The Ethiopian Kagnew Battalions were three successive battalions drawn from the 1st Division Imperial Bodyguard sent by Emperor Haile Selassie I between June 1951 and April 1954 as part of the United Nations forces in the Korean War. After the armistice, a token Ethiopian force remained in the country until 1965. Altogether, 3,158 Ethiopians served in Kagnew Battalions during the war. "Kagnew Shaleka" was the name of the warhorse of Ras Makonnen, Menelik II's General and the father of Haile Selassie during the First Italo-Ethiopian War. Military units from Imperial times would adopt a name of a favored military commander and Ethiopian Warriors were referred to interchangeably by the names of their war horses; the regular Armed Forces of the Ethiopian Empire consisted of four Divisions of 10,000 men with support armor and artillery elements and complementary Air and Naval forces. This numbered 50,000 men and women; the 1st Division Imperial Bodyguard had primary responsibility for security in the North of the country including Eritrea.
Each Kagnew Battalion was drawn from the officers and men of the 1st Division Imperial Body Guard or the Kebur Zabagna, sometimes referred to as Ethiopia's "Royal" Guards. The troops selected for Korea were given intensive training in the mountains of Ethiopia for aclimatisation; the Kagnews served with great distinction, principally alongside the 7th Infantry Division, by all accounts acquitted themselves well in battle, suffering 121 dead and 536 wounded during the course of the conflict. At the conclusion of the war the Ethiopians were the only contingent that had no prisoners to collect from the North Koreans since no Kagnew soldier surrendered, they had the additional distinctions of having never been bested in battle during the war. The Kagnew Battalion engaged in combat 238 times and won every encounter, as both aggressors and defenders. Another distinction was that they never left their dead behind, it was noticed that there never seemed to be dead bodies of Kagnew soldiers on the battlefield.
This earned them the respect of their American colleagues, while fostering the belief among their opponents, who had never seen black people before, that they were superhuman. One of the feats S. L. A. Marshall thought worth noting was an Ethiopian patrol at the Battle of Pork Chop Hill in 1953 when "...under full observation from enemy country, eight Ethiopians walked 800 yards across no-man's land and up the slope of T-Bone Hill right into the enemy trenches. When next we looked, the eight had become ten; the patrol was dragging back two Chinese prisoners, having snatched them from the embrace of the Communist battalion..." The British military historian John Keegan notes that the Ethiopian units drawn from the Imperial Guard fought with some distinction in Korea between 1951 and 1954, although performing less competently in the Congo. A Silver Star and eighteen Bronze Stars were awarded to the Ethiopians. Two members, Colonel Irgetu and 2nd Lt. Haptewold Mamo, were awarded the highest Ethiopian gallantry award, became "Knights of the Order of Emperor Menelik II".
When the US established a military base in Eritrea they named it Kagnew Station in honor of the officers and men of the elite Imperial Bodyguards that had earned their admiration. Kagnew's exploits have been covered in detail in Pork Chop Hill by S. L. A. Marshall. Commenting on the fighting dogma of the Ethiopians Marshall states, "Like Horatius at the bridge or the screaming eagles at Bastogne, it was a classic fight, ending in clean triumph over impossible odds". Pointing out that War correspondents who were drawn to the headline values of such operations as Little Switch the 163 war correspondents overlooked the interesting and unrivaled Ethiopian feats; the former members of the Imperial Bodyguard Mahber has existed since the unit was dissolved by the Derg Military Junta and continues to celebrate the accomplishments of the men and officers not only of the Kagnew Battalion but of the Guard at large. It is under the leadership of Brigadier General Desta Gemeda; when the Communist Junta of Mengistu Hailemariam came to power it did everything to erase the "embarrassing" record of the Kagnew's service against the communists.
In 2008 the son of a Guardsman that served in Korea wrote the book Kagnew beKoera, Kagnew in Korea which paid tribute to the men and officers of the three battalions, the Emperor who had the foresight to send them and authors S. L. A. Marshall and Komon Skordiles for their efforts in ensuring that the feat of those that had served was not forgotten; this new publication included many stories from the battalion. One member of the battalion, Gebre M. Kassa, was the commanding officer of future Communist dictator Mengistu Haile Mariam. Komon Skordiles, the story of the Ethiopian fighters in Korea, 1954. S. L. A. Marshall, Pork Chop Hill, 1964 Ethiopian Korean War Veterans website An Ethiopian hero of the Korean War, bbc.co.uk Website with similar pictures of Kagnew Battalions List of Awards and Honors given to troops of the Kagnew Battalions Brief history of the Kagnews Ministry of Patriots and Veterans Affairs, The Eternal Partnership: Ethiopia and Korea, Sejong City, South Korea: Ministry of Patriots and Veterans Affairs, retrieved 2014-08-22
Incheon the Incheon Metropolitan City, is a city located in northwestern South Korea, bordering Seoul and Gyeonggi to the east. Inhabited since the Neolithic, Incheon was home to just 4,700 people when it became an international port in 1883. Today, about 3 million people live in the city, making it South Korea's third most-populous city after Seoul and Busan; the city's growth has been assured in modern times with the development of its port due to its natural advantages as a coastal city and its proximity to the South Korean capital. It is part of the Seoul Capital Area, along with Seoul itself and Gyeonggi Province, forming the world's fifth largest metropolitan area by population. Incheon has since led the economic development of Korea by opening its port to the outside world, ushering in the modernization of Korea as a center of industrialization. In 2003, the city was designated as Korea's first free economic zone. Since large local companies and global enterprises have invested in the Incheon Free Economic Zone, including Samsung which chose Songdo International City as its new investment destination for its bio industry.
As an international city, Incheon has held numerous large scale international conferences, such as the Incheon Global Fair & Festival in 2009. The 17th Asian Games Incheon 2014 was held in Incheon on 19 September 2014. Incheon has established itself as a major transportation hub in northeast Asia with the Incheon International Airport and Incheon Port; the city is home to the Green Climate Fund, an international organization addressing environmental issues. The first historical record of the Incheon area dates back to 475 CE, during the reign of King Jangsu of Goguryeo, by the name of Michuhol, supposed to be located on today's Munhak Hill; the area underwent several name changes with successive dynasties. In Goryeo era, Incheon was called Inju; the current name was turned to Incheon in 1413. Incheon County became Incheon Metropolitan Prefecture. Old Incheon consisted of today's southern Incheon and northern part of Siheung City; the city centre was Gwangyo-dong, where the local academy were located.
The "original" two remaining buildings of the Incheon prefecture office are located in Munhak Elementary School, while the newly built prefecture office buildings are right across from Munhak Baseball Stadium. Another historical name of the city, was not used until the opening of the port in 1883. After the opening of the Incheon port, the city centre moved from Gwangyo to Jemulpo. Today, either Jemulpo or Gwangyo-dong is considered "Original Incheon", it was renamed as Jinsen during Japanese rule in Korean peninsula. In 1914, the Japanese colonial government merged outer parts of old Incheon with Bupyeong County, forming Bucheon County. Through 1936 and 1940, some part of Bucheon County was recombined into Incheon City, by which some part of "old" Bupyeong was annexed into Incheon. Incheon was part of Gyeonggi Province, but was granted Directly Governed City status on July 1, 1981. In 1989, neighbouring islands and Gyeyang township of Gimpo County were ceded to Incheon and in 1995 Geomdan township of Gimpo Country and two counties of Ganghwa and Onjin were annexed to Incheon Metropolitan City.
Incheon was known as Inchon prior to South Korea's adoption of a new Romanization system in 2000. The city was the site of the Battle of Chemulpo Bay, where the first shots of the Russo-Japanese War were fired. During the Korean War, Incheon was occupied by North Korean troops on 4 September 1950. Eleven days Incheon was the site of the Battle of Inchon, when United States troops landed to relieve pressure on the Pusan Perimeter and to launch a United Nations offensive northward; the result was a decisive UN victory and it was recaptured on 19 September 1950. The USS Inchon was named after the tide-turning battle. Incheon has hosted a series of major international events; the Global Fair & Festival 2009 Incheon was held in the Songdo District in August 2009. It was open from 7 August to 25 October for a period of 80 days, it was a comprehensive international event with global institutions and corporations as participants. Various musicians and artists performed during the event; the city hosted a meeting of the G20 Finance Ministers in February 2010.
Incheon was the site of the third Global Model United Nations Conference, held from 10th to the 14th of August 2011. It first hosted the Incheon Women Artists' Biennale in 2004 which expanded into welcoming international artists in its subsequent 2007, 2009 and 2011. Incheon hosted the Asian Games in 2014. On 27 February 2007, Incheon declared itself an "English City," and inaugurated the "Incheon Free English Zone" program; the goal of the program is to make the city as proficient in English as Hong Singapore. This is for the ultimate purpose of establishing Incheon as a commercial and business hub of northeast Asia; the official slogan of the program is "Smile with English." Incheon is home to a number of colleges and universities: George Mason University Korea Campus Ghent University Global Campus Gyeongin National University of Education Incheon campus Inha University Gachon University Medical·Ganghwa campus Gyeongin Women's College Inha Technical College Incheon Catholic University Incheon City College I
Thailand in the Korean War
Thailand was one of the 21 countries who responded to the United Nations request to send troops to aid South Korea during the Korean War 1950-53. As well as being one of the first countries to express its support for South Korea's cause, whilst being one of the UN's larger contributors to the war. Thai support was important to battles determining the outcome of the war, including Pork Chop Hill and the Third Battle of Seoul. Thailand was the first country in Asia to send aid to South Korea. Realising that a communist take-over in Korea could be catastrophic to Thailand's own political order, the Thai government decided to support South Korea's cause fully. Four tonnes of rice was sent to Korea as food aid and this was followed by an infantry battalion from the 21st Combined Regiment and several warships. In the conflict, several transport aircraft were sent by the Thai government; the regiment returned to Thailand in March 1955. Battle of Pork Chop Hill Third Battle of Seoul The Battle of Porkchop Hill involved numerous battles struggling for the control of key and dominant outpost hills along the front line while having a truce talk at Panmunjeom.
A typical hill battle was waged at "Porkchop Hill" held by soldiers of the 21st Thai Infantry Battalion, who repulsed an attack by the Chinese People's Volunteers. After this victory, the United States military awarded one Thai soldier the prestigious Legion of Merit, while 12 received Silver Stars and 26 were awarded a Bronze Star Medal, they were given the nickname "Little Tigers" by General James Van Fleet, commander of the 8th US Army. The Chinese made an all out effort to capture Porkchop Hill, attacking it five times, the first two to probe the defences and last three to take the hill. All were defeated by the Thais between 11 November 1952 to 28 February 1953, still attached to the 9th US Infantry Regiment. In last spring of the war, the Thais spent most of their time in training and as 9th US Corps reserve They relocated to Kyo-dong, west of Uncheon, on 4 May. Battle followed in the vicinity of the "Boomerang" from 14 to 27 July 1953 northwest of Kumhwa, after a Belgian victory over an earlier Chinese assault.
Thai infantry forces stayed in Korea until June 1972. On November 7, 1950 two Thai warships, HTMS Prasae and HTMS Bangpakong), arrived in South Korea, they served under United Nations command, shelling enemy targets on land. The Prasae ran aground on the coast near Yangyang during a snowstorm. Attempts to refloat her failed, she was scuttled on January 7, 1951, her wreck being shelled to complete the destruction; the Bangpakong left Korea in February 16, 1952. In December 29, 1951 two more Thai warships, HTMS Prasae II and the HTMS Tachin, arrived in Korea, they sailed for home a year and a half after the armistice on January 21, 1955. The transport ship HTMS Sichang arrived in Korea on November 7, 1950, remaining there until July 15, 1951. Royal Thai Air Force supply. On September 22, 1950, the Thai Government ordered units of its forces to assist the United Nations military operations in the Korea War. Three task force contingents of the Royal Thai Air Force would serve South Korea: The first of a total of twenty-two Air Liaison Officers Teams was dispatched to the United Nations Command in 1951.
The first of twenty-nine Air Nursing Teams began its mission on December 26, 1950, remaining there until 1974. A total of twenty nine RTAF airlift mission teams served in South Korea from 1951 to 1971. During the course of the Korean War, Thailand dispatched a total of 11,786 soldiers to Korea, it is recorded. In 1974, the Government of the Republic of Korea built a monument, a Thai pavilion in Pocheon City, to honour the Thai soldiers who took part in the Korean War. On 4 November 2008, the Thai Embassy in Seoul, with the cooperation from the Office of Defense Attache, hosted the opening ceremony of the Thai memorial at the United Nations Memorial Cemetery in Korea to commemorate the sacrifices made by Thai soldiers during the Korean War. Nowadays, the Thai Government has maintained the assignment of one military officer to be liaison officer at the Armistice Committee and six soldiers to be members of the United Nations Command Honor Guard Company in Seoul. HTMS Prasae II was decommissioned from the Royal Thai Navy in 2000, was designated as a museum ship.
She is visible at the mouth of the Prasae River, Rayong Province by the Prasae River Communities Committee where she serves as a memorial. There is a monument to the 21st Infantry Regiment. Ministry of Patriots and Veterans Affairs, The Eternal Partnership: Thailand and Korea - A History of the Participation of the Thai Forces in the Korean War, Sejong City, South Korea: Ministry of Patriots and Veterans Affairs, retrieved 2014-08-22 History of Thailand 60 Years of the "Little Tiger" – Thai Soldiers in the Korean War Thai Forces The Kingdom of Thailand 60th Anniversary of the Korean War Commemoration Committee
MS Jutlandia was contracted by and built for the East Asiatic Company in 1934, as a combined passenger and cargo ship at EAC's Nakskov Shipyard, Denmark. Following an extended operational life in which she served as a hospital ship and a royal yacht, she was decommissioned in 1965. Jutlandia was contracted by EAC in 1934, to replace older ships on the regular service between Copenhagen and Bangkok, she operated on this route from November 1934, until January 1940, again from 1954 to the end of 1964. Jutlandia was the only ship in the EAC fleet to be designed with a Maierform bow, she is the second of so far three ships of the same name. Passengers were accommodated in nine single and twenty-nine double staterooms with all double staterooms provided with a private bath; the dining room could seat seventy with smoking room, ladies lounge and foredeck swimming pool provided for passenger use. A dining and play room were provided for children. Passenger spaces were ventilated by heated air. Cargo holds provided 539,570 cubic feet capacity.
When World War II broke out in September 1939, the ship had just arrived at Rotterdam en route for Copenhagen. As Denmark was not yet part to the war, she completed this and one further voyage to Bangkok returning to Copenhagen in January 1940. Following her arrival in Copenhagen, Jutlandia was placed at the disposal of the Danish Government, she was sent to Argentina to collect a consignment of grain, returning to Copenhagen on 31 March 1940. On 1 April, she was sent to Nakskov Shipyard for routine overhaul. Jutlandia was in dry-dock when Germany attacked and occupied Denmark on 9 April 1940. Due to a shortage of diesel oil, Germany did not seize the Jutlandia. Instead, she was laid up at the Slotø island in a small inlet close to the shipyard, together with two other motorships from the EAC fleet, the MS Java and MS Falstria, manned only by a skeleton crew for maintenance. Here she remained until the end of the War, despite an allied air raid on 3 May 1945. During the attack the Java was sunk, while Falstria suffered a fire.
Jutlandia got off with a minor fire in a cargo hold. The Jutlandia was seaworthy again by 11 August 1945 and re-entered commercial service between Europe and the East Coast of the United States; when North Korean communist forces attacked South Korea on 25 June 1950, Denmark agreed to provide assistance to the United Nations Command and to give humanitarian support to the allied forces in South Korea. The decision was not uncomplicated: the mood between the superpowers was tense, Denmark had to find a way to support the UN without being aggressive. Medical supplies were made available, after negotiations Denmark agreed to send a hospital ship. In the fall of 1950, EAC again agreed to place the ship at the disposal of the Danish Government, whilst she was en route to New York City; the Danish Government undertook the refitting of Jutlandia as a modern hospital ship, again at Nakskov Shipyard, consigned her to Korea. She had four operation theatres, four hospital departments with up to 356 beds, X-ray and dental clinics, as well as laboratories and special departments.
The jobs on board were well sought after. At the time 42 nurses were needed. Between 3,000 and 4,000 nurses applied and about 200 were selected for interviews. Doctors and nurses were allocated four to a cabin; the bulk of the hospital staff were stable people. This selection was made in view of the badly injured patients that could be expected on board; this was not something. The average age was around forty; the civilian status of Jutlandia was emphasized. As all other hospital ships, she was painted white with red crosses on the side, but opposed to the 1½ meter high green stripe painted along the side of the military hospital ships, Jutlandia had a red stripe. Danish Red Cross was manning and running the hospital. EAC supplied the ship's crew; the state paid. Jutlandia had Captain Kai Hammerich as senior officer, he quit his job as president for the Danish Red Cross to be able to go on the mission to Korea. He kept his rank as naval officer, in order to improve his ability to liaise with the military leaders of the U.
N. forces. He was the contact person to the Red Cross and the Danish State. Consultant, senior doctor Mogens Winge was second in hospital chief. Captain Christen Kondrup, Jutlandia's skipper through many years, stayed on board as the ship's master. In case of a maritime crisis, the command over the ship would automatically transfer to Kondrup, according to maritime law; as the hospital crew had to handle soldiers, everybody had military rank in spite of the fact that they were civilians. During the stay in Korea, visiting Allied officers were amused about how civilian everything was on board. On 23 January 1951, she was sent to Korea, she sailed under three flags: Dannebrog, the Red Cross, the UN flag. The day before the departure, she was visited by Queen Ingrid; the King knew Hammerich quite well. While he still was a crown prince Hammerich was his senior officer in the navy; the crown prince had behaved in a careless way during an exercise and got a slap in the face from Hammerich as punishment.
At the departure speeches were made and a small service held, the foreign minister, a brass band and about 10,000 freezing citizens were on the quay to see the ship off. Hammerich wanted public support, he didn't want Jutlandia to'sneak off like a thief in the night'. She sailed with a crew of 97, a hospital staff of 91. Jutlandia was bound
The Korean War was a war between North Korea and South Korea. The war began on 25 June 1950 when North Korea invaded South Korea following a series of clashes along the border; as a product of the Cold War between the Soviet Union and the United States, Korea had been split into two sovereign states in 1948. A socialist state was established in the north under the communist leadership of Kim Il-sung and a capitalist state in the south under the anti-communist leadership of Syngman Rhee. Both governments of the two new Korean states claimed to be the sole legitimate government of all of Korea, neither accepted the border as permanent; the conflict escalated into warfare when North Korean military forces—supported by the Soviet Union and China—crossed the border and advanced south into South Korea on 25 June 1950. The United Nations Security Council authorized the formation and dispatch of UN forces to Korea to repel what was recognized as a North Korean invasion. Twenty-one countries of the United Nations contributed to the UN force, with the United States providing around 90% of the military personnel.
After the first two months of war, South Korean and U. S. forces dispatched to Korea were on the point of defeat, forced back to a small area in the south known as the Pusan Perimeter. In September 1950, an amphibious UN counter-offensive was launched at Incheon, cut off many North Korean troops; those who escaped envelopment and capture were forced back north. UN forces approached the Yalu River—the border with China—but in October 1950, mass Chinese forces crossed the Yalu and entered the war; the surprise Chinese intervention triggered a retreat of UN forces which continued until mid-1951. In these reversals of fortune, Seoul changed hands four times, the last two years of fighting became a war of attrition, with the front line close to the 38th parallel; the war in the air, was never a stalemate. North Korea was subject to a massive bombing campaign. Jet fighters confronted each other in air-to-air combat for the first time in history, Soviet pilots covertly flew in defense of their communist allies.
The fighting ended on 27 July 1953. The agreement created the Korean Demilitarized Zone to separate North and South Korea, allowed the return of prisoners. However, no peace treaty was signed, according to some sources the two Koreas are technically still at war, engaged in a frozen conflict. In April 2018, the leaders of North and South Korea met at the demilitarized zone and agreed to work towards a treaty to formally end the Korean War. In South Korea, the war is referred to as "625" or the "6–2–5 Upheaval", reflecting the date of its commencement on June 25. In North Korea, the war is referred to as the "Fatherland Liberation War" or alternatively the "Chosǒn War". In China, the war is called the "War to Resist America and Aid Korea", although the term "Chaoxian War" is used in unofficial contexts, along with the term "Hán War" more used in regions such as Hong Kong and Macau. In the U. S. the war was described by President Harry S. Truman as a "police action" as the United States never formally declared war on its opponents and the operation was conducted under the auspices of the United Nations.
It has been referred to in the English-speaking world as "The Forgotten War" or "The Unknown War" because of the lack of public attention it received both during and after the war, in relation to the global scale of World War II, which preceded it, the subsequent angst of the Vietnam War, which succeeded it. Imperial Japan destroyed the influence of China over Korea in the First Sino-Japanese War, ushering in the short-lived Korean Empire. A decade after defeating Imperial Russia in the Russo-Japanese War, Japan made Korea its protectorate with the Eulsa Treaty in 1905 annexed it with the Japan–Korea Annexation Treaty in 1910. Many Korean nationalists fled the country; the Provisional Government of the Republic of Korea was founded in 1919 in Nationalist China. It failed to achieve international recognition, failed to unite nationalist groups, had a fractious relationship with its U. S.-based founding president, Syngman Rhee. From 1919 to 1925 and beyond, Korean communists led internal and external warfare against the Japanese.
In China, the Nationalist National Revolutionary Army and the communist People's Liberation Army helped organize Korean refugees against the Japanese military, which had occupied parts of China. The Nationalist-backed Koreans, led by Yi Pom-Sok, fought in the Burma Campaign; the communists, led by Kim Il-sung among others, fought the Japanese in Manchuria. At the Cairo Conference in November 1943, the United Kingdom, the United States all decided that "in due course Korea shall become free and independent". At the Tehran Conference in November 1943 and the Yalta Conference in February 1945, the Soviet Union promised to join its allies in the Pacific War within three months of the victory in Europe. Accordingly, it declared war o
Greek Expeditionary Force (Korea)
The Greek Expeditionary Force in Korea was formed in response to the United Nations appeal for assistance in the Korean War. It comprised a reinforced Hellenic Army infantry battalion and a Royal Hellenic Air Force flight of seven transport planes. Greece was the fifth largest troop contributor to U. N. Forces in Korea; the seven C-47s of 13th Flight, with 67 Air Force officers and personnel, departed from Elefsis air base at 0830 on November 11, 1950. They belonged to the 355 Transport Squadron, known for its participation in the recent civil war; the majority of the officers and NCOs of this first mission were experienced airmen, being veterans of the Mediterranean and Middle East Theatre of World War II and the Greek Civil War. On December 3, 1950, the first Greek aircraft landed on Korean soil; the Greek flight was attached to the 21st Troop Carrier Sqn. of the 374th Wing, United States Air Force, based at Daegu. From May 14, 1951, the flight was based at Kimpo air base where it remained until May 23, 1955.
During its time in Korea, the Greek Flight carried out 2,916 missions, comprising air evacuations, the transport of personnel and prisoners, drops of supplies and ammunition, the replenishment of allied bases and the collection of operational information. In total, its planes carried 70,568 passengers, including 9,243 wounded, it logged 13,777 flight hours. Losses included two C-47s; the Greek government intended to send a brigade to Korea, but with quick UN victories in the autumn of 1950, the expeditionary force was downgraded to a battalion. The army unit, called the Sparta Battalion, sent in November 1950 under Spartan Lieutenant Colonel Georgios Koumanakos, was composed of 849 men and six vehicles in an HQ company and three rifle companies; the men were all volunteers from the 8th and 9th Infantry Divisions. From August 23, 1951, the component was expanded to 1,063 men, at which strength it remained until the December 1953 armistice, it was subsequently increased to the level of 2,163 men until April 1955.
After the anti-Greek Istanbul Pogrom, in September 1955, relations with Greece's NATO ally, Turkey and Athens decided to recall its units stationed in Korea. As a result, only 191 men were still in the country by December 1955. A representative section of one officer and nine men remained until May 1958. 1950 November 15: Embarkation at Piraeus. December 9: Arrival at Busan. December 16: Move to Suwon, attached to the US 1st Cavalry Division as the "4th Battalion, 7th Cavalry Regiment". 1951 January 16: Remnants sweeping operation at Wolaksan, Haseoksan and Sinseol summits. January 29: Battle with 3,000 Chinese at Hill 381, west of Icheon. February 8: Battle with the Chinese Army at Hill 489, north of Gonjiam-ri. March 7: Attack on Hill 326, east of Yongdu-ri. April 7: Advance to Geumhaksan, north of Hongchen. April 27: Defence of Hongje-dong area of Seoul. May 26: Advance to Imjingang via Nogosan and Gamaksan. June 9: Advance to Wyoming line, north of Yeoncheon. August 4: Battle with the Chinese Army near Churadong area.
October 3–10: Battle with the Chinese Army at Hill 313. The hill was captured on 5 October 5, with 28 KIA. December 30: Deployed at Imjingang S-curved area. 1952 January: patrol duties attached to the 15th Infantry Regiment, US 3rd Infantry Division. March 17: Battle over Kelly, Betty outposts. May 23: The 1st company guards Kohe-do island prisoner camp. July 23: Advance to Imjingang S-curved area again after improving the corps for four months. August 7: Surprise attack on Hill 167 near Imjingang. September 28: Battle with the Chinese Army near Nori Hill area. October 29: Return to the US 9th corps, move to Cheolwon area. December 14: Entice and destroy one Chinese company at Yujeong-ri. December 27: 14 soldiers killed in a transport aircraft crash in Jinhae. 1953 March 11: Battle between reconnaissance squads at Hill 438. May 16: Deployed at Junggasan, north eastern sides of Cheolwon. June 16: Battle with the Chinese Army at Hill 420. July 16: Battle with the Chinese Army at Hill 495, south of Bukjeon-hyeon.
July 25: Battle with the Chinese Army at Hill 492, north of Seungam-ri. Fifteen officers and 168 men were killed in action, while 577 men were wounded; the 13th Flight received a US Presidential Unit Citation for its participation in the evacuation of US Marines at Hagaru-ri in December 1950. The GEF Spartan battalion received its first US Presidential Unit Citation in February 1952 for the capture of Scotch Hill; the Greek infantry company involved in the defense of Outpost Harry received the following Presidential Unit Citation: "DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY Washington D. C. 10 March 1955 GENERAL ORDERS 18 DISTINGUISHED UNIT CITATION Company P Greek Expeditionary Forces Battalion is cited for extraordinary heroism and outstanding performance of duty in action against an armed enemy in the vicinity of Surang-Ni, Korea during the period 17 June to 18 June 1953. Assigned the defense of a vital outpost position, the company encountered a major enemy assault on the evening of June 17. After an intense concentration of enemy mortar and artillery fire, the hostile forces, which had taken up an attack position on the northeast and northwest side of the outpost, moved through their own and friendly artillery fire to gain a foothold on the northern slope of the position.
Refusing to withdraw, Company P closed in and met the attackers in a furious hand-to-hand struggle in which many of the enemy were driven off. The aggressors regrouped attacked a second time, again gained the friendly trenches. Immediate
National Army of Colombia
The National Army of Colombia is the land military force of Colombia and the largest and oldest service branch of the Military Forces of Colombia. It is responsible for carrying out land-based military operations along with the Colombian Naval Infantry and for protecting the Colombian state against domestic or foreign threats; the modern Colombian Army has its roots in the Army of the Commoners, formed on 7 August 1819 – before the establishment of the present day Colombia – to meet the demands of the Revolutionary War against the Spanish Empire. After their triumph against the Spanish, the Congress of Angostura created the Greater Colombian Army, to replace the disbanded Commoners Army; the Colombian Army traces its history back to the 1770s and 1780s, when the Comuneros – descendants of Spanish and Amerindians – decided to separate from the Spanish Empire to create their own country and initiated a revolutionary war. On July 20 of 1810, Colombia declared its independence from the Spanish Empire, a Volunteer National Guard was raised composed of infantry and cavalry units.
As independence was declared, with the Spanish driven out temporarily, a nationwide civil war known as la Patria Boba broke out from 1810 to 1816 between federalists and centralists as many cities and provinces across the country set up their own autonomous junta. The junta declared themselves sovereign from each other as result of the lack of communications between many provinces and cities due to Colombia's complicated mountain terrain; this prevented a full establishment of a regular army, it would take 9 years before a national army would be formed. This gave a rise to a prolonged period of instability and Spanish were able to take advantage of this with Spanish crown sending General Pablo Morillo. Morillo known by his nickname the El Pacificador invaded New Granada in 1816, the United Provinces of New Granada tried to resist with an army under the command of Antonio Baraya and Custodio García Rovira but they were defeated by the Spanish forces at the Battle of El Tambo and the Battle of Bajo Palacé reestablishing Spanish rule in New Granada.
With New Granada being under control of the Spanish again, Morillo launched a campaign of terror by executing many of the leaders of Independence movement in public squares in order to instill fear. The Greater Colombian Army was consolidated on August 7, 1819, following the defeat of the Spaniards at the Battle of Boyacá under the command of Simon Bolivar. Since the Colombian Army has been the biggest organization in Colombia. With independence gained after the defeat of the Spanish Royalist forces at the Battle of Boyacá in 1819, the republic of Gran Colombia was established by the Constitution of Cúcuta in 1821, with its capital in Bogotá. There upon the Gran Colombian Army was formed. In 1828 a war broke out with Peru and the Gran Colombian Army was called upon to defend the nation's sovereignty; the war lasted into 1829 with a Peruvian naval victory, but the Colombians were victorious on land with the crushing of the Peruvian invasion force at the Battle of Tarqui. The war ended in a stalemate.
After the dissolution in 1830 of Gran Colombia and the death of Bolivar, the Army of the new New Granada had been involved in war and civil war without being able to progress or modernize. Its officers were not technically skilled; the government addressed this by founding and organizing military schools and colleges, but was hampered by the constant civil wars that financially drained the country's economy. In 1839 General Tomas Cipriano de Mosquera hired Italian Colonel Agustin Códazzi as an inspector of the army; as a consequence of these civil wars over partisan affairs, the chiefs and officers began to be involved in politics. The need to professionalize and retrain the army prompted the creation of a military school, created in 1887. In order to reorganize the army, the government hired a French military mission, its mission was fruitful and the organization along French lines based on divisions and battalions was implemented in the country. Another civil war the most devastating of them all, the Thousand Days War, was declared on October 8, 1899, did not allow the retraining and education of officers and commanders.
This civil war lasted until 1903. With the ending of the Thousand Days War, General Rafael Reyes Prieto was elected President of Colombia with many ambitious plans to reorganize and professionalize the army; the first thing he did was to reduce troop numbers drastically: the army at the time had an estimated 80,000 troops who were poorly equipped, poorly trained, poorly dressed and malnourished. The army lacked professionalism and sense of duty to the country and never acted as a national army, acting instead as militias and armed factions led by Commanders who had their own political agendas. In 1907 a military reform was carried out by President Rafael Reyes Prieto right in the aftermath of the Thousand Days War which had devastated the country economically and morally; the ministry of war hired a Chilean military mission to advise the ministry on how to professionalize the army. This led to the creation of the Colombian Military School in June 1907; the Army was dramatically reorganized under the guise of the Chilean military mission, the Chilean army which had adopted Prussian military doctrine and uniforms since 1886 did the same to the Colombian army as Colombian troops began using Prussian military uniforms and doctrine, still present today in the Colombian Military Academy with ceremonial uniforms being of Prussian influence and the use of Pickelhaube helmets.