The Evening News (Sydney)
The Evening News was the first evening newspaper published in Sydney, New South Wales, in Australia. It was published from 29 July 1867 to 21 March 1931; the Sunday edition was published as the Sunday News. The Evening News was founded in 1867 by Samuel Bennett and was regarded as a "less serious read" than other Sydney newspapers. In 1875 labour difficulties forced Bennett to merge The Evening News with another of his papers, The Empire; the Evening News continued to be published until 1931 at which point it was closed by Associated Newspapers, who had acquired most Sydney newspaper titles by that time. A Sunday morning edition was published as Sunday News from 1919-1930; the paper has been digitised as part of the Australian Newspapers Digitisation Program project of the National Library of Australia. List of newspapers in New South Wales Evening News at Trove Sunday News at Trove
West Coast Range
The West Coast Range is a mountain range located in the West Coast region of Tasmania, Australia. The range lies to the west and north of the main parts of the Franklin-Gordon Wild Rivers National Park; the range has had a significant number of mines utilising the geologically rich zone of Mount Read Volcanics. A number of adjacent ranges lie to the east: the Engineer Range, the Raglan Range, the Eldon Range, the Sticht Range but in most cases these are on a west–east alignment, while the West Coast Range runs in a north–south direction, following the Mount Read volcanic arc; the range has encompassed multiple land uses including the catchment area for Hydro Tasmania dams, transport routes and historical sites. Of the communities that have existed in the range itself, Gormanston, is the last to remain; these are determined by a number of factors - the southerly direction of glaciation in the King River Valley and around the Tyndalls. The following mountains are contained within the West Coast Range, including sub-ranges without a named peak and including subsidiary peaks.
Darwin Crater - a probable meteorite impact crater associated with Darwin glass Gooseneck Hill Henty Glacial Moraine Marble Bluff - adjacent to the confluence of the Eldon and South Eldon rivers and the northern edge of Lake Burbury Teepookana Plateau Thureau Hills - adjacent to the eastern slopes of Mount Owen and Mount Huxley Walford Peak - adjacent to Lake Dora Anthony River on the northern part of the range Bird River at the southern end of the range Eldon River on the eastern side of the range Governor River on the eastern side of the range Henty River on the western side of the range King River starting in the Eldon Range and passing between Mount Huxley and Mount Jukes, dammed by The Hydro Mackintosh River Murchison River Pieman River Queen River runs through Queenstown to join with the King River to the west of Mount Huxley Sophia River South Eldon River Tofft River runs between the Thureau hills and Mount Owen and Mount Huxley Yolande River between Lake Margaret and the Henty River Basin Lake - on the western side of the range Lake Adam - a tributary lake for Lake Margaret Lake Barnabas Lake Beatrice - on the eastern edge of Mount Sedgwick Lake Burbury - created by the damming of the King River by The Hydro Lake Dora Lake Dorothy Lake Huntley - on the eastern side of Mount Tyndall Lake Julia - in the area of the range known as'The Tyndalls' Lake Mackintosh - created by damming the Mackintosh River Lake Magdala - a tributary lake for Lake Margaret Lake Martha - tributary lake for Lake Margaret Lake Mary, Tasmania - a tributary lake for Lake Margaret Lake Margaret on the northern side of Mount Sedgwick Lake Monica - tributary lake for Lake Margaret Lake Murchison - created by the damming of the Murchison River Lake Myra - tributary lake for Lake Margaret Lake Paul - tributary lake for Lake Margaret Lake Peter - tributary lake for Lake Margaret Lake Philip - a tributary lake for Lake Margaret Lake Plimsoll Lake Polycarp - a tributary lake for Lake Margaret Lake Rolleston - between the Tyndall Range and the Sticht Range Lake Selina - just west of Lake Plimsoll Lake Spicer - just west of Eldon Peak Lake Tyndall - south of Mount Tyndall Lake Westwood - next to Mount Julia Mount Farrell Regional Reserve Mount Murchison Regional Reserve Tyndall Regional Reserve Lake Beatrice Conservation Area Princess River Conservation Area Crotty Conservation Area West Coast Range Regional Reserve The slopes of Mount Owen, Mount Lyell and Mount Sedgwick are covered in stumps of forest trees killed by fires and smelter fumes from the earlier part of the twentieth century.
The devastation of forests close to the mining operations at Queenstown was substantial as early as the 1890s and continued late into the twentieth century. Some Huon Pine on the slopes of Mount Read have been found. Due to fire, mining and a range of human activities the vegetation zones along the West Coast range can be considered to be modified, few pockets of vegetation could be considered unchanged since European presence; the eastern side of the range is on the western boundary of the Franklin-Gordon Wild Rivers National Park, at these points the forests are in better condition. Forestry conservation zones exist along its length in accordance with the Regional Forestry Agreement. In the average winter the "1,000 metre snowline" sees most of the mountains with snow. In previous decades, Lake Margaret was the main long-term weather-reporting location, however the Mount Read automatic weather station now maintains extremes reported on the Bureau of Meteorology website for extreme conditions.
The rainfall records of Lake Margaret were on a par with Tully in Queensland for the highest rainfall in Australia. Approximations for the West Coast Range are made at 2800–3000 mm precipitation per year; the prevailing weather is due to the location of the West Coast. It has no landmass shielding it from the Southern Ocean or Antarctic weather, being in the Roaring Forties cold fronts and extreme weather are regular occurrences on the West Coast; the Cape Sorell Waverider Buoy, initiated by the BOM in 1998 has given good indications of the behaviour of ocean swells to correlate with weather conditions. Earlier weather records were kept for Zeehan. Due to change in population distribution and resources in the west coast, the main weather data is from Strahan Airport and Mount Read; the following BOM recorded locations are relevant to West Coast Range: Early European exploration of the range was made by explorers, by convicts escaping from Macquarie Harb
King River (Tasmania)
The King River is a major perennial river in the West Coast region of Tasmania, Australia. Formed by the confluence of the Eldon and South Eldon rivers, the King River rises near Eldon Range on the slopes of the West Coast Range between Mount Huxley and Mount Jukes; the river flows south and west, joined by nine tributaries including the Tofft, Nelson and Queen rivers before emptying into Macquarie Harbour near Strahan, merging with the Southern Ocean. The river descends 24 metres over its 52-kilometre course; the upper section of the river lies in a glaciated valley, with glacier scouring scars high up on the upper parts of the mountains of the West Coast Range. Small glacial lakes occur on and north of Mount Sedgwick. Lake Beatrice for instance lies on the eastern slope of Mount Sedgwick; the upper portion of the King River valley was first surveyed for damming in 1917 by the Mount Lyell Mining and Railway Company. The river is impounded by the Crotty Dam to form Lake Burbury, covering 54 square kilometres over the former valley and named after the first Australian born Governor of Tasmania, Stanley Burbury.
Water drawn from the lake is used to supply the conventional hydroelectric John Butters Power Station, operated by Hydro Tasmania. Below the dam wall, the river flows through a narrow channel as it flows west towards Teepookana, in the last 10 kilometres of the river, where extensive silting from the mine tailings that have been carried down from Queenstown, has created such a resource that at least one mining company has in the past proposed the mining of the deposits at the edge of the river, as well as the delta formed out into Macquarie Harbour due to the amount of economically viable materials in the silt; the small timber mill community adjacent to the old alignment of the Lyell Highway was submerged, as was a significant portion of the old railway alignment of the North Mount Lyell Railway between Linda and Pillinger. The site of the townsite of Crotty, the smelters of Crotty were submerged; the King River was considered to be Australia's most polluted river. Mining started in the 1880s, with the Queen River, a major tributary of the King River, being used for waste water disposal from the Mt Lyell copper mine.
Between 1922 and 1995 low grade ore was concentrated on site and the tailings dumped in the river also. About 1.5 million tonnes of sulfidic tailings entered the river system each year up to 1995, along with huge volumes of acidic, metal-rich water flowing from the workings. This'acid mine drainage' is derived from water leaching through the exposed and oxidised sulfide rocks; when it was in operation, the fumes from the ore smelter produced acid rain which leached minerals from the bare Queenstown hills. In 1992 the King River was dammed above the confluence with the Queen River to generate hydroelectric power at the Crotty Dam; this changed the flow regime in the King River, affected the way tailings were transported through the river system. The tailings in the river affect the water quality. About 100 million tonnes of tailings have been deposited on the banks and bed of the King River and in a delta at the mouth of the river where it enters Macquarie Harbour. Since the closure of the mine in late 1995, the construction of a tailings dam by the new operators, tailings no longer enter the river system.
However, acid water continues to enter the river due to mine dewatering and run-off from the waste rock dumps. Without the buffering provided by the alkaline tailings, the acidity in the Queen and King rivers has increased, dissolved metal concentrations have increased-to levels toxic to aquatic life; the north bank of the lower portion of the King River valley was the route for the old "Abt" rack railway to Queenstown. In 1962 the original builder and owner, the Mount Lyell Mining and Railway Company closed and removed the line; this has been since restored in early 2002 for tourism purposes. The new line follows the same route and is known as the West Coast Wilderness Railway. Rivers of Tasmania Crawford, Patsy. King: Story of a River. Montpelier Press. ISBN 1-876597-02-X. Blainey, Geoffrey; the Peaks of Lyell. Hobart: St. David's Park Publishing. ISBN 0-7246-2265-9. Whitham, Charles. Western Tasmania - A land of riches and beauty. Queenstown: Municipality of Queenstown. Http://www.deh.gov.au/ssd/publications/ssr/120.html http://www.rpdc.tas.gov.au/soer/casestudy/16/index.php http://www.hydro.com.au/home/Tourism+and+Recreation/King+Catchment/ https://web.archive.org/web/20060819123555/http://www.hydro.com.au/Storages/Storage.pdf
Linda is the site of an old ghost town in the Linda Valley in the West Coast Range of Tasmania, Australia. It has been known as Linda Valley. There had been a location or community high on the ridge between Mount Owen and Mount Lyell above the Linda Valley to the west known as North Mount Lyell and in Blainey's The Peaks of Lyell, the photograph caption has The site of North Lyell town, blasted away to form the modern open cut When North Mount Lyell was taken over by Mount Lyell Mining and Railway Company in 1903, Linda was reduced in significance. Most residents moved to either Gormanston, or Queenstown the nearby Mount Lyell towns. Linda Post Office opened on 18 December 1899 and closed in 1966. Linda railway station was the terminus of the Linda aerial ropeway and the North Mount Lyell Railway when it was in operation. Ore was taken from the mine to smelters at Crotty the refined metal taken to a port at Pillinger on the shores of Macquarie Harbour at Kelly Basin; the remains of the town are now adjacent to the Lyell Highway east of Queenstown.
West Coast Tasmania Mines Blainey, Geoffrey. The Peaks of Lyell. Hobart: St. David's Park Publishing. ISBN 0-7246-2265-9. Bradshaw, Noeline; the North Lyell Mining Disaster. Queenstown: Galley Museum Volunteer Committee
John Watt Beattie
John Watt Beattie was an Australian photographer. Beattie was born in Scotland, he was elected as a fellow of the Royal Society of Tasmania in 1890. He was appointed Photographer to the Government of Tasmania on 21 December 1896, he did extensive photography around Tasmania, as well as in the Central Highlands and on the West Coast of Tasmania. He was employed by the North Mount Lyell Company to photograph between Gormanston and Kelly Basin in the 1890s, he travelled with lantern slide shows on various subjects — A trip through Tasmania, From Kelly's Basin to Gormanston as well as Port Arthur and Tasman Peninsula In the 1890s he prepared composite pictures of the Governors of Tasmania 1804–1895, as well as Parliamentarians of Tasmania 1856–1895. He travelled to Norfolk Island and did photographic work there as well, he died in Hobart. Photography in Australia Cinema of Australia William Bland Jeff Carter Jack Cato Maggie Diaz Ken G. Hall Frank Hurley Charles Kerry Henry King David Perry Ruby Spowart Mark Strizic Australian Dictionary of National Biography entry Journal of a Voyage to the Western Pacific in the Melanesian Mission Yacht Southern Cross 25 August-10 November 1906 Catalogue of a Series of Photographs Illustrating the Scenery and Peoples of the Islands in the South and Western Pacific.
Photographed and Published by J. W. Beattie, 1907. Photograph of Beattie late in life Works by Beattie are held in the collection of Auckland War Memorial Museum Tamaki Paenga Hira Tassell and Wood, David Tasmanian Photographer — From the John Watt Beattie Collection — From the Collections of the Queen Victoria Museum and Art Gallery South Melbourne, Macmillan Company of Australia. ISBN 0-333-33737-9
Mount Lyell Mining and Railway Company
Mount Lyell Mining and Railway Company was a Tasmanian mining company formed on 29 March 1893, most referred to as Mount Lyell. Mount Lyell was the dominant copper mining company of the West Coast from 1893 to 1994, was based in Queenstown, Tasmania. Following consolidation of leases and company assets at the beginning of the twentieth century, Mount Lyell was the major company for the communities of Queenstown and Gormanston, it remained dominant until its closure in 1994. The Mount Lyell mining operations produced more than a million tonnes of copper, 750 tonnes of silver and 45 tonnes of gold since mining commenced in the early 1890s -, equivalent to over 4 billion dollars worth of metal in 1995 terms. In the early stage of operations, Mount Lyell was surrounded by smaller competing leases and companies, they were all absorbed into Mount Lyell operations, or were closed down. In 1903 the North Mount Lyell company was taken over, in 1912 the most severe calamity to visit the Mount Lyell company was the 1912 North Mount Lyell Disaster known at the time as the North Lyell fire.
During its history, Mount Lyell had exploration leases surrounding its main mining area, had at one time or other explored most of the West Coast Range revisiting many of the smaller mines, worked on in the early 1900s. As a consequence the Mount Lyell company had utilised considerable resources on maintaining leases over areas of promising geology - as well as checking older mining locations on the west coast. At various stages it shared costs and resources with other companies who would assist by investing in exploration by becoming partners in some leases; the operations were conducted in various parts of the Mount Lyell Lease, in the mid 1970s, prior to reduction in the workforce, "Cape Horn" was located just west of the "Comstock" operation, on the north side of Mount Lyell, while most of the North Mount Lyell workings were finished, "12 West" was still in operation due to its rich copper ores. "West Lyell open cut", dominant in the 1950s was finished, various parts of the lease were disappearing into the opening above the "Prince Lyell" workings.
Following the first large layoffs in the mid 1970s, the town of Queenstown lost its dominance on the west coast by the mid 1990s, being a company town many services closed by the 2000s, the separate west Tasmanian local government authorities were amalgamated into the West Coast Council. On 29 March 1993 the company celebrated its centenary. At that stage it was known as the Copper Division of Renison Goldfields Consolidated Limited; the Mount Lyell Mining Field, the various activities of the company in Queenstown and the west coast of Tasmania were celebrated throughout the community. The Mount Lyell Remediation and Research and Demonstration Program was conducted between 1994 and 1996 following the closing of the company, to reverse the ecological change upon the Queen and King Rivers, Macquarie Harbour, it is estimated. The Mount Lyell lease and mine was reopened by Copper Mines of Tasmania in 1995; this company in turn was acquired by Sterlite Industries, an Indian-based company, in 1999.
As a consequence it is part of the Vedanta group of companies. Its concentrate material is shipped to India for processing. Government guidelines saw tailings dams created and special measures taken to prevent any further pollution of the rivers and harbour. Mining was suspended at Mount Lyell due to accidents in the 2010s, remains in mothball situation in the late 2010s; the following locations were within the operating mine lease and indicate a separate orebody - the operating life is indicated: - Iron Blow 1883 - 1929 North Lyell 1896 - 1972 Royal Tharsis 1902 - 1991 Lyell Comstock 1913 - 1959 Crown Lyell 1931 - 1985 West Lyell Open Cut 1934 - 1978 Cape Horn 1969 - 1987 Prince Lyell Mine 1969 - 1995 See West Coast Wilderness Railway for more details. Mount Lyell was the operator of the 3 ft 6 in gauge Queenstown to Regatta Point railway from 1893 to 1963, which used the Abt rack system of cog railway for steep sections; this railway was rebuilt and recommenced operation in 2002 as the Abt Wilderness Railway, is now known as the West Coast Wilderness Railway and was operated by Federal Hotels until 2013.
The company has been significant in Australian business history works as Geoffrey Blainey, the Australian historian, began his career with the writing of the company history The Peaks of Lyell, which has now progressed to its sixth edition. Due to circumstances at the winding up of Mount Lyell significant amounts of company records were deposited with Tasmanian state archives. Pollution of the Queen and King Rivers, Macquarie Harbour was caused by the release of mine waste and effluent into the rivers, it is estimated. The environmental impacts included: tailings and acid drainage into rivers and a delta of tailings the size of a city suburb in Macquarie Harbour. Smelting ended in the 1960s and CMT has built a dam to contain tailings. Research by the Supervising Scientist published in 1997 overwhelmingly identified the lease site as the major source of acid drainage related pollutants affecting the rivers and harbour, with meta
Mount Jukes (Tasmania)
Mount Jukes is a mountain located on the Jukes Range, a spur off the West Coast Range, in the West Coast region of Tasmania, Australia. With an elevation of 1,168 metres above sea level, with multiple peaks, glacial lakes on its upper eastern reaches, Mount Jukes is situated above the town of Crotty and is west of Lake Burbury; the mountain was named by Charles Gould in 1862 in honour of Professor Joseph Jukes, an English geologist who gathered evidence to part afforded support for Charles Darwin's theories of coral reefs. Jukes had visited Hobart in 1842-3 on HMS Fly, it has had mines and small mining camps adjacent to the lakes, on the northern upper slopes, near where the Mount Jukes road traverses the upper slopes of the King River Gorge. The Mount Jukes Road was constructed by the Hydro in the 1980s at the time, it connects southern Queenstown with Darwin Dam, where the utilised North Mount Lyell Railway formation between the Linda Valley and Crotty was submerged by Lake Burbury. Two named glacial lakes in the upper part of the eastern side of the mountain are the Upper Lake Jukes and the Lower Lake Jukes.
It is by the lakes that a number of small mines were started in the early years of the twentieth century. Mount Huxley is located to the north and Mount Darwin is located to the south. Mount Jukes has a number of named features: Jukes Range – the ridge between Proprietary Peak in the north, South Jukes Peak Mount Jukes – 1,168 metres Proprietary Peak – 1,104 metres, north west of main part of Mount Jukes, with the Crown Spur the most noticeable feature when viewed from the town of Queenstown to the north. Pyramid Peak – 1,080 metres West Jukes Peak – 1,062 metres South Jukes Peak – 1,014 metres East Jukes Peak – 731 metres, closest to King River Gorge and the Crotty Dam, to the north of the Mount Jukes Road. Central PeakSome other named features include Yellow Knob, Yellow Knob Spur, South Jukes Spur, Crown Spur, East Jukes Spur, Intercolonial Spur, Cliff Spur, Newall Spur. List of highest mountains of Tasmania Blainey, Geoffrey; the Peaks of Lyell. Hobart: St. David's Park Publishing. ISBN 0-7246-2265-9.
Crawford, Patsy. King: Story of a River. Montpelier Press. ISBN 1-876597-02-X. Whitham, Charles. Western Tasmania - A land of riches and beauty. Queenstown: Municipality of Queenstown