Helena is a city in Jefferson and Shelby Counties in the state of Alabama. Helena is considered part of the Birmingham-Hoover Metropolitan Area; as of the 2010 census, the population was 16,793. Helena is regarded as a place to live and raise children, it has the eighth-lowest crime rate per population in the U. S. and the city was ranked in Money magazine's 2007 list of "Best Places to Live: Top 100" in the U. S. placing at number 91. The Alabama League of Municipalities awarded Helena the 2008 Municipal Achievement Award. Helena incorporated in 1877, but reincorporated in 1917 after errors were discovered in the initial incorporation papers, it did not first appear on the U. S. Census until 1920, giving credence to the date of incorporation; the initial settlers to Helena named Cove, were veterans of the final campaigns of the War of 1812. Members of Andrew Jackson's army who cut through the brush were attracted to the quiet, peaceful valleys and streams after the Battle of Horseshoe Bend; these first settlers were reported to arrive in 1849 and were predated by the Creek Indian tribes who these settlers had battled.
By 1856, the Cove post office opened. Shortly thereafter, the settlers changed the name of the town to Hillsboro; the onset of the Civil War brought the need for the South to increase its manufacturing output and add industrialization where there was none prior. Coal and iron ore mines were dug all throughout the area and the addition of the Louisville & Nashville Railroad infrastructure made Helena a center point for the wartime efforts. Around 1864 a rolling mill was built on Buck Creek, near the rail lines to process the Iron from Selma. Peter Boyle, an engineer for the railroad working on a new line and courted Helen Lee, he would name the burgeoning rail station that fed the rolling mill after her and changing the town name to Helena. As the final battles of the Civil War were being fought, the Union forces amassed a force to complete a Cavalry raid with the intent to drastically impact the South's war fighting capability as Sherman's march had done the previous year. Lead by James Harrison Wilson this force passed through the town of Helena on March 30, 1865 destroying much of the newly developed industry and residential buildings.
Within a few years of the end of the Civil War, industrialists were again developing the coal and iron ore resources that were in abundance in the area. The railroads were rebuilt and coke ovens established by the Eureka Company in 1870; the rolling mill was rebuilt, spurred by two-term governor Rufus Cobb in 1873. Much of what was Hillsboro had been absorbed by the expanding Helena area; the town was surveyed by Joseph Squire in 1873 and incorporated in 1877. By 1880, Helena contained six mercantile stores, one drugstore, two hotels, several boarding houses…The rolling mill had been expanded and modernized and the number of merchants had increased. A rail yard was added by the Nashville Railroad Company; the town was reincorporated in 1917 after the initial incorporation paperwork was found to contain errors. Charles Hind was elected mayor the same year. Much of the industrial development began to decline as a result of the Great Depression in the 1920s; the rolling mill was closed in 1923 and many mine closures followed.
The town fell on hard times and many of the residents left to find work elsewhere. Around 3 AM on May 5, 1933 residents were awoken to a massive tornado that ripped through the heart of Helena. 10 were killed with 2 more pronounced dead after arriving at the hospital and 75 people were reported as injured. Much of the original houses were destroyed and railroad cars were overturned; the property damage was estimated to be in the range of $100,000 to $150,000. Helena remained a small town in the rural county until suburban growth from Birmingham reached Helena in the late 20th century. Numerous residential and commercial developments spurred improvements in city facilities and services. By the early 21st century, Helena was experiencing large population gains, growing pains, as a result of its convenient location and high quality of life. Helena is located at 33°16′47″N 86°51′22″W. According to the U. S. Census Bureau, the city has a total area of 17.1 square miles, of which 17.1 square miles is land and 0.04 square miles is covered by water.
The Cahaba River and its tributary Buck Creek run through Helena. Buck Creek is dammed upstream of Alabama State Route 261 in the Old Town area to form Lake Davidson, used for recreation and water wheel power at the turn of the 20th century. Fishing and canoeing are popular uses of both waterways. Helena sits at the foothills of the southern extent of the Appalachian Mountains as they descend into the Gulf of Mexico coastal plain; the area is rolling hills with numerous small streams, undeveloped areas are mixed woodlands. The climate of Helena is typical of the Deep South, with long, humid summers and short mild winters. Summer high temperatures are in the upper 90s and low 100s F. Thunderstorms are frequent occurrences during the summer; the Helena area experiences two severe weather peaks, early spring and late fall, with tornadoes being frequent hazards during both peaks. Hurricanes coming ashore on the northern Gulf coast reach Helena with tropical storm-force winds; as of the census of 2010, 16,793 people, 3,828 households, and
1930 United States Census
The Fifteenth United States Census, conducted by the Census Bureau one month from April 1, 1930, determined the resident population of the United States to be 122,775,046, an increase of 13.7 percent over the 106,021,537 persons enumerated during the 1920 Census. The 1930 Census collected the following information: address name relationship to head of family home owned or rented if owned, value of home if rented, monthly rent whether owned a radio set whether on a farm sex race age marital status and, if married, age at first marriage school attendance literacy birthplace of person, their parents if foreign born: language spoken at home before coming to the U. S. year of immigration whether naturalized ability to speak English occupation and class of worker whether at work previous day veteran status if Indian: whether of full or mixed blood tribal affiliationFull documentation for the 1930 census, including census forms and enumerator instructions, is available from the Integrated Public Use Microdata Series.
The original census enumeration sheets were microfilmed by the Census Bureau in 1949. The microfilmed census is located on 2,667 rolls of microfilm, available from the National Archives and Records Administration. Several organizations host images of the microfilmed census online, digital indices. Microdata from the 1930 census are available through the Integrated Public Use Microdata Series. Aggregate data for small areas, together with electronic boundary files, can be downloaded from the National Historical Geographic Information System. 1930 Census Questions Hosted at CensusFinder.com 1931 U. S Census Report Contains 1930 Census results Historic US Census data 1930Census.com: 1930 United States Census for Genealogy & Family History Research 1930 Interactive US Census Find stories and more attached to names on the 1930 US census
Bessemer is a city southwest of Birmingham in Jefferson County, United States. The population was 27,456 at the 2010 Census, it is within the Birmingham-Hoover, AL Metropolitan Statistical Area, of which Jefferson County is the center. It developed as an industrial city in the late 19th and early 20th centuries; the town was founded in the postbellum era by the Bessemer Land and Improvement Company, named after Henry Bessemer and owned by coal magnate Henry F. DeBardeleben, he had inherited Daniel Pratt's investments. The mayor and councilmen voted to incorporate the city of Bessemer on September 9, 1887. Located 16 miles southwest of Birmingham, Bessemer grew and its promoters believed that it might overtake the other city in economic power. Given the iron ore and limestone deposits in the area, the city became a center of steelmaking from about 1890 through the 20th century, it attracted rural migrants from across the South, as well as European immigrants. By the 1950s, the city was majority African American in population.
The industry went through considerable restructuring in the late 20th century, jobs moved out of the area. Steel is no longer made here. Bessemer is located 18 miles southwest of Birmingham. According to the U. S. Census Bureau, the city has a total area of 40.8 square miles, of which 40.7 square miles is land and 0.1 square miles is water. Bessemer is situated in the midst of the iron ore and limestone district of Alabama, in the southern part of Jones Valley. Iron ore was mined on the hills on the city's southeast side, coal was mined to the north and west, limestone deposits were nearby. All three ingredients were necessary for steelmaking, which led to the area becoming a major steel center from about 1890 through the twentieth century. Steel is no longer made within the city limits, but is still manufactured in the neighboring city of Fairfield; the climate in this area is characterized by hot, humid summers and mild to cool winters. According to the Köppen Climate Classification system, Bessemer has a humid subtropical climate, abbreviated "Cfa" on climate maps.
As of the 2013 American Community Survey, there were 27,336 people residing in the city. 72.0% were African American, 24.0% White, 0.1% Native American, 0.2% Asian, 0.1% from some other race and 0.4% from two or more races. 3.2 % were Latino of any race. As of the census of 2000, there were 29,672 people, 11,537 households, 7,868 families residing in the city; the population density was 729.0 people per square mile. There were 12,790 housing units at an average density of 314.2 per square mile. The racial makeup of the city was 69.55% Black or African American, 28.93% White, 0.28% Native American, 0.18% Asian, 0.02% Pacific Islander, 0.30% from other races, 0.74% from two or more races. 1.14% of the population were Hispanic or Latino of any race. There were 11,537 households out of which 30.5% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 34.6% were married couples living together, 29.2% had a female householder with no husband present, 31.8% were non-families. 29.0% of all households were made up of individuals and 13.0% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older.
The average household size was 2.52 and the average family size was 3.12. In the city, the population was spread out with 26.8% under the age of 18, 9.6% from 18 to 24, 26.1% from 25 to 44, 21.1% from 45 to 64, 16.4% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 36 years. For every 100 females, there were 82.9 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 75.8 males. The median income for a household in the city was $23,066, the median income for a family was $28,230. Males had a median income of $29,413 versus $21,552 for females; the per capita income for the city was $12,232. About 24.2% of families and 27.2% of the population were below the poverty line, including 37.8% of those under age 18 and 24.7% of those age 65 or over. In 1900, Bessemer ranked eighth in population in the state, second in amount of capital invested in manufacturing, fourth in the value of its manufactured product for the year. By 1911, ore mining, iron smelting, the manufacture of iron and coke were the chief industries of Bessemer.
Truck farming was an important industry, dating from the area's agricultural past. Both blacks and whites from rural areas were attracted to the city for its new work opportunities. African Americans moved into industrial jobs and became part of integrated unions. Today, ore mining has ended. Manufacturing remains a factor, with the U. S. Pipe and Foundry ductile pipe plant on the city's north side. On May 9, 2007, U. S. Pipe announced; the site was selected, among other reasons, for having available space for potential future expansions. U. S. Pipe is the largest domestic producer of Ductile Iron pipe in sizes 4 inch through 64 inch; the city was once home to a large railroad car manufacturing factory, operated by Pullman Standard for many decades and by Trinity Industries. With railroad restructuring in the late 20th century and other manufacturing moving offshore, this plant ceased most production in the 1990s. Other industries have relocated to this facility; the decline of mining and exodus of the steelmaking and railcar manufacturing industries resulted in extensive loss of jobs.
The city has lost population since a peak in 1970. It faced an economic crisis in the early to mid-1980s, as unemployed workers constituted more than one-third of the workforce. Since that time the c
Gardendale is a city in Jefferson County, United States and a northern suburb of Birmingham. The population was 13,893 at the 2010 census. A large farm settlement near the area today known as Gardendale was settled around 1825; some years other settlers began to move into the community known as Jugtown, a name given to the area based on the presence of a large jug and churn factory that operated in the area. Some years Hettie Thomason Cargo, a school teacher, would lead a campaign to change the name of the community. In 1906, the name Gardendale was selected, in 1955, the City of Gardendale was incorporated. Today, with more than 13,000 residents, the city of Gardendale has grown to include more than 400 businesses, 4 schools, 24 churches. In 1996, the Olympic torch run passed through the city during the weeks leading up to the 1996 Summer Olympic Games in Atlanta. Before Interstate 65 was constructed, the main route between Nashville and Birmingham, Alabama was U. S. Route 31. Prior to being built as a four-lane road, U.
S. 31 was a twisting two-lane road, still visible today. From the north end of Gardendale, it is now Snow Rogers Road, North Road, Moncrief Road, Main Street southward through the city to the Fultondale city limit where it becomes Stouts Road. In the fall of 2008, new signs were placed along the original route of Stouts Road through Gardendale denoting its historical significance as a stagecoach route between Tennessee and Birmingham during the 19th century; the first traffic signals in the city were located along U. S. 31 at Tarrant Road, Fieldstown Road, Moncrief Road as well as Tarrant Road at Pineywood Road. A new signal at the intersection of Fieldstown Road and Main Street near city hall replaced a blinking signal shortly thereafter. Fieldstown Road was a narrow two lane road from U. S. 31 westward until Interstate 65 was built and Fieldstown Road was re-routed onto the new road in the mid-1980s. An abundance of traffic signals have been erected in the city since those early days. In 1970, the city installed street lights along U.
S. 31 from the Fultondale city limits northward to the Moncrief Road intersection. The technology at that time was for blue vapor lights. Today, nearly 40 years those same blue vapor lights still exist with some being replaced with the more modern bulbs near major intersections. Since 1980, Gardendale has annexed considerable amounts of land on the north and west sides. Much of the eastern area is uninhabited; the western annexation is centered along Fieldstown Road. Most of the newest residential development has been in this area and along Shady Grove Road south of Fieldstown Road; the northern annexation has centered along US 31 and extends nearly 2 miles farther north than 1980. The city has a working historical society, established January 23, 2006, working to record the history of the Gardendale area, they have a museum, open to the public on Saturday mornings each week. It contains a variety of photographs and other historical memorabilia from Gardendale. Gardendale is located at 33°39′36″N 86°48′46″W.
According to the U. S. Census Bureau, the city has a total area of 18.0 square miles, all land. However, with the recent annexation of several thousand acres from the community of Mt. Olive and other unincorporated areas, the city now has an estimated total area of around 25.0 square miles. Gardendale is situated along one of the three major transportation corridors from the Midwest to the Gulf Coast. A tremendous volume of freight passes near Gardendale. Gardendale is served by two major north-south highways: Interstate 65 and U. S. 31. A new interstate highway, Interstate 22 will run northwestward from I-65 near Gardendale towards Memphis, Tennessee; this freeway is open from Coalburg Road near Fultondale just southwest of Gardendale to Memphis. Another future road project is the Northern Beltline which will run from Interstate 59 near Argo westward across northern Jefferson County, crossing I-65 on the northern edge of Gardendale; this highway is designated to become Interstate 422. This route is some 15–20 years away from completion.
Major east/west roads in Gardendale include Fieldstown Road which runs from U. S. 31 in Gardendale westward, Tarrant Road which runs from the city eastward, Mt. Olive Road which runs northwestward from the city. Another future road project may be an extension of Fieldstown Road east of U. S. 31 to connect to the Castle Pines development and across New Castle Road, further east to connect to Carson Road. Gardendale is located in an area. Gardendale is located at the southwestern end of one of the Appalachian ridgelines running from eastern Tennessee into northeast Alabama. Several old and closed coal mines exist in the area as well as lands that were once strip mined and replanted for forests. No major waterways are located in Gardendale but several streams feed into the Locust Fork of the Black Warrior River that passes north and west of the city. Much of the land inside the city limits on the east and northeast sides of Gardendale is rocky and hilly with deep ravines; this portion of the city has limited access by road.
The only major rail line passing near Gardendale is a north/south track passing on the eastern edge of the city from Boyles Yard near Tarrant paralleling New Castle Road northward towards Blount
Homewood is a city in southeastern Jefferson County, United States. It is a suburb of Birmingham, located on the other side of Red Mountain due south of the city center; as of the 2010 census its population was 25,167, in 2016 the estimated population was 25,613. The first settlers of the area which would become Homewood arrived in the early 1800s; the area's population, did not grow until Birmingham suffered a major cholera epidemic in 1873. Speculators soon began buying up land and developing communities in the countryside surrounding Birmingham. Many of the smaller communities which would become Homewood were developed during this time period, including Rosedale, Grove Park and Oak Grove. Edgewood saw the greatest amount of development; the community contained an Electric Railway leading to downtown Birmingham by 1911 and a man-made lake by 1915. The lake was created by the construction of a dam along Shades Creek near Columbiana Road. Two parallel roads were graded on either side of the lake with the intention of creating a race track around the lake, however these plans never came to fruition.
The roads became Lakeshore Drive and South Lakeshore Drive. In 1926, a local attorney named Charles Rice started a movement to merge several of the communities surrounding Birmingham. In September of the same year, Rosedale and Grove Park voted to incorporate under the name Homewood; the city of Hollywood, Alabama was annexed into Homewood in 1929. In 1955, Oak Grove was annexed into Homewood; the Great Depression and a polio epidemic, which sickened 80 children in Homewood damaged Homewood's economy and social landscape. The regional economy picked up after the outbreak of World War II and the accompanying steel boom in Birmingham, where production ramped up in order to contribute to the war effort. During the 1940s, Homewood's police and fire departments doubled in size to accommodate a 73.9 percent increase in the city's population from 1940 to 1950. In 1959, Homewood voters defeated a move by Birmingham to annex the city. A second attempt succeeded in July 1964, but voting irregularities and lawsuits prevented the outcome of that election in the courts until September 9, 1966, when the Alabama Supreme Court ruled the 1964 vote null and void.
In a special election on December 13, 1966, a vote for annexation failed with 65 percent of Homewood residents voting against the annexation. Homewood avoided the worst of the turmoil associated with the Civil Rights Movement and, more the Southern Christian Leadership Conference's 1963 Birmingham campaign. However, in September 1963, the Shades Valley Sun newspaper reported on a racially motivated bombing on Central Avenue in Rosedale. In 1970, Homewood created its own school system, breaking away from the Jefferson County school system; the new Homewood High School opened in December 1972. Hollywood is a former town annexed into Homewood, Alabama, in 1929. A historic district of much of the area is listed on the National Register of Historic Places as Hollywood Historic District; the district is bounded by U. S. Highway 31, U. S. Highway 280, Lakeshore Drive and is significant for the Mission Revival and Spanish Colonial Revival architectural style of surviving houses and other buildings. Clyde Nelson began developing Hollywood Boulevard as a residential subdivision in 1926.
He employed a sales force of 75, armed with the memorable slogan "Out of the Smoke Zone, Into the Ozone", to entice Birmingham residents over Red Mountain. Architect George P. Turner designed many of the new homes in the Spanish Colonial Revival architecture, which had become fashionably linked with the glamour of Hollywood, California in the early days of the motion picture industry there. Turner nodded to the English Tudor style, widespread in Birmingham and over the mountain; the Hollywood Country Club on Lakeshore Drive and the American Legion Post 134 were built at this time. In order to support his new development, Nelson created the area's first autobus line and extended the first natural gas pipeline into Shades Valley. Hollywood incorporated as a town on January 14, 1927 with Clarence Lloyd as its first and only mayor; the town was annexed into Homewood on October 14, 1929. The Great Depression ended development of the subdivision. In 2002, the Hollywood Historic District was registered with the National Register of Historic Places, is home to The American Institute of Architects -nominated houses like 11 Bonita Drive.
The listing includes one contributing site, over a 815 acres area. Homewood is located at 33°28′6″N 86°48′29″W. According to the U. S. Census Bureau, the city has a total area of 8.3 square miles, all land. The city, along with the rest of Jefferson County, lies atop iron and limestone deposits. Shades Creek, part of the Cahaba River system, runs through Homewood; as of the census of 2000, there were 25,043 people, 10,688 households, 5,878 families residing in the city. The population density was 3,014.7 people per square mile. There were 11,494 housing units at an average density of 1,383.6 per square mile. The racial makeup of the city was 79.75% White, 15.30% Black or African-American, 0.20% Native American, 2.57% Asian, 0.03% Pacific Islander, 1.00% from other races, 1.16% from two or more races. 2.80% of the population were Hispanic or Latino of any race. There were 10,688 households out of which 27.2% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 41.0% were married couples living together, 11.4% had a female h
A city is a large human settlement. Cities have extensive systems for housing, sanitation, land use, communication, their density facilitates interaction between people, government organizations and businesses, sometimes benefiting different parties in the process. City-dwellers have been a small proportion of humanity overall, but following two centuries of unprecedented and rapid urbanization half of the world population now lives in cities, which has had profound consequences for global sustainability. Present-day cities form the core of larger metropolitan areas and urban areas—creating numerous commuters traveling towards city centers for employment and edification. However, in a world of intensifying globalization, all cities are in different degree connected globally beyond these regions; the most populated city proper is Chongqing while the most populous metropolitan areas are the Greater Tokyo Area, the Shanghai area, Jabodetabek. The cities of Faiyum and Varanasi are among those laying claim to longest continual inhabitation.
A city is distinguished from other human settlements by its great size, but by its functions and its special symbolic status, which may be conferred by a central authority. The term can refer either to the physical streets and buildings of the city or to the collection of people who dwell there, can be used in a general sense to mean urban rather than rural territory. A variety of definitions, invoking population, population density, number of dwellings, economic function, infrastructure, are used in national censuses to classify populations as urban. Common population definitions for a city range between 1,500 and 50,000 people, with most U. S. states using a minimum between 5,000 inhabitants. However, some jurisdictions set no such minimums. In the United Kingdom, city status is awarded by the government and remains permanently, resulting in some small cities, such as Wells and St Davids. According to the "functional definition" a city is not distinguished by size alone, but by the role it plays within a larger political context.
Cities serve as administrative, commercial and cultural hubs for their larger surrounding areas. Examples of settlements called city which may not meet any of the traditional criteria to be named such include Broad Top City and City Dulas, Anglesey, a hamlet; the presence of a literate elite is sometimes included in the definition. A typical city has professional administrators and some form of taxation to support the government workers; the governments may be based on heredity, military power, work projects such as canal building, food distribution, land ownership, commerce, finance, or a combination of these. Societies that live in cities are called civilizations; the word city and the related civilization come, via Old French, from the Latin root civitas meaning citizenship or community member and coming to correspond with urbs, meaning city in a more physical sense. The Roman civitas was linked with the Greek "polis"—another common root appearing in English words such as metropolis. Urban geography deals both with their internal structure.
Town siting has varied through history according to natural, technological and military contexts. Access to water has long been a major factor in city placement and growth, despite exceptions enabled by the advent of rail transport in the nineteenth century, through the present most of the world's urban population lives near the coast or on a river. Urban areas as a rule cannot produce their own food and therefore must develop some relationship with a hinterland which sustains them. Only in special cases such as mining towns which play a vital role in long-distance trade, are cities disconnected from the countryside which feeds them. Thus, centrality within a productive region influences siting, as economic forces would in theory favor the creation of market places in optimal mutually reachable locations; the vast majority of cities have a central area containing buildings with special economic and religious significance. Archaeologists refer to this area by the Greek term temenos; these spaces reflect and amplify the city's centrality and importance to its wider sphere of influence.
Today cities have downtown, sometimes coincident with a central business district. Cities have public spaces where anyone can go; these include owned spaces open to the public as well as forms of public land such as public domain and the commons. Western philosophy since the time of the Greek agora has considered physical public space as the substrate of the symbolic public sphere. Public art adorns public spaces. Parks and other natural sites within cities provide residents with relief from the hardness and regularity of typical built environments. Urban structure follows one or more basic patterns: geomorphic, concentric and curvilinear. Physical environment constrains the form in which a city is built. If located on a mountainside, urban structure may rely on winding roads, it may be adapted to its means of subsistence. And it may be set up for optimal defense given the surrounding landscape. Beyond these "geomorphi
Fairfield is a city in western Jefferson County, United States. It is located southeast of Pleasant Grove; the population was 11,117 at the 2010 census. This city was founded in 1910 in which the featured speaker at the dedication ceremony was former President Theodore Roosevelt, it was named Corey, after an executive of U. S. Steel Corporation; the name was changed to the city in which the President of U. S. Steel lived, Connecticut, it was planned as a model city by the Tennessee Coal and Railroad Company to house workers in their new Fairfield Works plant, now owned by U. S. Steel, similar to its northeastern city of Ensley, it was incorporated on January 1, 1919. According to the U. S. Census Bureau, the city has a total area of 3.5 square miles, all land. As of the census of 2000, there were 12,381 people, 4,600 households, 3,141 families residing in the city; the population density was 3,503.8 people per square mile. There were 4,960 housing units at an average density of 1,403.7 per square mile.
The racial makeup of the city was 8.90% White, 90.23% Black or African American, 0.06% Native American, 0.15% Asian, 0.02% Pacific Islander, 0.17% from other races, 0.48% from two or more races. 0.59% of the population were Hispanic or Latino of any race. There were 4,600 households out of which 34.0% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 35.6% were married couples living together, 28.4% had a female householder with no husband present, 31.7% were non-families. 29.2% of all households were made up of individuals and 12.0% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.55 and the average family size was 3.17. In the city, the population was spread out with 26.7% under the age of 18, 11.9% from 18 to 24, 25.2% from 25 to 44, 22.3% from 45 to 64, 13.8% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 36 years. For every 100 females, there were 79.2 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 73.4 males. The median income for a household in the city was $27,845, the median income for a family was $38,552.
Males had a median income of $30,833 versus $25,143 for females. The per capita income for the city was $14,607. About 16.5% of families and 21.5% of the population were below the poverty line, including 27.7% of those under age 18 and 25.3% of those age 65 or over. As of the census of 2010, there were 11,117 people, 4,229 households, 2,738 families residing in the city; the population density was 3,176.3 people per square mile. There were 4,935 housing units at an average density of 1,410 per square mile; the racial makeup of the city was 94.6% Black or African American, 4.2% White, 0.0% Native American, 0.0% Asian, 0.0% Pacific Islander, 0.7% from other races, 0.4% from two or more races. 1.1% of the population were Hispanic or Latino of any race. There were 4,229 households out of which 24.9% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 28.3% were married couples living together, 31.4% had a female householder with no husband present, 35.3% were non-families. 32.7% of all households were made up of individuals and 12.4% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older.
The average household size was 2.45 and the average family size was 3.10. In the city, the population was spread out with 23.0% under the age of 18, 14.3% from 18 to 24, 20.7% from 25 to 44, 28.9% from 45 to 64, 13.0% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 36.8 years. For every 100 females, there were 79.0 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 81.1 males. The median income for a household in the city was $34,242, the median income for a family was $41,841. Males had a median income of $34,854 versus $29,788 for females; the per capita income for the city was $18,221. About 22.2% of families and 24.2% of the population were below the poverty line, including 40.5% of those under age 18 and 21.7% of those age 65 or over. Fairfield has its own school system, independent from Jefferson County; the system includes three elementary schools, Forest Hills Middle School, Fairfield High Preparatory School, an alternative all-grades school. The city is home to Miles College, a black college operated by the CME Church.
The school was founded in 1898. Though the United States steel making industry has gone through a decline through the last half of the 20th Century, U. S. Steel's Fairfield Works continues to be a major employer, though not in the levels seen around the 1950s. Advances in steel-making technology have enabled the works to produce the same amount of product as during that era, but with a much smaller workforce. Portions of the Works have been closed over the years, but many parts of the complex have been reopened by smaller industries, some of which are steel-related. Fairfield is traversed by I-20/I-59. Three railroads serve the area: CSX Transportation, Norfolk Southern Railway, short-line Birmingham Southern Railroad, headquartered in Fairfield; the city's downtown area features a number of small businesses service-related. Other retail businesses are concentrated along Aronov Drive, northwest of Western Hills Mall, though those strip malls have declined due to closures of Kmart, Winn-Dixie, Sears locations.
Walmart shut its doors in early 2016. All public bus transportation was terminated in July 2016 for failure to pay the bill; the water board has threatened to cut off all water to public buildings because of non payment. Western Hills Mall is the city's major shopping mall. Federal judge U. W. Clemon was born in Fairfield. Former NFL playe