The subtropics are geographic and climate zones located roughly between the tropic circle of latitude at 23.5 latitude and temperate latitudes. Subtropical climates are characterized by warm to hot summers and cool to mild winters with infrequent frost. Subtropical climates can occur at elevations within the tropics, such as in the southern end of the Mexican Plateau and in Vietnam. Six climate classifications use the term to define the various temperature. A great portion of the deserts are located within the subtropics. Within savanna regimes in the subtropics, a wet season is seen annually during the summer, within Mediterranean climate regimes, the wet season occurs during the winter. Areas bordering warm oceans are prone to heavy rainfall from tropical cyclones. Plants such as palms, mango, the tropics have been historically defined as lying between the Tropic of Cancer and Tropic of Capricorn, located at 23. 45° north and south latitude respectively. The poleward fringe of the subtropics is located at approximately 40° north and south latitude respectively, northern fringes of the type can go further north due to moderating effects of ocean streams, like in parts of Southern Europe due to heat transported by the Gulf Stream.
Several methods have used to define the subtropical climate. In the Trewartha climate classification, a subtropical region should have at least eight months with a temperature greater than 10 °C. According to the Troll-Paffen climate classification, there exists one large subtropical zone named the warm-temperate subtropical zone. According to the E. Neef climate classification, the zone is divided into two parts, Rainy winters of the west sides and Eastern subtropical climate. According to the Wilhelm Lauer & Peter Frankenberg climate classification, the zone is divided into three parts, high-continental and maritime. According to the Siegmund/Frankenberg climate classification, subtropical is one of six zones in the world. Heating of the earth near the equator leads to large amounts of upward motion and convection along the trough or Intertropical convergence zone. The upper-level divergence over the near-equatorial trough leads to air rising and moving away from the equator aloft, as the air moves towards the Mid-Latitudes, it cools and sinks, which leads to subsidence near the 30th parallel of both hemispheres.
This circulation is known as the Hadley cell and leads to the formation of the subtropical ridge, many of the worlds deserts are caused by these climatological high-pressure areas, located within the subtropics
The Pacific Ocean is the largest and deepest of the Earths oceanic divisions. It extends from the Arctic Ocean in the north to the Southern Ocean in the south and is bounded by Asia and Australia in the west, the Mariana Trench in the western North Pacific is the deepest point in the world, reaching a depth of 10,911 metres. Both the center of the Water Hemisphere and the Western Hemisphere are in the Pacific Ocean, the oceans current name was coined by Portuguese explorer Ferdinand Magellan during the Spanish circumnavigation of the world in 1521, as he encountered favourable winds on reaching the ocean. He called it Mar Pacífico, which in both Portuguese and Spanish means peaceful sea, important human migrations occurred in the Pacific in prehistoric times. Long-distance trade developed all along the coast from Mozambique to Japan and therefore knowledge, extended to the Indonesian islands but apparently not Australia. By at least 878 when there was a significant Islamic settlement in Canton much of trade was controlled by Arabs or Muslims.
In 219 BC Xu Fu sailed out into the Pacific searching for the elixir of immortality, from 1404 to 1433 Zheng He led expeditions into the Indian Ocean. The east side of the ocean was discovered by Spanish explorer Vasco Núñez de Balboa in 1513 after his expedition crossed the Isthmus of Panama and he named it Mar del Sur because the ocean was to the south of the coast of the isthmus where he first observed the Pacific. Later, Portuguese explorer Ferdinand Magellan sailed the Pacific East to West on a Castilian expedition of world circumnavigation starting in 1519, Magellan called the ocean Pacífico because, after sailing through the stormy seas off Cape Horn, the expedition found calm waters. The ocean was often called the Sea of Magellan in his honor until the eighteenth century, sailing around and east of the Moluccas, between 1525 and 1527, Portuguese expeditions discovered the Caroline Islands, the Aru Islands, and Papua New Guinea. In 1542–43 the Portuguese reached Japan, in 1564, five Spanish ships consisting of 379 explorers crossed the ocean from Mexico led by Miguel López de Legazpi and sailed to the Philippines and Mariana Islands.
The Manila galleons operated for two and a half centuries linking Manila and Acapulco, in one of the longest trade routes in history, Spanish expeditions discovered Tuvalu, the Marquesas, the Cook Islands, the Solomon Islands, and the Admiralty Islands in the South Pacific. In the 16th and 17th century Spain considered the Pacific Ocean a Mare clausum—a sea closed to other naval powers, as the only known entrance from the Atlantic the Strait of Magellan was at times patrolled by fleets sent to prevent entrance of non-Spanish ships. On the western end of the Pacific Ocean the Dutch threatened the Spanish Philippines, Spain sent expeditions to the Pacific Northwest reaching Vancouver Island in southern Canada, and Alaska. The French explored and settled Polynesia, and the British made three voyages with James Cook to the South Pacific and Australia and the North American Pacific Northwest, one of the earliest voyages of scientific exploration was organized by Spain in the Malaspina Expedition of 1789–1794.
It sailed vast areas of the Pacific, from Cape Horn to Alaska and the Philippines, New Zealand and the South Pacific. Growing imperialism during the 19th century resulted in the occupation of much of Oceania by other European powers, and later, Japan, in Oceania, France got a leading position as imperial power after making Tahiti and New Caledonia protectorates in 1842 and 1853 respectively. After navy visits to Easter Island in 1875 and 1887, Chilean navy officer Policarpo Toro managed to negotiate an incorporation of the island into Chile with native Rapanui in 1888, by occupying Easter Island, Chile joined the imperial nations
European windstorm is a name given to the strongest extratropical cyclones which occur across the continent of Europe. They form as cyclonic windstorms associated with areas of low atmospheric pressure and they are most common in the autumn and winter months. On average, the month when most windstorms form is January, the seasonal average is 4.6 windstorms. However, when they track further south they can affect almost any country in Europe and these phenomena vary in terms of physical mechanisms, atmospheric structure, spatial extent, severity level and location relative to cyclone and fronts. On average these storms cause economic damage €1.9 billion per year and they rank as the second highest cause of global natural catastrophe insurance loss. Up to the half of the 19th century, European windstorms were named after the person who spotted them. Usually, they would be named either by the year, the date, however, a storm may still be named differently in different countries. 2011 storm Dagmar in Norway and Sweden is known as Patrick in Germany, an alternative Scottish naming system arose in 2011 via social media/Twitter which resulted in the humorous naming of Hurricane Bawbag and Hurricane Fannybaws.
Such usage of the term Hurricane is not without precedent, as the 1968 Scotland storm was referred to as Hurricane Low Q, the UK Met Office and Irish forecasting service Met Éireann held discussions about developing a common naming system for Atlantic storms. An independent forecaster, the European Windstorm Centre, has its own naming list, the university subsequently started to name every area of high or low pressure within its weather forecasts, from a list of 260 male and 260 female names submitted by its students. The female names were assigned to areas of low pressure while male names were assigned to areas of high pressure, the DWD subsequently banned the usage of the names by their offices during July 1991, after complaints had poured in about the naming system. However, the order was leaked to the German press agency, Deutsche Presse-Agentur, Germanys ZDF television channel subsequently ran a phone in poll on 17 July 1991 and claimed that 72% of the 40,000 responses favored keeping the names.
This made the DWD pause and think about the naming system, during 1998 a debate started about if it was discrimination to name areas of high pressure with male names and the areas of low pressure with female names. The issue was resolved by alternating male and female names each year. The naming comes with the chance that the system will be notable. The money raised by this is used by the department to maintain weather observations at the Free University. Several European languages use cognates of the word huracán to indicate particularly strong winds occurring in Europe. The term hurricane as applied to these storms is not in reference to the structurally different tropical cyclone of the same name, in English, use of term hurricane to refer to European windstorms is mostly discouraged, as these storms do not display the structure of tropical storms
Australian east coast low
Australian east coast lows are extratropical cyclones. The most intense of these systems have many of the characteristics of subtropical cyclones and they develop between 25˚ south and 40˚ south and within 5˚ of the Australian coastline, typically during the winter months. Each year there are about ten significant impact maritime lows, prior to the introduction of satellite imagery in the early 1960s, many east coast lows were classified as tropical cyclones. These storms which mostly affect the south east coast should not be confused with Australian region tropical cyclones which affect the northern half of the continent. Explosive cyclogenesis is seen on average just once per year, but these storms cause significant wind, Australian east coast cyclones vary in size from mesoscale to synoptic scale. Australian east coast cyclones, although variable in size and intensity, are characterised by widespread heavy rainfall. Seven per cent of all major Australian disasters since 1967 can be attributed to east coast cyclones.
Australian east coast lows often intensify rapidly overnight making them one of the more dangerous weather systems to affect the New South Wales coast. The incidence of these types of storms can be seen to fluctuate widely from one year to the next, with none in some years. Another feature of east coast low development is the tendency for clustering of events when conditions remain favourable, for example, near Brisbane, almost one third of events occur within 20 days of a preceding event. This suggests a preference for formation of east coast cyclones between extreme events of the Southern Oscillation Index,2015 Australian east coast lows 23–25 August, An unusual low formed late in the season bringing some flooding along the coast. 390 millimetres of rainfall was recorded at Nowra in 48 hours,28 April–1 May – On 28 April the Bureau of Meteorology reported that an east coast low was forming off the coast of Fraser Island. Record breaking rainfall and strong winds were recorded in southeast Queensland, 20–23 April At least 4 people died in an event that was described as the worst since 2007.
Severe flooding affected the areas of Maitland and Dungog, inundating homes and water access was restricted for tens of thousands of homes across the wider Hunter Region. 14 October 2014, New South Wales saw wind gusts up to 161 km/h, Sydney Airport saw disruption to flights as the airport closed for a time due to high winds. In Port Botany the strong winds caused the Hapag-Lloyd cargo ship Kiel Express to break free, waves off Sydney over 8 m were reported. 30,000 homes in the region were left without power, june 201321 May 2009, an east coast low caused massive coastal erosion and major flooding of the Clarence River. 2007 saw five east coast cyclones develop off Australia’s east coast, July 2005 March 20052 October 2004, mean wave heights off Sydney were 5m with around 10m maximum wave heights
Summer is the hottest of the four temperate seasons, falling between spring and autumn. At the summer solstice, the days are longest and the nights are shortest, the date of the beginning of summer varies according to climate and culture. When it is summer in the Northern Hemisphere, it is winter in the Southern Hemisphere, a variable seasonal lag means that the meteorological center of the season, which is based on average temperature patterns, occurs several weeks after the time of maximal insolation. Under meteorological definitions, all seasons are set to start at the beginning of a calendar month. This meteorological definition of summer aligns with the commonly viewed notion of summer as the season with the longest days of the year, the meteorological reckoning of seasons is used in Australia, Denmark, the former Soviet Union and Japan. It is used by many in the United Kingdom, in Ireland, the summer months according to the national meteorological service, Met Éireann, are June and August.
However, according to the Irish Calendar, summer begins on 1 May, school textbooks in Ireland follow the cultural norm of summer commencing on 1 May rather than the meteorological definition of 1 June. Reckoning by hours of daylight alone, summer solstice marks the midpoint, not the beginning, midsummer takes place over the shortest night of the year, which is the summer solstice, or on a nearby date that varies with tradition. Where a seasonal lag of half a season or more is common, by this method, in North America, summer is the period from the summer solstice to the autumn equinox. The similar Canadian tradition starts summer on Victoria Day one week prior and ends, as in the United States, on Labour Day. In Chinese astronomy, summer starts on or around 5 May, with the known as lìxià, i. e. establishment of summer. In Australia and New Zealand, summer begins on 1 December. Summer is traditionally associated with hot or warm weather, in the Mediterranean regions, it is associated with dry weather, while in other places it is associated with rainy weather.
The wet season is the period of vegetation growth within the savanna climate regime. Where the wet season is associated with a shift in the prevailing winds. In the northern Atlantic Ocean, a tropical cyclone season occurs from 1 June to 30 November. The statistical peak of the Atlantic hurricane season is 10 September, the Northeast Pacific Ocean has a broader period of activity, but in a similar time frame to the Atlantic. The Northwest Pacific sees tropical cyclones year-round, with a minimum in February and March, in the North Indian basin, storms are most common from April to December, with peaks in May and November
Extratropical cyclones are capable of producing anything from cloudiness and mild showers to heavy gales, thunderstorms and tornadoes. These types of cyclones are defined as large scale low pressure systems that occur in the middle latitudes of the Earth. In contrast with tropical cyclones, extratropical cyclones produce rapid changes in temperature and dew point along broad lines, called weather fronts, the term cyclone applies to numerous types of low pressure areas, one of which is the extratropical cyclone. The descriptor extratropical signifies that this type of cyclone generally occurs outside the tropics and they are termed mid-latitude cyclones if they form within those latitudes, or post-tropical cyclones if a tropical cyclone has intruded into the mid latitudes. Weather forecasters and the public often describe them simply as depressions or lows. Terms like frontal cyclone, frontal depression, frontal low, extratropical low, non-tropical low, Extratropical cyclones are classified mainly as baroclinic, because they form along zones of temperature and dewpoint gradient known as frontal zones.
They can become barotropic late in their cycle, when the distribution of heat around the cyclone becomes fairly uniform with its radius. Extratropical cyclones form anywhere within the regions of the Earth. A study of extratropical cyclones in the Southern Hemisphere shows that between the 30th and 70th parallels, there are an average of 37 cyclones in existence during any 6-hour period, a separate study in the Northern Hemisphere suggests that approximately 234 significant extratropical cyclones form each winter. Extratropical cyclones form along linear bands of temperature/dewpoint gradient with significant vertical wind shear, cyclogenesis, or low pressure formation, occurs along frontal zones near a favorable quadrant of a maximum in the upper level jetstream known as a jet streak. The favorable quadrants are usually at the rear and left front quadrants. The divergence causes air to rush out from the top of the air column and this in turn forces convergence in the low-level wind field and increased upward motion within the column.
The increased upward motion causes atmospheric pressure at ground level to lower and this is because the upward air motion counteracts gravity, lessening the weight of the atmosphere in that location. The lowered pressure strengthens the cyclone, as the cyclone strengthens, the cold front sweeps towards the equator and moves around the back of the cyclone. Meanwhile, its associated warm front progresses more slowly, as the air ahead of the system is denser. Later, the cyclones occlude as the portion of the cold front overtakes a section of the warm front, forcing a tongue, or trowal. Eventually, the cyclone will become cold and begin to weaken. Atmospheric pressure can fall very rapidly when there are upper level forces on the system
Mediterranean tropical-like cyclone
Mediterranean tropical-like cyclones, sometimes referred to as Mediterranean hurricanes or medicanes, are rare meteorological phenomena observed in the Mediterranean Sea. Due to the dry nature of the Mediterranean region, formation of tropical cyclones is infrequent, no agency, however, is officially responsible for monitoring the formation and development of medicanes. Tropical cyclogenesis typically occurs within two regions of the sea. The first region, encompassing areas of the western Mediterranean, is conducive for development than the other. Numerous studies have been conducted on the impact of global warming on Mediterranean tropical cyclone formation, the development of tropical cyclones in the Mediterranean Sea can usually only occur under somewhat unusual circumstances. Low wind shear and atmospheric instability induced by incursions of cold air are often required, a majority of medicanes are accompanied by upper-level troughs, providing energy required for intensifying atmospheric convection—thunderstorms—and heavy precipitation.
The baroclinic properties of the Mediterranean region, with high temperature gradients, another factor, rising cool air, provides necessary moisture as well. Warm sea surface temperatures are mostly unnecessary, however, as most medicanes energy is derived from warmer air temperatures, several notable and damaging medicanes are known to have occurred. In September 1969, a north African Mediterranean tropical cyclone produced flooding that killed nearly 600 individuals, left 250,000 homeless, a medicane in September 1996 that developed in the Balearic Islands region spawned six tornadoes and inundated parts of the islands. Several medicanes have been subject to study, such as those of January 1982, January 1995, September 2006, November 2011. The January 1995 storm is one of the best-studied Mediterranean tropical cyclones, with its resemblance to tropical cyclones elsewhere. The medicane of September 2006, meanwhile, is well-studied due to availability of existing observations, in November 2011, the NOAAs Satellite Analysis Branch monitored a possible medicane, named Rolf by the Free University of Berlin, though it ceased doing so the following month.
No agency is responsible for monitoring the basin. The Mediterranean Sea, lies within the Greek area of responsibility, a majority of Mediterranean tropical cyclones form over two separate regions. The second identified region of development, in the Ionian Sea between Sicily and Greece and stretching south to Libya, is favorable for tropical cyclogenesis. An additional two regions, in the Aegean and Adriatic seas, produce fewer medicanes, while activity is minimal in the Levantine region. Although meteorological factors are most advantageous in the Adriatic and Aegean seas, few medicanes form during the summer season, though activity typically rises in autumn, peaks in January, and gradually decreases from February to May. In the western Mediterranean region of development, approximately 0.75 such systems form each year, in tropical and subtropical areas, sea surface temperatures rose 0
The Aleutian Low is a semi-permanent low pressure center located near the Aleutian Islands during the winter. It is one of the centers of action in the atmospheric circulation of the Northern Hemisphere. However, the presence of the continents disrupts this motion, and the belt of low pressure is well developed only in the North Pacific. The Aleutian Low is characterized by many strong cyclones, cyclones which form in the subpolar latitudes in the North Pacific typically slow down and reach maximum intensity in the area of the Aleutian Low. In summer, remnants of typhoons can go past the Aleutian low, national council for Science and the Environment
An Atlantic hurricane or tropical storm is a tropical cyclone that forms in the Atlantic Ocean, usually in the summer or fall. A hurricane differs from a cyclone or typhoon only on the basis of location, a hurricane is a storm that occurs in the Atlantic Ocean and northeastern Pacific Ocean, a typhoon occurs in the northwestern Pacific Ocean, and a cyclone occurs in the south Pacific or Indian Ocean. Tropical cyclones can be categorized by intensity, Tropical storms have one-minute maximum sustained winds of at least 39 mph, while hurricanes have one-minute maximum sustained winds exceeding 74 mph. Most North Atlantic tropical storms and hurricanes form between June 1 and November 30, in recent times, tropical disturbances that reach tropical storm intensity are named from a predetermined list. On average, in the North Atlantic basin 11.3 named storms occur each season, the climatological peak of activity is around September 11 each season. In March 2004, Catarina was the first hurricane-intensity tropical cyclone recorded in the Southern Atlantic Ocean.
Tropical cyclones are steered by the flow throughout the depth of the troposphere. Specifically, air flow around high pressure systems and toward low pressure areas influence hurricane tracks, south of the subtropical ridge, surface easterly winds prevail. If the subtropical ridge is weakened by a trough, a tropical cyclone may turn poleward and recurve. Poleward of the ridge, westerly winds prevail and generally steer tropical cyclones that reach northern latitudes toward the east. The westerlies steer extratropical cyclones with their cold and warm fronts from west to east, generally speaking, the intensity of a tropical cyclone is determined by either the storms maximum sustained winds or lowest barometric pressure. The following table lists the most intense Atlantic hurricanes in terms of their lowest barometric pressure, in terms of wind speed, Hurricane Allen was the strongest Atlantic tropical cyclone on record, with maximum sustained winds of 190 mph. However, these measurements are suspect since instrumentation used to document wind speeds at the time would likely succumb to winds of such intensity, their central pressures are low enough to rank them among the strongest recorded Atlantic hurricanes.
Owing to their intensity, the strongest Atlantic hurricanes have all attained Category 5 classification, Hurricane Opal, the strongest Category 4 hurricane recorded, intensified to reach a minimum pressure of 916 mbar, a pressure typical of Category 5 hurricanes. Nonetheless, the pressure remains too high to list Opal as one of the ten strongest Atlantic tropical cyclones, this was superseded by Hurricane Patricia in 2015 in the east Pacific, which had a pressure reading of 872 mbar. Preceding Wilma is Hurricane Gilbert, which had held the record for most intense Atlantic hurricane for 17 years. The 1935 Labor Day hurricane, with a pressure of 892 mbar, is the third strongest Atlantic hurricane, since the measurements taken during Wilma and Gilbert were documented using dropsonde, this pressure remains the lowest measured over land. However, with a pressure of 895 mbar, Rita is the strongest tropical cyclone ever recorded in the Gulf of Mexico
A polar vortex is an upper level low-pressure area lying near the Earths pole. There are two polar vortices in the Earths atmosphere, which overlie the North, and South Poles, each polar vortex is a persistent, large-scale, low pressure zone that rotates counter-clockwise at the North Pole, and clockwise at the South Pole. The bases of the two vortices are located in the middle and upper troposphere and extend into the stratosphere. Beneath that lies a large mass of cold, dense arctic air, the vortices weaken and strengthen from year to year. The interface between the dry air mass of the pole and the warm moist air mass further south defines the location of the polar front. The polar front is centered, roughly at 60° latitude, a polar vortex strengthens in the winter and weakens in the summer due to its dependence on the temperature difference between the equator and the poles. The vortices span less than 1,000 kilometers in diameter within which they rotate counter-clockwise in the Northern Hemisphere, as with other cyclones, their rotation is driven by the Coriolis effect.
When the polar vortex is strong, there is a vortex with a jet stream that is well constrained near the polar front. When the northern vortex weakens, it separates into two or more vortices, the strongest of which are near Baffin Island and the other over northeast Siberia. The Antarctic vortex of the Southern Hemisphere is a low pressure zone that is found near the edge of the Ross ice shelf near 160 west longitude. When the polar vortex is strong, the mid-latitude Westerlies increase in strength and are persistent, when the polar vortex is weak, high pressure zones of the mid latitudes may push poleward, moving the polar vortex, jet stream, and polar front equatorward. The jet stream is seen to buckle and deviate south and this rapidly brings cold dry air into contact with the warm, moist air of the mid latitudes, resulting in a rapid and dramatic change of weather known as a cold snap. Ozone depletion occurs within the polar vortices – particularly over the Southern Hemisphere – reaching a maximum depletion in the spring, the polar vortex was first described as early as 1853.
The phenomenons sudden stratospheric warming develops during the winter in the Northern Hemisphere and was discovered in 1952 with radiosonde observations at higher than 20 km. The phenomenon was mentioned frequently in the news and weather media in the cold North American winter of 2013-2014, Polar cyclones are low pressure zones embedded within the polar air masses, and exist year-round. The stratospheric polar vortex develops at latitudes above the jet stream. Horizontally, most polar vortices have a radius of less than 1,000 kilometres, since polar vortices exist from the stratosphere downward into the mid-troposphere, a variety of heights/pressure levels are used to mark its position. The 50 mb pressure surface is most often used to identify its stratospheric location, at the level of the tropopause, the extent of closed contours of potential temperature can be used to determine its strength
A noreaster is a macro-scale cyclone. Use of the term in North America is associated with different types of storms, some of which can form in the North Atlantic Ocean. The term is most often used in the areas of New England. Typically, such storms originate as an area that forms within 100 miles of the shore between North Carolina and Massachusetts. The precipitation pattern is similar to that of other extratropical storms, nor’easters are usually accompanied by very heavy rain or snow, and can cause severe coastal flooding, coastal erosion, hurricane-force winds, or blizzard conditions. Noreasters are usually most intense during winter in New England and Atlantic Canada and they thrive on converging air masses—the cold polar air mass and the warmer air over the water—and are more severe in winter when the difference in temperature between these air masses is greater. Noreasters tend to develop most often and most powerfully between the months of November and March, although they can develop during other parts of the year as well, the susceptible regions are generally impacted by Noreasters a few times each winter.
The term noreaster came to American English by way of British English, this is incorrect, as John Lyly uses the term the same way in his play of 1585, Gallathea. According to the OED, the first recorded use of the term occurs in 1836 in a translation of Aristophanes. The term “nor’easter” naturally developed from the spellings and pronunciations of the compass points. As noted in a January 2006 editorial by William Sisson, editor of Soundings magazine, yet it has been asserted by linguist Mark Liberman that noreaster as a contraction for northeaster has no basis in regional New England dialect, the Boston accent would elide the R, notheastuh. He describes noreaster as a fake word, this view neglects the little-known etymology and the historical maritime usage described above. Nineteenth-century Downeast mariners pronounced the compass point north northeast as nonuth-east and his efforts, which included mailing hundreds of postcards, were profiled, just before his death at the age of 88, in The New Yorker.
Despite the efforts of Comee and others, use of the term continues by the press, despite these assertions, the term can be found in the writings of New Englanders, and was frequently used by the press in the 19th century. Thomas Bailey Aldrich, in his semi-autobiographical work The Story of a Bad Boy, wrote We had had several slight flurries of hail and snow before, but this was a regular noreaster. In her story In the Gray Goth Elizabeth Stuart Phelps Ward wrote. and there was snow in the sky now, no noreaster ever occurs except when there is a high barometer headed off and driven down upon Nova Scotia and Lower Canada. A common contraction for northeaster, as listed in Ralph E. Huschkes Glossary of meteorology, Noreasters develop in response to the sharp contrast in the warm Gulf Stream ocean current coming up from the tropical Atlantic and the cold air masses coming down from Canada. When the very cold and dry air rushes southward and meets up with the warm Gulf stream current, the storm tracks northeast along the East Coast past the Carolinas, the mid-Atlantic, and the New England coastal states