North Sea Germanic known as Ingvaeonic, is a postulated grouping of the northern West Germanic languages that consists of Old Frisian, Old English and Old Saxon and their descendants. Ingvaeonic is named after the Ingaevones, a West Germanic cultural group or proto-tribe along the North Sea coast, mentioned by both Tacitus and Pliny the Elder, it is thought of as not a monolithic proto-language but as a group of related dialects that underwent several areal changes in relative unison. The grouping was first proposed in Nordgermanen und Alemannen by German linguist and philologist Friedrich Maurer as an alternative to the strict tree diagrams, which had become popular following the work of 19th-century linguist August Schleicher and assumed the existence of a special Anglo-Frisian group; the other groupings are Istvaeonic, from the Istvaeones, including Dutch and related languages. Linguistic evidence for Ingvaeonic is a series of common innovations observed in Old Frisian, Old English and Old Saxon such as the following: The so-called Ingvaeonic nasal spirant law: converted *munþ "mouth" into *mų̄þ.
Loss of the third-person reflexive pronouns The loss of person distinctions in plural forms of verbs, which reduced three forms into one form: merged *habjum "we have" and *habēþ "you have" with *habją̄þ "they have" The development of Class III weak verbs into a relic class consisting of four verbs The split of the Class II weak verb ending *-ōn into *-ōjan: converted *makōn "to make" into *makōjan Development of a plural ending *-ōs in a-stem nouns Development of numerous new words, such as the replacement of *newun "nine" with *nigun and *minni "less" with *laisiSeveral, but not all, characteristics are found in Dutch, which did not undergo the nasal spirant law, retains the three distinct plural endings, lacks the -s plural. However, it lost the reflexive pronoun and had the same four relic weak verbs in Class III. Bremmer, Rolf H.. An Introduction to Old Frisian. Amsterdam: John Benjamins B. V. ISBN 978-90-272-3255-7. Euler, Wolfram. Das Westgermanische - von der Herausbildung im 3. Bis zur Aufgliederung im 7.
Jahrhundert - Analyse und Rekonstruktion. 244 p. in German with English summary, London/Berlin 2013, ISBN 978-3-9812110-7-8. Maurer, Friedrich Nordgermanen und Alemannen: Studien zur germanischen und frühdeutschen Sprachgeschichte, Stammes- und Volkskunde, Strasbourg: Hüneburg. Ringe, Donald R. and Taylor, Ann. The Development of Old English - A Linguistic History of English, vol. II, 632p. ISBN 978-0199207848. Oxford. Sonderegger, Stefan. Grundzüge deutscher Sprachgeschichte. Diachronie des Sprachsystems. Band I: Einführung – Genealogie – Konstanten. Berlin/New York: Walter de Gruyter. ISBN 3-11-003570-7. Voyles, Joseph B.. Early Germanic Grammar: Pre-, Proto-, Post-Germanic. San Diego: Academic Press. ISBN 0-12-728270-X
Davis v. Bandemer, 478 U. S. 109, is a case in which the United States Supreme Court held that claims of partisan gerrymandering were justiciable, but failed to agree on a clear standard for the judicial review of the class of claims of a political nature to which such cases belong. The decision was limited with respect to many of the elements directly involving issues of redistricting and political gerrymandering, but was somewhat broadened with respect to less significant ancillary procedural issues. Democrats had won 51.9% of the votes, but only 43/100 seats. Democrats sued on basis of one man, one vote, California Democrats supported the Indiana GOP's plan; the National Republican Committee filed an amicus brief in support of the Indiana Democrats, Democrats in the California house and senate filed briefs supporting the Republican redistricting plan. Democrats in the state of Indiana challenged the state's 1981 state apportionment scheme for Indiana General Assembly districts because of political gerrymandering.
The Democrats argued that "the apportionment unconstitutionally diluted their votes in important districts, violating their rights." Indiana Democrats used the elections of November 1982 as proof that the new plan violated the 14th amendment due to voter dilution. In both the House and the Senate Democrats won the majority of votes, but failed to have a majority of candidates win; the District Court ruled in favor of the Democrats, throwing out the old plan and calling for the creation of a new one. The Supreme Court ruled on two separate issues, first whether gerrymandering claims are justiciable and secondly, if the 1981 Indiana Reapportionment Plan was an infraction on citizen's rights to equal representation, protected by the 14th Amendment; the Court ruled 6-3 that federal courts can determine cases of partisan gerrymandering as worthy of intervention, but they ruled 7-2 that Indiana's plan was constitutional under the Equal Protection Clause. List of United States Supreme Court cases, volume 478 List of United States Supreme Court cases Lists of United States Supreme Court cases by volume List of United States Supreme Court cases by the Rehnquist Court Vieth v. Jubelirer League of United Latin American Citizens v. Perry Gill v. Whitford Anderson, Jon M..
"Politics and Purpose: Hide and Seek in the Gerrymandering Thicket after Davis v. Bandemer". University of Pennsylvania Law Review. 136: 183–237. JSTOR 3312047. Text of Davis v. Bandemer, 478 U. S. 109 is available from: Justia Library of Congress Oyez
Ognyanovo is a resort village with thermal mineral water springs in Garmen Municipality, in Blagoevgrad Province, Bulgaria. The village is situated in the valley of Mesta river in the skirts of the Dabrash part of the Rhodope Mountains; the village is 3 kilometers north of Garmen and together with Marchevo the three villages are merged. Ognyanovo is laying 72 kilometers southeast of Blagoevgrad and 125 kilometers southeast of Sofia; the mineral water has been discovered in the Roman times. There are remains of Roman baths. A medieval village and a watching towert remains have been unearthed near the village; the Roman town Nicopolis ad Nestum is just few kilometyers south of the village. Before 1934 the village was named Fotovishta, it was mentioned for first time in the Ottoman documents as Hotovishta in 1478-1479 as Christian village with 1 Muslim and 53 non-Muslim households. In the 19th century people of Pomak origin came from other Muslim villages. In 1835 was built the church "Assumption of Virgin Mary".
Some of the icons were painted by Dimitar Molerov. In 1859 was opened the first school. In 1908-1909 there were 103 Bulgarian households with 303 inhabitants and 40 pomak households with 200 inhabitants. After 1912 year the village was gained from the Ottoman Turks and the region became part of Bulgaria. Refugees from Macedonia came to Fotovishta. In 1934 the village was renamed Ognenovo. In 1966 the village was named with its present name Ognyanovo. Ognyanovo is governed by Mayor; the current Mayor, since 2003 is Dimitria Gyurova. There is a post office; the health care is provided by two doctors - a general practitioner and a dentist, a pharmacy. The primary school "Peyo Yavorov" was opened in 1929 and was named after Boris Sarafov. In 1944 the school was renamed to "Asen Zlatarov". There is a kindergarten and a community center with a public library; the amateur football club "Mineral" plays in the regional amateur league. There are two groups of thermal mineral water springs. One of them, called "Miroto" is formed by 17 springs with temperature of 42°C.
The remains of old Roman bath has been unearthed at that location. The other group of 7 springs are colder 16-40°C; the water is clear, with a slight smell of hydrogen sulfide. There is few guest-houses and a sanatorium; the village is not far from Kovachevitsa and Leshten - two villages with old preserved and reconstructed houses from the 19th and 20th centuries
Marta Portal Nicolás was a Spanish writer, critic and professor associated with the Generation of'50. She was a recipient of the Premio Planeta de Novela. Portal held a degree in philosophy and literature and a PhD in Information Sciences, taught Hispano-American literature at the Complutense University of Madrid. In her work as a journalist she wrote news articles and literary criticism, as well as opinion columns in media such as ABC, El Alcázar, Pueblo; as a novelist, she discussed issues of double standards. In 1966 she was awarded the Premio Planeta for the novel A tientas y a ciegas. Portal received other awards over the course of her career, such as the Premio Adelaida Ristori, Premio Hucha de Plata de cuentos, Premio de las Letras de Asturias, she was president of the Cultural Association of Hispano-Mexican Friendship. In 2001, the city council of her native town inaugurated the Casa de Cultura Marta Portal in her honor. Marta Portal died in Madrid on 26 August 2016. A tientas y a ciegas, Editorial Planeta, 1966 El malmuerto A ras de las sombras Ladridos a la luna El buen camino Un espacio erótico Pago de traición, Editorial Planeta, 1983 El ángel caído Él y yo, nosotros tres El maíz: grano sagrado de América Proceso narrativo de la revolución mexicana Análisis semiológico de Pedro Páramo Rulfo: Dinámica de la violencia La veintena
Radio France Auditorium is an arena shape concert hall with an organ dedicated to the performance of classical music. Built as part of a major restoration work of the Paris headquarter of French national radio broadcasting organization Radio France, it is located in the 16th arrondissement of Paris in the heart of the city; the Auditorium was designed to serve as the residence of the four musical ensembles of the organization: Orchestre National de France, Orchestre Philharmonique de Radio France, Chœur de Radio France and Maîtrise de Radio France. Equipped with audiovisual equipment, the concert hall is a recording and broadcasting studio and a screening room; the Auditorium is devoted to Radio France seven national networks: France Inter, France Info, France Culture, France Musique, FIP, France Bleu, Mouv'. Located near the Eiffel Tower and the Paris Department Store Beaugrenelle, Radio France's Auditorium was built on the former studios 102 and 103 of the Maison de la Radio; the official inauguration took place on November 14, 2014.
Nine years after winning an international competition to restructure Paris’ Maison de la Radio, AS architecture-studio composes the auditorium. Inspired by the Berlin Philharmonic, Radio France Auditorium has 1 461 seats; the auditorium is shaped like an amphitheater, wrapping around the stage, with the furthest seats only 17m from the stage, thus creating an exceptional proximity between the audience and the musicians, a deep sense of intimacy. Two architectural firms contributed to the Auditorium’s conception: Nagata Acoustics, an international acoustical consultancy firm involved in the design of over seventy concert halls, Jean-Paul Lamoureux Accoustique firm; the Auditorium is designed with the constructive principle of "box in the box". The acoustic is rather emblematic of radio sound: direct defined and close to the source; the result is quite spectacular: a accurate sound, soft that offers an incredible proximity from the most distant points. Its interior is composed of wood, balconies are staggered.
The result is quite amazing and beautiful. The dark wood of the hall contrasts with the light wood stage; the wood panels and the polycylinders on the rear walls allow sound to travel through. The suspended ceiling is 18 m above the stage and is doubled with an acoustic reflector called canopy; this reflecting panel provides a good acoustic propagation and is increasing the sound quality. Organ, built between 2013 and 2016 by Gerhard Grenzing weighs around 30 tons, is 12 meters wide and 12 meters high, it pedal 32 notes. It has 2 consoles, one with mechanical traction, one mobile with electrical traction, touch-sensitive. France’s new Grenzing organ was inaugurated over the weekend of 7–9 May 2016 with a series of events ranging from children’s narration, recitals by rising stars, a concert for organ and ensemble, silent film accompaniment, a grand recital by some of France’s top-name organists Maison de la Radio Radio France
Baines' School is a secondary school in Poulton-Le-Fylde, England. It is a former grammar school, it was one of three schools set up in Baines' will, the others being at Thornton. In the mid-19th century, the school was teaching around 100 pupils without charging fees. Baines’ will provided payments to the poor of the area and apprenticeships; the school was graded as “requiring improvement” by Ofsted inspectors in 2015, after they found a “significant reduction in staff” and “a decline in the quality of teaching and achievement” compared to the last inspection in 2011. Michael P Barnett and computer scientist Arnold Beckett and expert on doping in sport Daniel Whiston, professional ice skater Ian Stuart Donaldson, lead singer of Skrewdriver