Passenger rail terminology
Various terms are used for passenger rail lines and equipment-the usage of these terms differs between areas: A rapid transit system is an electric railway characterized by high speed and rapid acceleration. It uses passenger railcars operating singly or in multiple unit trains on fixed rails, it operates on separate rights-of-way from which all other foot traffic are excluded. It uses sophisticated signaling systems, high platform loading; the term rapid transit was used in the 1800s to describe new forms of quick urban public transportation that had a right-of-way separated from street traffic. This set rapid transit apart from horsecars, streetcars and other forms of public transport. Though the term was always used to describe rail transportation, other forms of transit were sometimes described by their proponents as rapid transit, including local ferries in some cases; the term bus rapid transit has come into use to describe bus lines with features to speed their operation. These have more characteristics of light rail than rapid transit.
Metros, short for metropolitan railways, are defined by the International Association of Public Transport as urban guided transport systems "operated on their own right of way and segregated from general road and pedestrian traffic. They are designed for operations in tunnel, viaducts or on surface level but with physical separation in such a way that inadvertent access is not possible. In different parts of the world Metro systems are known as the underground, the subway or the tube. Rail systems with specific construction issues operating on a segregated guideway are treated as Metros as long as they are designated as part of the urban public transport network." Metropolitan railways are used for high capacity public transportation. They can operate in trains of up to 10 cars. In Germany, the terms U-Bahn and S-Bahn are used; some metro systems run on rubber tires but are based on the same fixed-guideway principles as steel wheel systems. Subway used in a transit sense refers to either a rapid transit system using heavy rail or a light rail/streetcar system that goes underground.
The term may refer only to the full system. Subway is most used in the United States and the English-speaking parts of Canada, though the term is used elsewhere, such as to describe the SPT Subway in Glasgow, in translation of system names or descriptions in some Asian and Latin American cities; some lines described. Notably, Boston's Green Line and the Newark City Subway, each about half underground, originated from surface streetcar lines; the Buffalo Metro Rail is referred to as "the subway", while it uses light rail equipment and operates in a pedestrian mall downtown for half of its route and underground for the remaining section. Sometimes the term is qualified, such as in Philadelphia, where trolleys operate in an actual subway for part of their route and on city streets for the remainder; this is locally styled subway-surface. In some cities where subway is used, it refers to the entire system. Naming practices select one type of placement in a system where several are used. Historic posters referred to Chicago's Red & Blue lines as "the subway lines".
When the Boston subway was built, the subway label was only used for sections into which streetcars operated, the rapid transit sections were called tunnels. In some countries, subway refers to systems built under roads and the informal term tube is used for the deep-underground tunnelled systems – in this usage, somewhat technical nowadays and not used much in London, underground is regardless the general term for both types of system. Bus subways are uncommon but do exist, though in these cases the non-underground portions of route are not called subways; until March 2019, Washington had a bus subway downtown in which diesel-electric hybrid buses and light rail trains operated in a shared tunnel. The hybrid buses ran in electrical-only mode while traveling through the tunnel and overhead wires power the light rail trains which continue to operate in the tunnel. Bus subways are sometimes built to provide an exclusive right-of-way for bus rapid transit lines, such as the MBTA Silver Line in Boston.
These are called by the term bus rapid transit.'Subway' outside the USA, in Europe refers to an underground pedestrian passageway linking large road interconnections that are too difficult or dangerous to cross at ground level. In Canada, the term subway may be used in either sense; the usage of underground is similar to that of subway, describing an underground train system. In London the colloquial term tube now refers to the London Underground and is the most common word used for the underground system, it is used by Transport for London the local government body responsible for most aspects of the transport system throughout Greater London; however speaking, it should only refer to those deep lines which run in bored circular tunnels as opposed to those constructed near to the surface by'cut-and-cover' methods. The Glasgow metro system is known as the Glasgow Subway or colloquial as "the subway"; the word Metro is not use
Union Station (Los Angeles)
Los Angeles Union Station is the main railway station in Los Angeles and the largest railroad passenger terminal in the Western United States. It opened in May 1939 as the Los Angeles Union Passenger Terminal, replacing La Grande Station and Central Station. Approved in a controversial ballot measure in 1926 and built in the 1930s, it served to consolidate rail services from the Union Pacific, Santa Fe, Southern Pacific Railroads into one terminal station. Conceived on a grand scale, Union Station became known as the "Last of the Great Railway Stations" built in the United States; the structure combines Art Deco, Mission Revival, Streamline Moderne style. It was placed on the National Register of Historic Places in 1980. Today, the station is a major transportation hub for Southern California, serving 110,000 passengers a day, it is Amtrak's fifth-busiest station, by far the busiest in the Western United States and the tenth-busiest in the entire country. Four of Amtrak's long-distance trains originate and terminate here: the Coast Starlight to Seattle, the Southwest Chief and Texas Eagle to Chicago, the Sunset Limited to New Orleans.
The state-supported Amtrak California Pacific Surfliner regional trains run to San Diego and to Santa Barbara and San Luis Obispo. The station is the hub of the Metrolink commuter trains, several Metro Rail subway and light rail lines serve it as well, with more in construction or planning; the Patsaouras Transit Plaza, on the east side of the station, serves dozens of bus lines operated by Metro and several other municipal carriers. In 1926, a measure was placed on the ballot giving Los Angeles voters the choice between the construction of a vast network of elevated railways or the construction of a much smaller Union Station to consolidate different railroad terminals; the election would take on racial connotations and become a defining moment in the development of Los Angeles. The proposed Union Station was located in the heart of. Reflecting the prejudice of the time, the anti-railroad Los Angeles Times, a lead opponent of elevated railways, argued in editorials that Union Station would not be built in the "midst of Chinatown" but rather would "forever do away with Chinatown and its environs."
The Times attacked the elevateds for blocking out the California sun and in general being antithetical to the ethos of Los Angeles. Two questions were put to vote in 1926. First, the voters approved Union Station instead of elevated railways by 61.3 to 38.7 percent margin. Second, the electorate voted in favor of the Los Angeles Plaza as the site of the new station but by a much smaller 51.1 to 48.9 percent margin. Due to the efforts of preservationist Christine Sterling and Los Angeles Times publisher Harry Chandler, Union Station would not replace the Plaza, but be built across the street in Chinatown, demolished for the project; the glamorous new $11 million station took over from La Grande Station which had suffered major damage in the 1933 Long Beach earthquake and Central Station, which had itself replaced the Arcade Depot in 1914. Passenger service was provided by the Atchison and Santa Fe Railway, Southern Pacific Railroad, Union Pacific Railroad, as well as the Pacific Electric Railway and Los Angeles Railway.
The famed Super Chief luxury train carried Hollywood stars and others to Chicago and thence the East Coast. Union Station saw heavy use during World War II, but saw declining patronage due to the growing popularity of air travel and automobiles. In 1948 the Santa Fe Railroad's Super Chief lost its brakes coming into the station, smashed through a steel bumper and concrete wall, stopped with one third of the front of the locomotive dangling over Aliso St. No one was killed or injured; the station was designated as a Los Angeles Historic–Cultural Monument No. 101 on August 2, 1972 and placed on the National Register of Historic Places in 1980. The first commuter rail service to Union Station was the short-lived CalTrain that began operating on October 18, 1982 between Los Angeles and Oxnard; the service faced economic and political problems from the start and was suspended in March 1983. The next attempt at commuter rail came in 1990 with the launch of the Amtrak-operated Orange County Commuter.
The once-daily round-trip served stations between San Juan Capistrano. Metrolink commuter rail service began on October 26, 1992, with Union Station as the terminus for the San Bernardino Line, the Santa Clarita Line and the Ventura County Line. In January 1993, Metro's Red Line subway began service to the station, followed by Metrolink's Riverside Line in June; the Orange County Commuter train was discontinued on March 28, 1994 and replaced by Metrolink's Orange County Line. In May 2002, Metrolink added additional service to stations in Orange and Riverside counties with the opening of the Via Fullerton Line. Light Rail service arrived at Union Station on July 26, 2003 when Metro's Gold Line began operating to Pasadena from tracks 1 and 2; the line was expanded south over US 101 in November 2009 with the opening of the Gold Line Eastside Extension. In February 2011, the board of the Los Angeles County Metropolitan Transportation Authority approved the purchase of Union Station from Prologis and Catellus Development for $75 million.
The deal was closed on 14 April 2011. Since taking over ownership of the station, Metro has focused on increasing services for passengers at the station. One of the most noticeable changes is the addition of several retail and dining businesses to the concourse. Amtrak opened a
An island platform is a station layout arrangement where a single platform is positioned between two tracks within a railway station, tram stop or transitway interchange. Island platforms are popular on twin-track routes due to cost-effective reasons, they are useful within larger stations where local and express services for the same direction of travel can be provided from opposite sides of the same platform thereby simplifying transfers between the two tracks. An alternative arrangement is to position side platforms on either side of the tracks; the historical use of island platforms depends upon the location. In the United Kingdom the use of island platforms is common when the railway line is in a cutting or raised on an embankment, as this makes it easier to provide access to the platform without walking across the tracks. Island platforms are necessary for any station with many through platforms. Building small two-track stations with a single island platform instead of two side platforms does have advantages.
Island platforms allow facilities such as shops and waiting rooms to be shared between both tracks rather than being duplicated or present only on one side. An island platform makes it easier for wheelchair users and other people with physical limitations to change services between tracks or access facilities. If the tracks are above or below the entrance level, an island platform layout requires only one staircase and one elevator be built to access the platforms. Building the tracks and entrance at the same level creates a disadvantage. If an island platform is not wide enough to cope with passenger numbers, overcrowding can be a problem. Examples of stations where a narrow island platform has caused safety issues include Clapham Common and Angel on the London Underground. An island platform requires the tracks to diverge around the center platform, extra width is required along the right-of-way on each approach to the station on high-speed lines. Track centers vary for rail systems throughout the world but are 3 to 5 meters.
If the island platform is 6 meters wide, the tracks must slew out by the same distance. While this requirement is not a problem on a new line under construction, it makes building a new station on an existing line impossible without altering the tracks. A single island platform makes it quite difficult to have through tracks, which are between the local tracks. A common configuration in busy locations on high speed lines is a pair of island platforms, with slower trains diverging from the main line so that the main line tracks remain straight. High-speed trains can therefore pass straight through the station, while slow trains pass around the platforms; this arrangement allows the station to serve as a point where slow trains can be passed by faster trains. A variation at some stations is to have the slow and fast pairs of tracks each served by island platforms A rarer layout, present at Mets-Willets Point on the IRT Flushing Line, 34th Street – Penn Station on the IRT Seventh Avenue Line and 34th Street – Penn Station on the IND Eighth Avenue Line of the New York City Subway, uses two side platforms for local services with an island in between for express services.
The purpose of this atypical design was to reduce unnecessary passenger congestion at a station with a high volume of passengers. Since the IRT Seventh Avenue Line and IND Eighth Avenue Line have adjacent express stations at 42nd Street, passengers can make their transfers from local to express trains there, leaving more space available for passengers utilizing intercity rail at Pennsylvania Station; the Willets Point Boulevard station was renovated to accommodate the high volume of passengers coming to the 1939 World's Fair. Many of the stations on the Great Central Railway were constructed in this form; this was. If this happened, the lines would need to be compatible with continental loading gauge, this would mean it would be easy to change the line to a larger gauge, by moving the track away from the platform to allow the wider bodied continental rolling stock to pass while leaving the platform area untouched. Island platforms are a normal sight on Indian railway stations. All railway stations in India consist of island platforms.
In Toronto, 29 subway stations use island platforms. In Sydney, on the Eastern Suburbs Railway and the Epping Chatswood Railway, the twin tunnels are spaced and the tracks can remain at a constant track centres while still leaving room for the island platforms. A slight disadvantage is. In Edmonton, all 18 LRT stations on the Capital Line and Metro Line use island platforms; the Valley Line under construction, utilizes the new low-floor LRT technology, but will only use island platforms on one of the twelve stops along the line. In southern New Jersey and Philadelphia, PATCO uses island platforms in all of its 13 s
Red Line (Los Angeles Metro)
The Red Line is a heavy rail subway line running between Downtown Los Angeles and North Hollywood via the districts of Hollywood and Mid-Wilshire. In North Hollywood it connects with the Orange Line service for stations to the Warner Center in Woodland Hills and Chatsworth, it is operated by the Los Angeles County Metropolitan Transportation Authority. The Red Line, one of six lines forming the Metro Rail rapid transit system, opened in stages between 1993 and 2000. Together with the Purple Line, these two heavy rail lines combine to form L. A. Metro Rail's busiest line; as of October 2013, the combined Red and Purple lines averaged 169,478 boardings per weekday. Beginning in 2019, the line will be renamed to the B Line while retaining its red coloring; the Red Line is a 16.4-mile line that begins at Union Station and travels southwest through Downtown Los Angeles, passing the Civic Center, Pershing Square and the Financial District. At 7th St/Metro Center, travelers can connect to Metro Expo Line.
From here, the train travels between 7th Street and Wilshire Boulevard west through Pico-Union and Westlake, arriving at Wilshire/Vermont in the city's Mid-Wilshire/Koreatown district. Up to this point, the track is shared with the Metro Purple Line: at Wilshire/Vermont, the two lines diverge. From here, the Red Line travels north along Vermont, west along Hollywood Boulevard, traveling through Koreatown and Hollywood; the line turns northwest and crosses into the San Fernando Valley, where it terminates in North Hollywood. This route matches a branch of the old Red Car system, dismantled during The Great American Streetcar Scandal. Trains run between 4:30 a.m. and 1:00 a.m. the following morning. On Friday and Saturday evenings, trains are extended until 2:00 a.m. of the following morning. First and last train times are as follows: To/From North Hollywood Eastbound First Train to Union Station: 4:32 a.m. Last Train to Union Station: 1:02 a.m. Westbound First Train to North Hollywood: 4:10 a.m.
Last Train to North Hollywood: 12:21 a.m. Trains on the Red Line operate every ten minutes during peak hours Monday through Friday, they operate every twelve minutes during the daytime weekdays and all day on the weekends after 10 a.m.. Night service is every 20 minutes; the current Red Line is the product of a long-term plan to connect Downtown Los Angeles to central and western portions of the city with a heavy rail subway system. Planned in the 1980s to travel west down Wilshire Boulevard to Fairfax Avenue and north to the San Fernando Valley, a methane explosion at a Ross Dress for Less clothing store near Fairfax in 1985, just as construction got underway, led to a legal prohibition on tunneling in a large part of Mid-Wilshire. Instead, after some wrangling, a new route was chosen up Vermont Avenue to Hollywood Boulevard; the line opened in three minimum operating segments: MOS-1, which consisted of the original five stations from Union Station to Westlake/MacArthur Park, opened on January 30, 1993.
MOS-2B, which consisted of five new stations from Wilshire/Vermont to Hollywood/Vine which opened in 1999. MOS-3, which added new stations and extended the Red Line from Hollywood/Vine to its final terminus at North Hollywood, opened in 2000; the route known as the Red Line was intended to continue beyond its eastern terminus at Union Station to East Los Angeles. At the north end of the route, the Red Line was to turn west from North Hollywood station toward Warner Center. Trouble during the Red Line's construction, including a 1995 sinkhole that led to the project switching to a new contractor, led to a 1998 ballot proposition that banned revenue from existing sales taxes being used to dig subway tunnels in Los Angeles County, which put an end to expansion of the Red Line for the foreseeable future; the route to Warner Center was turned into a bus rapid transitway service. In the early 21st century, new sales tax Measures R and M were approved voters to provide funds for subway development.
While the Red Line does not figure into active expansion plans, several concepts have been proposed that would build off of it. Former Mayor Antonio Villaraigosa has mentioned extending the Red Line from its current North Hollywood Station terminus along Lankershim Boulevard to the northeastern San Fernando Valley, with a terminus in Sylmar. One long-term possibility might be an underground extension of another mile or two to a future high-rise housing district, or to a multi-modal transportation hub station at Bob Hope Airport in Burbank, a distance of four miles, it would go under Oxnard Street, the NoHo West development, Laurel Canyon Blvd, Vanowen Street to the Burbank Airport. In 2006 a large number of housing units, including a high-rise tower was completed near the North Hollywood station. Planned high-rise housing developments further to the north, including the NoHo West development which broke ground in March 2017 and the possibility of establishing a direct connection to the planned California High-Speed Rail station at Burbank Airport have been suggested as additional justification for an extension of the line from its current terminus in North Hollywood.
In 2010, at the request of L. A. City Councilman Tom LaBonge, Metro staff studied the possibility of adding a station along the west bank of the Los Angeles River to 6th Street and Santa Fe Avenue; the study concluded that such an extension, completed at
A metro station or subway station is a railway station for a rapid transit system, which as a whole is called a "metro" or "subway". A station provides a means for passengers to purchase tickets, board trains, evacuate the system in the case of an emergency; the location of a metro station is planned to provide easy access to important urban facilities such as roads, commercial centres, major buildings and other transport nodes. Most stations are located underground, with entrances/exits leading up to street level; the bulk of the station is positioned under land reserved for public thoroughfares or parks. Placing the station underground reduces the outside area occupied by the station, allowing vehicles and pedestrians to continue using the ground-level area in a similar way as before the station's construction; this is important where the station is serving high-density urban precincts, where ground-level spaces are heavily utilised. In other cases, a station may be elevated above a road, or at ground level depending on the level of the train tracks.
The physical and economic impact of the station and its operations will be greater. Planners will take metro lines or parts of lines at or above ground where urban density decreases, extending the system further for less cost. Metros are most used in urban cities, with great populations. Alternatively, a preexisting railway land corridor is re-purposed for rapid transit. At street level the logo of the metro company marks the entrances/exits of the station. Signage shows the name of the station and describes the facilities of the station and the system it serves. There are several entrances for one station, saving pedestrians from needing to cross a street and reducing crowding. A metro station provides ticket vending and ticket validating systems; the station is divided into an unpaid zone connected to the street, a paid zone connected to the train platforms. The ticket barrier allows passengers with valid tickets to pass between these zones; the barrier may operated by staff or more with automated turnstiles or gates that open when a transit pass is scanned or detected.
Some small metro systems dispense with paid zones and validate tickets with staff in the train carriages. Access from the street to ticketing and the train platform is provided by stairs, escalators and tunnels; the station will be designed to minimise overcrowding and improve flow, sometimes by designating tunnels as one way. Permanent or temporary barriers may be used to manage crowds; some metro stations have direct connections to important nearby buildings. Most jurisdictions mandate; this is resolved with elevators, taking a number of people from street level to the unpaid ticketing area, from the paid area to the platform. In addition, there will be stringent requirements for emergencies, with backup lighting, emergency exits and alarm systems installed and maintained. Stations are a critical part of the evacuation route for passengers escaping from a disabled or troubled train. A subway station may provide additional facilities, such as toilets and amenities for staff and security services, such as Transit police.
Some metro stations are interchanges, serving to transfer passengers between lines or transport systems. The platforms may be multi-level. Transfer stations handle more passengers than regular stations, with additional connecting tunnels and larger concourses to reduce walking times and manage crowd flows. In some stations where trains are automated, the entire platform is screened from the track by a wall of glass, with automatic platform-edge doors; these open, like elevator doors, only when a train is stopped, thus eliminate the hazard that a passenger will accidentally fall onto the tracks and be run over or electrocuted. Control over ventilation of the platform is improved, allowing it to be heated or cooled without having to do the same for the tunnels; the doors add cost and complexity to the system, trains may have to approach the station more so they can stop in accurate alignment with them. Metro stations, more so than railway and bus stations have a characteristic artistic design that can identify each stop.
Some have frescoes. For example, London's Baker Street station is adorned with tiles depicting Sherlock Holmes; the tunnel for Paris' Concorde station is decorated with tiles spelling the Déclaration des Droits de l'Homme et du Citoyen. Every metro station in Valencia, Spain has a different sculpture on the ticket-hall level. Alameda station is decorated with fragments of white tile, like the dominant style of the Ciutat de les Arts i les Ciències; each of the original four stations on Line 8 of the Beijing Subway is decorated traditionally with elements of Chinese culture. On the Tyne and Wear Metro, the station at Newcastle United's home ground St James' Park is decorated in the clubs famous black and white stripes; each station of the Red Line and Purple Line subway in Los Angeles was built with different artwork and decorating schemes, such as murals, tile artwork and sculptural benches. Every station of the Mexico City Metro is prominently identified by a unique icon in addition to its name, because the city had high illiteracy rates at the time the system was designed.
Some metro systems, such as those of Naples, Moscow, St. Petersburg, Kiev, Lisbon and Prague are famous for their beautiful architecture and public art; the Paris Métro is famous for its art nouveau station entrances.
Vineland Avenue is a major north-south thoroughfare in the San Fernando Valley. Vineland Avenue begins as a small residential street north of the railroad tracks at San Fernando Road, it cuts at the tracks, but turns into a major street as a continuation of Sunland Boulevard south of San Fernando Road in Sun Valley. It runs through the San Fernando Valley through many districts and communities such as Sun Valley, North Hollywood, Studio City before ending south of Ventura Boulevard near Universal City. Vineland Avenue carries Metro Local lines 152 and 237. Media related to Vineland Avenue at Wikimedia Commons
Chatsworth Transportation Center is an intermodal passenger transport station in the Los Angeles community of Chatsworth, California. It is a train station for Amtrak and Metrolink, it is served by the Metro Busway bus rapid transit system. The station includes a small railroad museum. There is no Amtrak ticket office, it is served by Amtrak's Pacific Surfliner from San Luis Obispo to San Diego, Metrolink's Ventura County Line from Los Angeles Union Station to East Ventura, the Metro Orange Line to North Hollywood. Of the 73 California stations served by Amtrak, Chatsworth was the 32nd-busiest in FY2010, boarding or detraining an average of 140 passengers daily. In the station building is the field office for Los Angeles City Council member Mitchell Englander; the site was home to several Southern Pacific railroad stations. The station opened as an infill station on the short-lived CalTrain line on December 29, 1982, only to close just over two months later; the current station building was constructed in 1996.
A station platform has existed since 1992. On September 12, 2008, a westbound Metrolink Ventura County Line train was involved in the 2008 Chatsworth train collision after it had departed this station, it collided head-on with a Union Pacific freight train in Chatsworth. The 4 miles Metro Orange Line Chatsworth extension opened June 30, 2012 and terminates at this station; the extension runs south to the Canoga station where it connects to the older portion of the Orange Line which runs to North Hollywood station. Amtrak/Metrolink Metro Busway 10 Pacific Surfliner trains serve the station daily and 20 Metrolink trains serve the station each weekday. Orange Line service operates 24 hours a day. Metro Local: 158, 166, 167, 244, 245, 364 City of Santa Clarita Transit: 791 LADOT Commuter Express: 419 Simi Valley Transit: C Amtrak California Station Info Page Chatsworth at the Metrolink website Chatsworth Station Photos LA Metro Orange Line — Chatsworth Extension - project website Revitalizing America's Train Stations - Chatsworth Chatsworth Park Railroad Station, 1893, CSUN Oviatt Library Digital Archives Chatsworth Depot 1950's, CSUN Oviatt Library Digital Archives Chatsworth--Great American Stations