While the calendars share a common lineage, they have minor but important variations such as intercalation schedules, month names and numbering, use of cycles, etc. In Thailand, the name Buddhist Era is a numbering system shared by the traditional Thai lunisolar calendar. The Southeast Asian lunisolar calendars are based on an older version of the Hindu calendar. One major difference is that the Southeast Asian systems, unlike their Indian cousins, they employ their versions of the Metonic cycle. However, since the Metonic cycle is not very accurate for sidereal years, yet no coordinated structural reforms of the lunisolar calendar have been undertaken. Today, the traditional Buddhist lunisolar calendar is used mainly for Theravada Buddhist festivals, the Thai Buddhist Era, a renumbered Gregorian calendar, is the official calendar in Thailand. The Burmese calendar in turn was based on the original Surya Siddhanta system of ancient India, one key difference with Indian systems is that the Burmese system has followed a variation of the Metonic cycle.
It is unclear from where, when or how the Metonic system was introduced, the Burmese system, and indeed the Southeast Asian systems, thus use a strange combination of sidereal years from Indian calendar in combination with the Metonic cycle better for tropical years. In all Theravada traditions, the epochal year 0 date was the day in which the Buddha attained parinibbāna. However, not all agree on when it actually took place. In Burmese Buddhist tradition, it was 13 May 544 BCE, but in Thailand, it was 11 March 545 BCE, the date which the current Thai lunisolar and solar calendars use as the epochal date. In Myanmar, the difference between BE and CE can be 543 or 544 for CE dates, and 544 or 543 for BCE dates, in Sri Lanka, the difference between BE and CE is 544. The calendar recognizes two types of months, synodic month and sidereal month, the Synodic months are used to compose the years while the 27 lunar sidereal days, alongside the 12 signs of the zodiac, are used for astrological calculations.
The days of the month are counted in two halves and waning, the 15th of the waxing is the civil full moon day. The civil new moon day is the last day of the month, because of the inaccuracy of the calendrical calculation systems, the mean and real New Moons rarely coincide. The mean New Moon often precedes the real New Moon, as the Synodic lunar month is approximately 29.5 days, the calendar uses alternating months of 29 and 30 days. Various regional versions of Chula Sakarat/Burmese calendar existed across various regions of mainland Southeast Asia, unlike Cambodian and Burmese systems, Lan Na, Lan Xang and Sukhothai systems refer to the months by numbers, not by names. The Buddhist calendar is a calendar in which the months are based on lunar months
In Christology, the Person of Christ refers to the study of the human and divine natures of Jesus Christ as they co-exist within one person. There is no discussion in the New Testament regarding the dual nature of the Person of Christ as both divine and human. Hence, since the days of Christianity theologians have debated various approaches to the understanding of these natures. In the period following the Apostolic Age, specific beliefs such as Arianism and Docetism were criticized. On the other end of the spectrum, Docetism argued that Jesus physical body was an illusion, docetic teachings were attacked by St. Ignatius of Antioch and were eventually abandoned by proto-orthodox Christians. However, after the First Council of Nicaea in 325 the Logos, historically in the Alexandrian school of christology, Jesus Christ is the eternal Logos paradoxically humanized in history, a divine Person who became enfleshed, uniting himself to the human nature. The views of these schools can be summarized as follows, Antioch, Logos assumes a specific human being The First Council of Ephesus in 431 debated a number of views regarding the Person of Christ.
At the same gathering the council debated the doctrines of monophysitism or miaphysitism. The council rejected Nestorianism and adopted the term hypostatic union, referring to divine, the language used in the 431 declaration was further refined at the 451 Council of Chalcedon. However, the Chalcedon creed was not accepted by all Christians, because Saint Augustine died in 430 he did not participate in the Council of Ephesus in 431 or Chalcedon in 451, but his ideas had some impact on both councils. On the other hand, the major theological figure of the Middle Ages. The Third Council of Constantinople in 680 held that both divine and human wills exist in Jesus, with the divine will having precedence and guiding the human will. John Calvin maintained that there was no element in the Person of Christ which could be separated from the person of The Word. Calvin emphasized the importance of the Work of Christ in any attempt at understanding the Person of Christ, the study of the Person of Christ continued into the 20th century, with modern theologians such as Karl Rahner and Hans von Balthasar.
Balthasar argued that the union of the human and divine natures of Christ was achieved not by the absorption of human attributes, thus in his view the divine nature of Christ was not affected by the human attributes and remained forever divine
International Standard Book Number
The International Standard Book Number is a unique numeric commercial book identifier. An ISBN is assigned to each edition and variation of a book, for example, an e-book, a paperback and a hardcover edition of the same book would each have a different ISBN. The ISBN is 13 digits long if assigned on or after 1 January 2007, the method of assigning an ISBN is nation-based and varies from country to country, often depending on how large the publishing industry is within a country. The initial ISBN configuration of recognition was generated in 1967 based upon the 9-digit Standard Book Numbering created in 1966, the 10-digit ISBN format was developed by the International Organization for Standardization and was published in 1970 as international standard ISO2108. Occasionally, a book may appear without a printed ISBN if it is printed privately or the author does not follow the usual ISBN procedure, this can be rectified later. Another identifier, the International Standard Serial Number, identifies periodical publications such as magazines, the ISBN configuration of recognition was generated in 1967 in the United Kingdom by David Whitaker and in 1968 in the US by Emery Koltay.
The 10-digit ISBN format was developed by the International Organization for Standardization and was published in 1970 as international standard ISO2108, the United Kingdom continued to use the 9-digit SBN code until 1974. The ISO on-line facility only refers back to 1978, an SBN may be converted to an ISBN by prefixing the digit 0. For example, the edition of Mr. J. G. Reeder Returns, published by Hodder in 1965, has SBN340013818 -340 indicating the publisher,01381 their serial number. This can be converted to ISBN 0-340-01381-8, the check digit does not need to be re-calculated, since 1 January 2007, ISBNs have contained 13 digits, a format that is compatible with Bookland European Article Number EAN-13s. An ISBN is assigned to each edition and variation of a book, for example, an ebook, a paperback, and a hardcover edition of the same book would each have a different ISBN. The ISBN is 13 digits long if assigned on or after 1 January 2007, a 13-digit ISBN can be separated into its parts, and when this is done it is customary to separate the parts with hyphens or spaces.
Separating the parts of a 10-digit ISBN is done with either hyphens or spaces, figuring out how to correctly separate a given ISBN number is complicated, because most of the parts do not use a fixed number of digits. ISBN issuance is country-specific, in that ISBNs are issued by the ISBN registration agency that is responsible for country or territory regardless of the publication language. Some ISBN registration agencies are based in national libraries or within ministries of culture, in other cases, the ISBN registration service is provided by organisations such as bibliographic data providers that are not government funded. In Canada, ISBNs are issued at no cost with the purpose of encouraging Canadian culture. In the United Kingdom, United States, and some countries, where the service is provided by non-government-funded organisations. Australia, ISBNs are issued by the library services agency Thorpe-Bowker
Balinese saka calendar
The Balinese saka calendar is one of two calendars used on the Indonesian island of Bali. Unlike the 210-day pawukon calendar, it is based on the phases of the moon, based on a lunar calendar, the saka year comprises twelve months, or sasih, of 30 days each. The months are adjusted by allocating two lunar days to one day every 9 weeks. This day is called ngunalatri, Sanskrit for minus one night, the length of these months is calculated according to the normal 63-day cycle. Both sets of days are numbered 1 to 15, the first day of the year is usually the day after the first new moon in March. Note, that Nyepi falls on the first day of Kadasa, the calendar is 78 years behind the Gregorian calendar, and is calculated from the beginning of the Saka Era in India. It is used alongside the 210-day Balinese pawukon calendar, and Balinese festivals can be calculated according to either year, the Indian saka calendar was used for royal decrees as early as the ninth century CE. The same calendar was used in Java until Sultan Agung replaced it with the Javanese calendar in 1633, the Balinese Hindu festival of Nyepi, the day of silence, marks the start of the Saka year.
Tilem Kepitu, the last day of the 7th month, is known as Siva Ratri, devotees stay up all night and meditate. There are another 24 ceremonial days in the Saka year, usually celebrated at Purnama, ISBN9813018496 Hobart, Ramseyer, Urs & Leeman, Albert The Peoples of Bali, Blackwell Publishers. ISBN063117687 X Ricklefs, M. C, A History of Modern Indonesia, MacMillan, ISBN 978-0-333-24380-0
A calendar is a system of organizing days for social, commercial or administrative purposes. This is done by giving names to periods of time, typically days, months, a date is the designation of a single, specific day within such a system. A calendar is a record of such a system. A calendar can mean a list of planned events, such as a calendar or a partly or fully chronological list of documents. Periods in a calendar are usually, though not necessarily, synchronized with the cycle of the sun or the moon. The most common type of calendar was the lunisolar calendar. Latin calendarium meant account book, the Latin term was adopted in Old French as calendier and from there in Middle English as calender by the 13th century. The course of the Sun and the Moon are the most evident forms of timekeeping, the Roman calendar contained very ancient remnants of a pre-Etruscan 10-month solar year. The first recorded calendars date to the Bronze Age, dependent on the development of writing in the Ancient Near East, a larger number of calendar systems of the Ancient Near East becomes accessible in the Iron Age, based on the Babylonian calendar.
This includes the calendar of the Persian Empire, which in turn gave rise to the Zoroastrian calendar as well as the Hebrew calendar, calendars in antiquity were lunisolar, depending on the introduction of intercalary months to align the solar and the lunar years. This was mostly based on observation, but there may have been attempts to model the pattern of intercalation algorithmically. The Roman calendar was reformed by Julius Caesar in 45 BC, the Julian calendar was no longer dependent on the observation of the new moon but simply followed an algorithm of introducing a leap day every four years. This created a dissociation of the month from the lunation. The Islamic calendar is based on the prohibition of intercalation by Muhammad and this resulted in an observationally based lunar calendar that shifts relative to the seasons of the solar year. The first calendar reform of the modern era was the Gregorian calendar. Such ideas are mooted from time to time but have failed to gain traction because of the loss of continuity, massive upheaval in implementation, a full calendar system has a different calendar date for every day.
Thus the week cycle is by not a full calendar system. The simplest calendar system just counts time periods from a reference date and this applies for the Julian day or Unix Time
The Juche Tower is a monument in Pyongyang, the capital of North Korea, named after the ideology of Juche introduced by its first leader Kim Il-sung. The Tower is situated on the east bank of the River Taedong and it was built to commemorate Kim Il-sungs 70th birthday. Although his son and successor Kim Jong-il is officially credited as its designer and it is possible to ascend the tower by elevator and there are wide views over Pyongyang from the viewing platform just below the torch. At its base, there are rooms where videos explaining the towers ideological importance are sometimes shown. It is presumed to be modelled on the Washington Monument, which it surpasses in height by less than a meter, the Juche Tower is the second tallest monumental column in the world after the San Jacinto Monument, which is 2.9 metres taller. The three tools form the insignia on the flag of the ruling Workers Party of Korea, there are six smaller groups of figures, each 10 metres high, that symbolize other aspects of Juche ideology.
A wall carrying 82 friendship plaques from supporters and Juche study groups forms part of the Tower. Monas, a similarly designed monument-tower in Jakarta, topped with flame statue, Washington Monument in Washington DC, an obelisk erected to commemorate George Washington. San Jacinto Monument near La Porte, the worlds tallest masonry column to commemorate the Battle of San Jacinto
Kim Il-sung was the supreme leader of the Democratic Peoples Republic of Korea, commonly referred to as North Korea, for 46 years, from its establishment in 1948 until his death in 1994. He held the posts of Prime Minister from 1948 to 1972 and he was the leader of the Workers Party of Korea from 1949 to 1994. Coming to power after the overthrow of Japanese rule in 1945, he authorized the invasion of South Korea in 1950, a cease-fire in the Korean War was signed on 27 July 1953. Under his leadership, North Korea became a workers state with a publicly owned planned economy. It had close political and economic relations with the Soviet Union, by the 1960s and 1970s, North Korea enjoyed a relatively high standard of living, outperforming the South, which was riddled with political instability and economic crises. Despite this, the country still received massive funds, during this period, the DPRK remained critical of capitalism and the United States, seizing the American ship USS Pueblo in 1968.
A cult of personality around Kim Il-sung came to domestic politics. His birthday is a holiday in North Korea and is called the Day of the Sun. Controversy surrounds Kims life before the founding of North Korea, with some sources labeling him an impostor, several sources indicate that the name Kim Il-sung had previously been used by a prominent early leader of the Korean resistance, Kim Kyung-cheon. The Soviet officer Grigory Mekler, who worked with Kim during the Soviet occupation, historian Andrei Lankov has argued that this is unlikely to be true. Several witnesses knew Kim before and after his time in the Soviet Union, including his superior, Zhou Baozhong, historian Bruce Cumings pointed out that Japanese officers from the Kwantung Army have attested to his fame as a resistance figure. Historians generally accept that, while Kims exploits were exaggerated by the personality cult that was built around him, Kims family is said to have originated from Jeonju, North Jeolla Province. His great-grandfather, Kim Ung-u, settled in Mangyong-dae in 1860, Kim is reported to have been born in the small village of Mangyungbong near Pyongyang on 15 April 1912.
Born to Kim Hyŏng-jik and Kang Pan-sŏk, who gave him the name Kim Sŏng-ju, according to Kim, his family was not very poor, but was always a step away from poverty. According to the version, Kim’s family participated in anti-Japanese activities. Like most Korean families, they resented the Japanese occupation of the Korean peninsula, another view seems to be that his family settled in Manchuria, as many Koreans had at the time to escape famine. Nonetheless, Kims parents, especially Kims mother Kang Ban Suk and their exact involvement — whether their cause was missionary, nationalist, or both — is unclear nevertheless. Still, Japanese repression of opposition was brutal, resulting in the arrest and this repression forced many Korean families to flee Korea and settle in Manchuria
Traditional Chinese calendar is a lunisolar calendar which reckons years and days according to astronomical phenomena. It is used for activities in China and overseas Chinese communities. It depictures and lists the dates of traditional Chinese holidays, and guides Chinese people in selecting the most auspicious days for weddings, moving, in the Chinese calendar, the days begin and end at midnight. The months begin on the day with the dark moon, the years begin with the dark moon near the midpoint between winter solstice and spring equinox. The solar terms are the important components of the Chinese calendar, in a month, there are one to three solar terms. The currently used traditional Chinese calendar is the end result of centuries of evolution, many astronomical and seasonal factors were added by ancient scientists, and people can reckon the date of natural phenomena such as the moon phase and tide upon the Chinese calendar. The Chinese calendar has over 100 variants, whose characteristics reflect the evolutionary path.
As with Chinese characters, different variants are used in different parts of the Chinese cultural sphere, calendars in Mongolia and Tibet have absorbed elements from the Chinese calendar and elements from other systems, but they are not direct descendants of the Chinese calendar. The official calendar in China is the Gregorian calendar, but the traditional Chinese calendar still plays an important role there. The Chinese calendar is known officially as the Rural Calendar, but is referred to by other names, such as the Former Calendar. The Chinese calendar preserves traditional East Asian culture, although the month sequences of Chinese calendar is decided by the solar term, the Chinese calendar is not an agriculture calendar. The Chinese calendar has greatly influenced the traditional calendars around Asia, the calendar has a year and date frame. The key elements are the day, synodic month and solar year, the Chinese calendar is a lunisolar calendar, similar to the Hindu and Hebrew calendars.
The concepts in the Chinese and Hebrew calendars, day, in the Chinese calendar, a day starts from the midnight, in the Hindu calendars, a day starts from sunrise, and in the Hebrew calendar, a day starts from sunset. Month, the time is based on the obliquity of the moon path, a month is about 29 17/32 days. Phase, 1/30 month, 12° obliquity of the moon path, a unique concept of dating method in the Hindu calendar, a phase is about 63/64 day, which derived out the 64 divinatory symbols. Date, the day number in a month, in the Chinese and Hebrew calendars, days are numbered in sequence from 1 to 29 or 30, and in the Hindu calendars, the days are numbered according to the number of the phase in the days. In the Hindu calendars, some dates may be vacant, the time based on the earths revolution
Consequentially, Juche was adopted into a set of principles that the North Korean government has used to justify its policy decisions from the 1950s onwards. Such principles include moving the nation towards claimed chaju, through the construction of charip, Juche is a Sino-Korean word which is formed by hanja meaning subject and body. Literally it means subjectivity or agency, and in political discourse has a connotation of self-reliance, autonomy and it is often defined in opposition to the Korean concept of Sadae, or reliance on the great powers. Official statements by the North Korean government attribute the origin of Juche to Kim Il-Sungs experiences in the Anti-Imperialist Youth League in 1930 in his struggle against Japan. The first documented reference to Juche as an ideology appeared in 1955, in a given by Kim Il Sung entitled On Eliminating Dogmatism and Formalism. The speech had been delivered to promote a political purge similar to the earlier Yanan Rectification Movement in China.
In his 1955 speech, the first known to refer to Juche, Kim Il-sung said, To make revolution in Korea we must know Korean history and geography as well as the customs of the Korean people. Only is it possible to educate our people in a way that suits them and to inspire in them an ardent love for their native place, in North Korea it functions as the authoritative and comprehensive explanation of Juche. According to the treatise, the Workers Party of Korea is responsible for indoctrinating the masses in the ways of Juche thinking, Juche is, according to the treatise, inexorably linked with Kim Il-sung, and represents the guiding idea of the Korean Revolution. We are confronted with the task of modeling the whole society on the Juche idea. The WPKs break with basic premises of Marxism–Leninism emerges more clearly in the article Let Us March Under the Banner of Marxism–Leninism, in August 1997, the Central Peoples Committee of the Democratic Peoples Republic of Korea promulgated regulations regarding use of the Juche Era calendar.
Gregorian calendar dates are used for years before 1912, while years from 1912 are described as Juche years, the Gregorian year 2017, for example, is Juche 106, as 2017-1911=106. When used, Juche years are often accompanied by the Gregorian equivalent, kims regime intended these principles to apply around the world, not only to Korea. Since 1976 North Korea has organized seminars on Juche. The grand International Scientific Seminar on the Juche Idea took place in Antananarivo from September 28 to 30,1976, what we want is not the perfection of political independence alone. The evil forces craftily manipulate the economic levers in order to perpetuate their supremacy and reduce us to vassals, the International Juche Research Center was established in Tokyo in 1978 to supervise international Juche research groups. The Juche Tower, completed in 1982, incorporated commemorative plaques from supporters, in the late 1960s and early 1970s, the Black Panther Party of the US expressed sympathy for the ideology.
The Nepal Workers Peasants Party identifies Juche as its guiding idea in its governance of Bhaktapur, Kimilsungism was first mentioned by Kim Jong-il in the 1970s and was introduced alongside the Ten Principles for the Establishment of a Monolithic Ideological System
Pyongyang University of Science and Technology
Pyongyang University of Science and Technology is North Koreas first privately funded university. It is founded and partly funded by associations, PUST was jointly planned and constructed by forces from the North and the South Korea, along with contributions from groups and individuals from other nations, in particular China and the USA. The initiative is funded by Evangelical Christian movements. Originally scheduled for launch in 2003, the project was delayed for several years, the university is in the countryside outside of Pyongyang in a separate but close administrative region with permission required for access to Pyongyang. After introductory negotiations, the PUST project was started in 2001, on the initiative of Professor Kim Chin Kyung, the PUST will cooperate with YUST and draw on their experiences. With exception of language courses, all teaching is conducted in English. The PUST construction plans were politically troubled and slowed down in 2005 and 2006, in connection with the 2006 North Korean nuclear test, PUST classes began in the fall of October 2010.
It had its opening in September 2010 and planned to enroll up to 200 higher-level students per year. Plans include the hiring of up to 250 faculty members from universities and research institutions in South Korea, the United States, as a joint venture university, the PUST is seen as a contribution to the Korean reunification process. Bachelor of Science and doctorate degrees will be awarded in Electrical and Computer Engineering and Life Sciences, the university has plans to open schools in Public Healthcare and Construction Engineering as early as 2013. Graduate students and professors have internet access, but it is filtered and monitored
A lunar calendar is a calendar based upon cycles of the Moons phases, in contrast to solar calendars based solely upon the solar year. A purely lunar calendar is distinguished from lunisolar calendars whose lunar months are brought into alignment with the year through some process of intercalation. The details of when months begin varies from calendar to calendar, with using new, full, or crescent moons. Because each lunation is a less than 29 days,12 hours,44 minutes. Such holidays include Ramadan, the Chinese, Korean and Mongolian New Year, the Nepali New Year, the Mid-Autumn Festival and Chuseok, Loi Krathong, and Diwali. The earliest known lunar calendar was found at Warren Field in Scotland and has dated to c. 8000 BC. Some scholars argue for lunar calendars still further back—Rappenglück in the marks on a c. 17, 000-year-old cave painting at Lascaux and Marshack in the marks on a c. 27, most calendars referred to as lunar calendars are in fact lunisolar calendars. Their months are based on observations of the cycle, with intercalation being used to bring them into general agreement with the solar year.
The solar civic calendar of ancient Egypt showed traces of its origin in the lunar calendar. Present-day lunisolar calendars include the Chinese and Thai calendars, synodic months are 29 or 30 days in length, making a lunar year of 12 months about 11 days shorter than a solar year. Some lunar calendars do not use intercalation, such as most Islamic calendars, for those that do, such as the Hebrew calendar, the most common form of intercalation is to add an additional month every second or third year. Some lunisolar calendars are calibrated by annual natural events which are affected by lunar cycles as well as the solar cycle, an example of this is the lunar calendar of the Banks Islands, which includes three months in which the edible palolo worm mass on the beaches. These events occur at the last quarter of the lunar month and lunisolar calendars differ as to which day is the first day of the month. In some lunisolar calendars, such as the Chinese calendar, the first day of a month is the day when a new moon occurs in a particular time zone.
In others, such as some Hindu calendars, each month begins on the day after the moon or the new moon. Others were based in the past on the first sighting of a lunar crescent, the length of each lunar cycle varies slightly from the average value. In addition, observations are subject to uncertainty and weather conditions, thus to avoid uncertainty about the calendar, there have been attempts to create fixed arithmetical rules to determine the start of each calendar month. The average length of the month is 29.530589 days
Korea is a historical state in East Asia, since 1945 divided into two distinct sovereign states, North Korea and South Korea. Located on the Korean Peninsula, Korea is bordered by China to the northwest and it is separated from Japan to the east by the Korea Strait and the Sea of Japan. Korea emerged as a political entity after centuries of conflict among the Three Kingdoms of Korea. Later Silla divided into three states during the Later Three Kingdoms period. Goryeo, which had succeeded Goguryeo, defeated the two states and united the Korean Peninsula. Around the same time, Balhae collapsed and its last crown prince fled south to Goryeo, whose name developed into the modern exonym Korea, was a highly cultured state that created the worlds first metal movable type in 1234. However, multiple invasions by the Mongol Yuan Dynasty during the 13th century greatly weakened the nation, following the Yuan Dynastys collapse, severe political strife followed, and Goryeo eventually fell to a coup led by General Yi Seong-gye, who established Joseon in 1388.
The first 200 years of Joseon were marked by peace and saw the creation of the Korean alphabet by Sejong the Great in the 14th century. During the part of the dynasty, Koreas isolationist policy earned it the Western nickname of the Hermit Kingdom, by the late 19th century, the country became the object of imperial design by the Empire of Japan. Despite attempts at modernization by the Korean Empire, in 1910 Korea was annexed by Japan and these circumstances soon became the basis for the division of Korea by the two superpowers, exacerbated by their incapability to agree on the terms of Korean independence. To date, both continue to compete with each other as the sole legitimate government of all of Korea. Korea is the spelling of Corea, a name attested in English as early as 1614. It is a derived from Cauli, Marco Polos transcription of the Chinese 高麗. This was the Hanja for the Korean kingdom of Goryeo or Koryŏ, Goryeos name was a continuation of the earlier Goguryeo or Koguryŏ, the northernmost of the Samguk, which was officially known by the shortened form Goryeo after the 5th-century reign of King Jangsu.
The original name was a combination of the go with the name of a local Yemaek tribe. The name Korea is now used in English contexts by both North and South Korea. In South Korea, Korea as a whole is referred to as Hanguk, the name references the Samhan—Ma, and Byeon—who preceded the Three Kingdoms in the southern and central end of the peninsula during the 1st centuries BC and AD. It has been linked with the title khan used by the nomads of Manchuria