Sydney is the state capital of New South Wales and the most populous city in Australia and Oceania. Located on Australia's east coast, the metropolis surrounds Port Jackson and extends about 70 km on its periphery towards the Blue Mountains to the west, Hawkesbury to the north, the Royal National Park to the south and Macarthur to the south-west. Sydney is made up of 40 local government areas and 15 contiguous regions. Residents of the city are known as "Sydneysiders"; as of June 2017, Sydney's estimated metropolitan population was 5,230,330 and is home to 65% of the state's population. Indigenous Australians have inhabited the Sydney area for at least 30,000 years, thousands of engravings remain throughout the region, making it one of the richest in Australia in terms of Aboriginal archaeological sites. During his first Pacific voyage in 1770, Lieutenant James Cook and his crew became the first Europeans to chart the eastern coast of Australia, making landfall at Botany Bay and inspiring British interest in the area.
In 1788, the First Fleet of convicts, led by Arthur Phillip, founded Sydney as a British penal colony, the first European settlement in Australia. Phillip named the city Sydney in recognition of 1st Viscount Sydney. Penal transportation to New South Wales ended soon after Sydney was incorporated as a city in 1842. A gold rush occurred in the colony in 1851, over the next century, Sydney transformed from a colonial outpost into a major global cultural and economic centre. After World War II, it experienced mass migration and became one of the most multicultural cities in the world. At the time of the 2011 census, more than 250 different languages were spoken in Sydney. In the 2016 Census, about 35.8% of residents spoke a language other than English at home. Furthermore, 45.4% of the population reported having been born overseas, making Sydney the 3rd largest foreign born population of any city in the world after London and New York City, respectively. Despite being one of the most expensive cities in the world, the 2018 Mercer Quality of Living Survey ranks Sydney tenth in the world in terms of quality of living, making it one of the most livable cities.
It is classified as an Alpha+ World City by Globalization and World Cities Research Network, indicating its influence in the region and throughout the world. Ranked eleventh in the world for economic opportunity, Sydney has an advanced market economy with strengths in finance and tourism. There is a significant concentration of foreign banks and multinational corporations in Sydney and the city is promoted as Australia's financial capital and one of Asia Pacific's leading financial hubs. Established in 1850, the University of Sydney is Australia's first university and is regarded as one of the world's leading universities. Sydney is home to the oldest library in Australia, State Library of New South Wales, opened in 1826. Sydney has hosted major international sporting events such as the 2000 Summer Olympics; the city is among the top fifteen most-visited cities in the world, with millions of tourists coming each year to see the city's landmarks. Boasting over 1,000,000 ha of nature reserves and parks, its notable natural features include Sydney Harbour, the Royal National Park, Royal Botanic Garden and Hyde Park, the oldest parkland in the country.
Built attractions such as the Sydney Harbour Bridge and the World Heritage-listed Sydney Opera House are well known to international visitors. The main passenger airport serving the metropolitan area is Kingsford-Smith Airport, one of the world's oldest continually operating airports. Established in 1906, Central station, the largest and busiest railway station in the state, is the main hub of the city's rail network; the first people to inhabit the area now known as Sydney were indigenous Australians having migrated from northern Australia and before that from southeast Asia. Radiocarbon dating suggests human activity first started to occur in the Sydney area from around 30,735 years ago. However, numerous Aboriginal stone tools were found in Western Sydney's gravel sediments that were dated from 45,000 to 50,000 years BP, which would indicate that there was human settlement in Sydney earlier than thought; the first meeting between the native people and the British occurred on 29 April 1770 when Lieutenant James Cook landed at Botany Bay on the Kurnell Peninsula and encountered the Gweagal clan.
He noted in his journal that they were somewhat hostile towards the foreign visitors. Cook was not commissioned to start a settlement, he spent a short time collecting food and conducting scientific observations before continuing further north along the east coast of Australia and claiming the new land he had discovered for Britain. Prior to the arrival of the British there were 4,000 to 8,000 native people in Sydney from as many as 29 different clans; the earliest British settlers called the natives Eora people. "Eora" is the term the indigenous population used to explain their origins upon first contact with the British. Its literal meaning is "from this place". Sydney Cove from Port Jackson to Petersham was inhabited by the Cadigal clan; the principal language groups were Darug and Dharawal. The earliest Europeans to visit the area noted that the indigenous people were conducting activities such as camping and fishing, using trees for bark and food, collecting shells, cooking fish. Britain—before that, England—and Ireland had for a long time been sending their convicts across the Atlantic to the American colonies.
That trade was ended with the Declaration of Independence by the United States in 1776. Britain decided in 1786 to found a new penal outpost in the territory discovered by Cook some 16 years ear
Korean Unification Flag
The Korean Unification Flag is a flag designed to represent all of Korea when North and South Korea participate as one team in sporting events. The background is white. In the center there is a blue silhouette of the Korean peninsula, including Jeju Island to the southwest, Ulleungdo and the Liancourt Rocks to the east, added in 2003. In the 2018 Winter Olympics and the Liancourt Rocks were not included in the flag. There was a plan for North and South Korea to compete as one team at the 1990 Asian Games although such efforts could not be realized. Ahead of the 1990 continental meet, the Korean Unification flag was conceived which features a silhouette of the Korean Peninsula including Jeju Island on a plain white field; the flag was first used in 1991 when the two countries competed as a single team in the 41st World Table Tennis Championships in Chiba and the 8th World Youth Football Championship in Lisbon, Portugal. The two countries' teams marched together under the flag in the opening ceremonies of the 2000 Summer Olympics in Sydney, Australia.
However, the two countries competed separately in sporting events. The flag was not used in the 2008 Summer Olympics in China. Not only was a unified team shelved, but the Beijing Organizing Committee for the Olympic Games's plan to make the two Korean teams enter consecutively during the opening ceremony was rejected due to opposition by the North Korean delegation at the last moment. At the 2018 Winter Olympics in Pyeongchang County, South Korea, the two countries agreed to march together during the opening ceremony, competed together in women's hockey; the countries attempted to negotiate a similar arrangement for the Paralympics, but negotiations were stalled by North Korean officials requesting that the Liancourt Rocks be included on the flag. Other occasions on which the flag were used include the following: The flag was prominently displayed at the border between the two sides when South Korean president, Roh Moo-hyun, walked into North Korea on an official visit in 2007. In 2010, a large group of North Korean citizens and officials waved the flag when saying goodbye to South Korean Reverend Han Sang-ryol returning to South Korea from North Korea by crossing the DMZ line, but he was arrested upon his return to South Korea.
In 2012, a large group of North Korean citizens and officials waved the flag when saying goodbye to Ro Su-hui, vice-chairman of the Reunification of the Fatherland Union. This was on the occasion of his return to South Korea from North Korea by crossing the DMZ line. Media reports referred to the flag as the “Korea is one” flag, he was arrested upon his return to South Korea and jailed. According to scholar and Korea expert Brian Reynolds Myers and North Koreans view the flag in different contexts. South Koreans see the flag as representing a peaceful relationship and coexistence with North Korea, whereas North Koreans view its usage by South Koreans as representing a desire to have their country annexed into North Korea. In this sense, Myers says, South Korean usage of the flag is more detrimental to their country's status vis-a-vis North Korea than North Koreans' usage of it in regards to South Korea. Chinese Taipei Olympic flag Proposed flags of Taiwan United Team of Germany Division of Korea Flag of North Korea Flag of South Korea Korean reunification Korea Team North & South Korea, Sydney 2000 Relationship between South and North Korea in 1990s Explanation and detailed design of the Korean Unification Flag North, South Agree to Add Dokdo to the Korean Unification Flag Korean Unification Studies
Archery is the art, practice, or skill of using a bow to shoot arrows. The word comes from the Latin arcus. Archery has been used for hunting and combat. In modern times, it is a competitive sport and recreational activity. A person who participates in archery is called an archer or a bowman, a person, fond of or an expert at archery is sometimes called a toxophilite; the bow and arrow seems to have been invented in the Paleolithic or early Mesolithic periods. The oldest signs of its use in Europe come from the Stellmoor in the Ahrensburg valley north of Hamburg and dates from the late Paleolithic, about 10,000–9000 BC; the arrows were made of pine and consisted of a main shaft and a 15–20 centimetres long fore shaft with a flint point. There are no definite earlier bows; the oldest bows known so far comes from the Holmegård swamp in Denmark. Bows replaced the spear-thrower as the predominant means for launching shafted projectiles, on every continent except Australasia, though spear-throwers persisted alongside the bow in parts of the Americas, notably Mexico and among the Inuit.
Bows and arrows have been present in Egyptian & neighboring Nubian culture since its respective predynastic & Pre-Kerma origins. In the Levant, artifacts that could be arrow-shaft straighteners are known from the Natufian culture, onwards; the Khiamian and PPN A shouldered. Classical civilizations, notably the Assyrians, Armenians, Parthians, Koreans and Japanese fielded large numbers of archers in their armies. Akkadians were the first to use composite bows in war according to the victory stele of Naram-Sin of Akkad. Egyptians referred to Nubia as "Ta-Seti," or "The Land of the Bow," since the Nubians were known to be expert archers, by the 16th Century BC Egyptians were using the composite bow in warfare; the Bronze Age Aegean Cultures were able to deploy a number of state-owned specialized bow makers for warfare and hunting purposes from the 15th century BC. The Welsh longbow proved its worth for the first time in Continental warfare at the Battle of Crécy. In the Americas archery was widespread at European contact.
Archery was developed in Asia. The Sanskrit term for archery, came to refer to martial arts in general. In East Asia, one of the Three Kingdoms of Korea was well known for its regiments of exceptionally skilled archers. Central tribesmen of Asia and American Plains Indians became adept at archery on horseback. Armored, but mobile archers were excellently suited to warfare in the Central Asian steppes, they formed a large part of armies that conquered large areas of Eurasia. Shorter bows are more suited to use on horseback, the composite bow enabled mounted archers to use powerful weapons. Empires throughout the Eurasian landmass strongly associated their respective "barbarian" counterparts with the usage of the bow and arrow, to the point where powerful states like the Han Dynasty referred to their neighbors, the Xiong-nu, as "Those Who Draw the Bow". For example, Xiong-nu mounted bowmen made them more than a match for the Han military, their threat was at least responsible for Chinese expansion into the Ordos region, to create a stronger, more powerful buffer zone against them.
It is possible that "barbarian" peoples were responsible for introducing archery or certain types of bows to their "civilized" counterparts—the Xiong-nu and the Han being one example. Short bows seem to have been introduced to Japan by northeast Asian groups; the development of firearms rendered bows obsolete in warfare, although efforts were sometimes made to preserve archery practice. In England and Wales, for example, the government tried to enforce practice with the longbow until the end of the 16th century; this was because it was recognized that the bow had been instrumental to military success during the Hundred Years' War. Despite the high social status, ongoing utility, widespread pleasure of archery in Armenia, Egypt and Wales, India, Korea and elsewhere every culture that gained access to early firearms used them to the neglect of archery. Early firearms were inferior in rate-of-fire, were sensitive to wet weather. However, they had longer effective range and were tactically superior in the common situation of soldiers shooting at each other from behind obstructions.
They required less training to use properly, in particular penetrating steel armor without any need to develop special musculature. Armies equipped with guns could thus provide superior firepower, trained archers became obsolete on the battlefield. However, the bow and arrow is still an effective weapon, archers have seen action in the 21st century. Traditional archery remains in use for sport, for hunting in many areas. Early recreational archery societies included the Finsbury Archers and the Ancient Society of Kilwinning Archers; the latter's annual Papingo event was first recorded in 1483. The Royal Company of Archers was formed in 1676 and is one of the oldest sporting bodies in the world. Archery remained a small and scattered pastime, until the late 18th century when it experienced a fashionable revival among the aristocracy. Sir Ashton Lever, an antiquarian and collector, formed the Toxophilite Society in London in 1781, wit
Synchronized swimming at the 2000 Summer Olympics
Synchronized swimming at the 2000 Summer Olympics was held in the Olympic Aquatic Centre where 104 competitors challenged for 2 gold medals in the duet and team events. Each event was made up of a technical and free routine with the points added together to determine the medalists. Official Olympic Report
North Korea at the Olympics
The Democratic People's Republic of Korea first participated at the Olympic Games in 1964. The National Olympic Committee for North Korea is the Olympic Committee of the Democratic People's Republic of Korea, was created in 1953 and recognized in 1957. North Korea first participated at the Olympic Games in 1964, appearing only in the Winter Olympic Games that year. Eight years in 1972, the nation first participated at the Summer Olympic Games. Since the nation has appeared in every Summer Games, except when North Korea joined the Soviet-led boycott of the 1984 Summer Olympics, when they boycotted the 1988 Games in Seoul, South Korea. North Korea's attendance at the Winter Games has been sporadic. During the 1998-2007 Sunshine Policy era, North Korea and South Korea symbolically marched as one team at the opening ceremonies of the 2000 and 2004 Olympics, but competed separately. In 2010 a team competed at the Winter Olympics in Vancouver. North Korea sent 22 athletes to compete in five sports at the Pyeongchang Winter Olympics in South Korea in February 2018.
As in 2000 and 2004, North and South Korean athletes marched together at the opening ceremonies. A unified women's ice hockey team included players from both North and South Korea. North Korean athletes competed in alpine skiing, figure skating, short track speed skating and cross-country skiing. Alongside the 22 athletes, North Korea sent a delegation of 400 supporters to the 2018 games; this delegation, led by North Korea's ceremonial head of state Kim Yong-nam, included cheerleaders, taekwondo practitioners and an orchestra. North Korean athletes have won a total of 56 medals, two of which were won at the Winter Games. Given its poor economy and small size, North Korea's performance is successful. However, government funding plays a major role in Korea's success. Elite athletes enjoy developed facilities and luxurious lifestyles, compared with their peers. In 2018 the United Nations have rejected due to conflicts an exemption to sanctions for sporting equipment to help athletes prepare for the 2020 Olympic Games being sent to North Korea.
On November 2, 2018, North and South Korean officials announced that their countries would participate at the 2020 Olympics, held in Tokyo, Japan, as a unified Korean team. List of flag bearers for North Korea at the Olympics North Korea at the Paralympics Sport in North Korea Category:Olympic competitors for North Korea Yonhap News Agency. North Korea Handbook. Seoul: M. E. Sharpe. ISBN 978-0-7656-3523-5. "Democratic People's Republic of Korea". International Olympic Committee. "Results and Medalists — North Korea". Olympic.org. International Olympic Committee. "Olympic Medal Winners". International Olympic Committee. "North Korea". Sports-Reference.com. Taylor, Adam. "The Olympics are tough for all athletes. For North Koreans, they're worse". Washington Post
Australia the Commonwealth of Australia, is a sovereign country comprising the mainland of the Australian continent, the island of Tasmania and numerous smaller islands. It is the world's sixth-largest country by total area; the neighbouring countries are Papua New Guinea and East Timor to the north. The population of 25 million is urbanised and concentrated on the eastern seaboard. Australia's capital is Canberra, its largest city is Sydney; the country's other major metropolitan areas are Melbourne, Brisbane and Adelaide. Australia was inhabited by indigenous Australians for about 60,000 years before the first British settlement in the late 18th century, it is documented. After the European exploration of the continent by Dutch explorers in 1606, who named it New Holland, Australia's eastern half was claimed by Great Britain in 1770 and settled through penal transportation to the colony of New South Wales from 26 January 1788, a date which became Australia's national day; the population grew in subsequent decades, by the 1850s most of the continent had been explored and an additional five self-governing crown colonies established.
On 1 January 1901, the six colonies federated. Australia has since maintained a stable liberal democratic political system that functions as a federal parliamentary constitutional monarchy, comprising six states and ten territories. Being the oldest and driest inhabited continent, with the least fertile soils, Australia has a landmass of 7,617,930 square kilometres. A megadiverse country, its size gives it a wide variety of landscapes, with deserts in the centre, tropical rainforests in the north-east and mountain ranges in the south-east. A gold rush began in Australia in the early 1850s, its population density, 2.8 inhabitants per square kilometre, remains among the lowest in the world. Australia generates its income from various sources including mining-related exports, telecommunications and manufacturing. Indigenous Australian rock art is the oldest and richest in the world, dating as far back as 60,000 years and spread across hundreds of thousands of sites. Australia is a developed country, with the world's 14th-largest economy.
It has a high-income economy, with the world's tenth-highest per capita income. It is a regional power, has the world's 13th-highest military expenditure. Australia has the world's ninth-largest immigrant population, with immigrants accounting for 26% of the population. Having the third-highest human development index and the eighth-highest ranked democracy globally, the country ranks in quality of life, education, economic freedom, civil liberties and political rights, with all its major cities faring well in global comparative livability surveys. Australia is a member of the United Nations, G20, Commonwealth of Nations, ANZUS, Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development, World Trade Organization, Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation, Pacific Islands Forum and the ASEAN Plus Six mechanism; the name Australia is derived from the Latin Terra Australis, a name used for a hypothetical continent in the Southern Hemisphere since ancient times. When Europeans first began visiting and mapping Australia in the 17th century, the name Terra Australis was applied to the new territories.
Until the early 19th century, Australia was best known as "New Holland", a name first applied by the Dutch explorer Abel Tasman in 1644 and subsequently anglicised. Terra Australis still saw occasional usage, such as in scientific texts; the name Australia was popularised by the explorer Matthew Flinders, who said it was "more agreeable to the ear, an assimilation to the names of the other great portions of the earth". The first time that Australia appears to have been used was in April 1817, when Governor Lachlan Macquarie acknowledged the receipt of Flinders' charts of Australia from Lord Bathurst. In December 1817, Macquarie recommended to the Colonial Office. In 1824, the Admiralty agreed that the continent should be known by that name; the first official published use of the new name came with the publication in 1830 of The Australia Directory by the Hydrographic Office. Colloquial names for Australia include "Oz" and "the Land Down Under". Other epithets include "the Great Southern Land", "the Lucky Country", "the Sunburnt Country", "the Wide Brown Land".
The latter two both derive from Dorothea Mackellar's 1908 poem "My Country". Human habitation of the Australian continent is estimated to have begun around 65,000 to 70,000 years ago, with the migration of people by land bridges and short sea-crossings from what is now Southeast Asia; these first inhabitants were the ancestors of modern Indigenous Australians. Aboriginal Australian culture is one of the oldest continual civilisations on earth. At the time of first European contact, most Indigenous Australians were hunter-gatherers with complex economies and societies. Recent archaeological finds suggest. Indigenous Australians have an oral culture with spiritual values based on reverence for the land and a belief in the Dreamtime; the Torres Strait Islanders, ethnically Melanesian, obtained their livelihood from seasonal horticulture and the resources of their reefs and seas. The northern coasts and waters of Australia were visited s
North Korea at the 1980 Summer Olympics
North Korea competed as the Democratic People's Republic of Korea at the 1980 Summer Olympics in Moscow, USSR. Se-Hong Jang — Wrestling, men's freestyle light flyweight Ho-Pyong Li — Wrestling, men's freestyle bantamweight Bong-Chol Ho — Weightlifting, men's flyweight Ri Byong-uk — Boxing, men's light flyweight Gyong-Si Han — Weightlifting, men's flyweight 1980 was the second time that North Korea competed in archery in the Olympics. Two women and one man competed. Women's Individual Competition: Gwang Sun-O — 2401 points Sok Chang-Suk — 2269 points Men's Individual Competition: Kim Gye-Yong — 2331 points Men's Marathon Chun Son-KohFinal — 2:20:08 Jong Hyong-LiFinal — 2:21:10 Chang Sop-ChoeFinal — 2:22:42 Men's Light Flyweight Li Byong-Uk → Bronze Medal First Round — Defeated Henryk Pielesiak on points Second Round — Defeated Gilberto Sosa on points Quarter Finals — Defeated Dumitru Şchiopu on points Semi Finals — Lost to Shamil Sabirov on points Men's Flyweight Yo Ryon-Sik First Round — Defeated Amala Dass on points Second Round — Defeated Ramon Armando Guevara on points Quarter Finals — Lost to Hugh Russell on points Men's Featherweight Gu Yong-ju First Round — Bye Second Round — Lost to Krzysztof Kosedowski on points Men's Lightweight Jong Jo-Ung First Round — Defeated Rabani Ghulam after referee stopped contest in second round Second Round — Lost to Viktor Demyanenko on points Men's Light-Welterweight Ryu Bun-Hwa First Round — Defeated Bishnu Malakar after referee stopped contest in first round Second Round — Lost to José Aguilar on points Men's freestyle 48 kg Jang Se-hongFirst Round — Defeated Gombyn Khishigbaatar, 7:43 Second Round — Defeated Mohammed Jabbar, 2:41 Third Round — Defeated Mohammad Aktar, 8:30 Fourth Round — Lost to Claudio Pollio, 7:12 Fifth Round — Defeated Jan Falandys, 8 - 13 Final Lost to Claudio Pollio, 7:12 Defeated Sergey Kornilayev, 7:23 → Silver MedalMen's freestyle 52 kg Jang Dok-ryongFirst Round — Lost to Ashok Kumar, 7 - 12 Second Round — Defeated Mark Dunbar, 2 - 37 Third Round — Defeated Mohammad Aynutdin, 6:28 Fourth Round — Lost to Nermedin Selimov, 16 - 6 → 5th placeMen's freestyle 57 kg Li Ho-pyongFirst Round — Defeated Cris Brown, 7:41 Second Round — Defeated Amrik Singh Gill, 5:03 Third Round — Defeated Wiesław Kończak, 9 - 5 Fourth Round — Defeated Aurel Neagu, 3 - 10 Fifth Round — Lost to Sergei Beloglazov, 1:12 Final Lost to Sergei Beloglazov, 1:12 Tied with Dugarsürengiin Oyuunbold, 7 - 7 → Silver Medal Official Olympic Reports International Olympic Committee results database