that because the convention is to use the surname for naming discoveries, the derivation from "Amerigo Vespucci" could be put in question. In 1874, Thomas Belt proposed a derivation from the Amerrique mountains of Central America. Marcou corresponded with Augustus Le Plongeon, who wrote: "The name AMERICA or AMERRIQUE in the Mayan language means, a country of perpetually strong wind, or the Land of the Wind, and... the can mean... a spirit that breathes, life itself." The United Nations formally recognizes "North America" as comprising three areas: Northern America, Central America, The Caribbean.
This has been formally defined by the UN Statistics Division. The term North America maintains various definitions in accordance with context. In Canadian English, North America refers to the land mass as a whole consisting of Mexico, the United States, Canada, although it is ambiguous which other countries are included, is defined by context. In the United States of America, usage of the term may refer only to Canada and the US, sometimes includes Greenland and Mexico, as well as offshore islands. In France, Portugal, Romania and the countries of Latin America, the cognates of North America designate a subcontinent of the Americas comprising Canada, the United States, Mexico, Greenland, Saint Pierre et Miquelon, Bermuda. North America has been referred to by other names. Spanish North America was referred to as Northern America, this was the first official name given to Mexico. Geographically the North American continent has many subregions; these include cultural and geographic regions. Economic regions included those formed by trade blocs, such as the North American Trade Agreement bloc and Central American Trade Agreement.
Linguistically and culturally, the continent could be divided into Latin America. Anglo-America includes most of Northern America and Caribbean islands with English-speaking populations; the southern North American continent is composed of two regions. These are the Caribbean; the north of the continent maintains recognized regions as well. In contrast to the common definition of "North America", which encompasses the whole continent, the term "North America" is sometimes used to refer only to Mexico, the United States, Greenland; the term Northern America refers to the northern-most countries and territories of North America: the United States, Bermuda, St. Pierre and Miquelon and Greenland. Although the term does not refer to a unifie