A moraine is any glacially formed accumulation of unconsolidated glacial debris that occurs in both and glaciated regions on Earth, through geomorphological processes. Moraines are formed from debris carried along by a glacier and consisting of somewhat rounded particles ranging in size from large boulders to minute glacial flour. Lateral moraines are formed at the side of the ice flow and terminal moraines at the foot, marking the maximum advance of the glacier. Other types of moraine include ground moraines, till-covered areas with irregular topography, medial moraines which are formed where two glaciers meet. Moraines may be composed of debris ranging in size from silt-sized glacial flour to large boulders; the debris is sub-angular to rounded in shape. Moraines may be on the glacier’s surface or deposited as piles or sheets of debris where the glacier has melted. Moraines may form through a number of processes, depending on the characteristics of sediment, the dynamics on the ice, the location on the glacier in which the moraine is formed.
Moraine forming processes may be loosely divided into active. Passive processes involve the placing of chaotic supraglacial sediments onto the landscape with limited reworking forming hummocky moraines; these moraines are composed of supraglacial sediments from the ice surface. Active processes form or rework moraine sediment directly by the movement of ice, known as glaciotectonism; these form push moraines and thrust-block moraines, which are composed of till and reworked proglacial sediment. Moraine may form by the accumulation of sand and gravel deposits from glacial streams emanating from the ice margin; these fan deposits may coalesce to form a long moraine bank marking the ice margin. Several processes may combine to form and rework a single moraine, most moraines record a continuum of processes. Moraines can be classified either by origin, location with respect to a glacier or former glacier, or by shape; the first approach is suitable for moraines associated with contemporary glaciers—but more difficult to apply to old moraines, which are defined by their particular morphology, since their origin is debated.
Some moraine types are known only from ancient glaciers, while medial moraines of valley glaciers are poorly preserved and difficult to distinguish after the retreat or melting of the glacier. Lateral moraines are parallel ridges of debris deposited along the sides of a glacier; the unconsolidated debris can be deposited on top of the glacier by frost shattering of the valley walls and/or from tributary streams flowing into the valley. The till is carried along the glacial margin; because lateral moraines are deposited on top of the glacier, they do not experience the postglacial erosion of the valley floor and therefore, as the glacier melts, lateral moraines are preserved as high ridges. Lateral moraines stand high because they protect the ice under them from the elements, causing it to melt or sublime less than the uncovered parts of the glacier. Multiple lateral moraines may develop as the glacier retreats. Ground moraines are till-covered areas with irregular topography and no ridges forming rolling hills or plains.
They are accumulated at the base of the ice as lodgment till, but may be deposited as the glacier retreats. In alpine glaciers, ground moraines are found between the two lateral moraines. Ground moraines may be modified into drumlins by the overriding ice. Rogen moraines or ribbed moraines are a type of basal moraines that form a series of ribs perpendicular to the ice flow in an ice sheet; the depressions between the ribs are sometimes filled with water, making the Rogen moraines look like tigerstripes on aerial photographs. Rogen moraines are named after Lake Rogen in Härjedalen, the landform’s type locality. End moraines, or terminal moraines, are ridges of unconsolidated debris deposited at the snout or end of the glacier, they reflect the shape of the glacier's terminus. Glaciers act much like a conveyor belt, carrying debris from the top of the glacier to the bottom where it deposits it in end moraines. End moraine size and shape are determined by whether the glacier is advancing, receding or at equilibrium.
The longer the terminus of the glacier stays in one place, the more debris accumulate in the moraine. There are two types of end moraines: recessional. Terminal moraines mark the maximum advance of the glacier. Recessional moraines are small ridges left. After a glacier retreats, the end moraine may be destroyed by postglacial erosion. Recessional moraines are observed as a series of transverse ridges running across a valley behind a terminal moraine, they form perpendicular to the lateral moraines that they reside between and are composed of unconsolidated debris deposited by the glacier. They are created during temporary halts in a glacier's retreat. A medial moraine is a ridge of moraine, it forms when two glaciers meet and the debris on the edges of the adjacent valley sides join and are carried on top of the enlarged glacier. As the glacier melts or retreats, the debris is deposited and a ridge down the middle of the valley floor is created; the Kaskawulsh Glacier in the Kluane National Park, has a ridge of medial moraine 1 km wide.
Supraglacial moraines are created by debris accumulated on top of glacial ice. This debris can accumulate due to ice flow toward the surface in the ablation zone, melting of surface ice or from debris that falls onto the glacier from valley sidewalls. Washboard moraines known as minor or corrugated moraines, are low-amplitude ge
Long Island Sound
Long Island Sound is a tidal estuary of the Atlantic Ocean, lying between the eastern shores of The Bronx, New York City, southern Westchester County, Connecticut to the north, the North Shore of Long Island, to the south. From west to east, the sound stretches 110 miles from the East River in New York City, along the North Shore of Long Island, to Block Island Sound. A mix of freshwater from tributaries and saltwater from the ocean, Long Island Sound is 21 miles at its widest point and varies in depth from 65 to 230 feet. Several major cities are situated along Long Island Sound and more than 8 million people live within its watershed. Major Connecticut cities on the Sound include Bridgeport, New London, Stamford and New Haven. Cities on the New York side of the Sound include Rye, Glen Cove, New Rochelle, portions of Queens and the Bronx in New York City. Mansions and wealthy neighborhoods characterize a good portion of the coast of the sound from Port Jefferson and east on Long Island. Property values in Westchester County, Long Island, southwestern Connecticut are among the highest in the nation, due to the proximity to New York City and their location on "The Sound".
About 18,000 years ago, Long Island Sound, much of Long Island were covered by a thick sheet of ice, part of the Late Wisconsin Glacier. About 3,300 feet thick in its interior and about 1,300 to 1,600 feet thick along its southern edge, it was the most recent of a series of glaciations that covered the area during the past 10 million years. Sea level at that time was about 330 feet lower than today; the continental ice sheet scraped off an average of 65 feet of surface material from the New England landscape deposited the material from the Connecticut coast into the Sound, creating what is now Long Island. When the ice sheet stopped advancing 18,000 years ago, a large amount of drift was deposited, known as the Ronkonkoma Moraine, which stretches along much of southern Long Island. Another period of equilibrium resulted in the Harbor Hill Moraine along most of northern Long Island; the next moraines to the north were created just off the Connecticut coast. These moraines, created by much smaller deposits are discontinuous and much smaller than those to the south.
The Connecticut coast moraines are in two groups: the Norwalk area and the Madison-Old Saybrook area. Sandy plains and beaches resulted from the erosion of moraines and redeposition in these areas, to the east of each, where the drift cover is thinnest, exposed bedrock creates rocky headlands with marshlands behind them; the Captain Islands off Greenwich, along with the Norwalk Islands and Falkner Island off Guilford, Connecticut are parts of a recessional moraine. Other islands, including the Thimble Islands, are for the most part exposed bedrock with a thin amount of drift not continuous. Other shoals and islands off the Connecticut coast are a mixture of these two extremes; the glacier created several sandy outwash deltas off the coast, including one off Bridgeport and another off New Haven, Connecticut. Fishers Island, New York appears to be related to the Harbor Hill Moraine. To the east of the Thimble Islands, inland moraines along the Connecticut coast include the broken Madison Moraine and the Old Saybrook Moraine.
The Long Island Sound basin existed. It had been formed by stream flows. A thick cover of sand and gravel was left in the basin from glacial meltwater streams. On the west, a ridge rising to about 65 feet below the present sea level is called the Mattatuck Sill, its lowest point is about 80 feet below sea level. Glacial meltwater formed "Lake Connecticut", a freshwater lake in the basin, until about 8,000 years ago, when the sea level rose to about 80 feet below today's level. Seawater overflowed into the basin, transforming it from a nontidal, freshwater lake to a tidal, saline arm of the sea. Numerous rivers empty into the Sound, including: Connecticut Connecticut River - Old Saybrook Housatonic River - Stratford & Milford Mianus River - Greenwich Mill River - New Haven Mill River - Fairfield Norwalk River - Norwalk Pequonnock River - Bridgeport Quinnipiac River - New Haven Rooster River/Ash Creek - Bridgeport & Fairfield Rippowam River - Stamford Saugatuck River - Westport Thames River - Groton & New London West River - West HavenNew York Byram River - Port Chester Hutchinson River-The Bronx Mamaroneck River - Mamaroneck Nissequogue River - Nissequogue & Ft SalongaRhode Island Pawcatuck River The whole watershed population is about 8.93 million as of the 2010 Census.
Due to the large chunk of New England being under the watershed, due to the Connecticut River, many riverside cities/towns are covered in the watershed, here is a list of some of the large towns and cities in the watershed from south to north, west to east: Huntington Oyster Bay Smithtown Parts of these New York City boroughs: The Bronx Queens Brooklyn Port Chester Stamford Bridgeport New Haven New London Danbury Waterbury Norwich Willimantic Torrington Hartford Westerly Springfield Worcester Pittsfield Brattleboro White River Jct. Keene West Lebanon Seaweeds in the Sound occur in greatest abundance in rocky areas between high tide and low tide as well as on rocks on the sea floor. Green seaweed populations fluctuate with the seasons. Monostroma
Oyster Bay (town), New York
The Town of Oyster Bay is the easternmost of the three towns which make up Nassau County, New York, in the United States. Part of the New York metropolitan area, it is the only town in Nassau County to extend from the North Shore to the South Shore of Long Island; as of the 2010 census, it had a population of 293,214. There are 18 hamlets within the town of Oyster Bay; the U. S. Postal Service has organized these 36 places into 30 five-digit ZIP Codes served by 20 post offices; each post office shares the name of one of the hamlets or villages, but their boundaries are not coterminous. Oyster Bay is the name of a hamlet on the north shore, within the town of Oyster Bay. Near this hamlet, in the village of Cove Neck, is Sagamore Hill, the former residence and summer White House of Theodore Roosevelt and now a museum. At least six of the 36 villages and hamlets of the town have shores on Oyster Bay Harbor, an inlet of Long Island Sound, many of these at one time or another have been referred to as being part of the hamlet of Oyster Bay.
Succeeding cultures of indigenous peoples had lived in the area for thousands of years. At the time of European contact, the Lenape nation inhabited western Long Island. By 1600 the band inhabiting the local area was called the Matinecock after their location, but they were Lenape people. Following European colonization, the area became part of the colony of New Netherland. In 1639, the Dutch West India Company made its first purchase of land on Long Island from the local Native Americans; the English had colonies on Long Island at this time. The Dutch did not dispute English claims to what is now Suffolk County, but when settlers from New England arrived in Oyster Bay in 1640, they were soon arrested as part of a boundary dispute. In 1643, Englishmen purchased land in the present-day town of Hempstead from the Indians that included land purchased by the Dutch in 1639. In 1644, the Dutch director granted a patent for Hempstead to the English; the Dutch granted other English settlements in Flushing and Jamaica.
In 1650, the Treaty of Hartford established a boundary between Dutch and English claims at "Oysterbay", by which the Dutch meant present-day Cold Spring Harbor and the English meant all of the water connected to present-day Oyster Bay Harbor. Meanwhile, the government of England came under the control of Oliver Cromwell as a republic, smugglers took advantage of the unresolved border dispute. In 1653, English settlers made their first purchase of land in Oyster Bay from the local Matinecock tribe, though there were some rogue English settlements there. For this purchase, the English settlers paid to the Native American Moheness, "six kettles, six fathoms of wampum, six hoes, six hatchets, three pairs of stockings, thirty awl-blades or muxes, twenty knives, three shirts and as much Peague as will amount to four pounds sterling." The monarchy was restored in England in 1660, in 1664 King Charles gave Long Island to his brother James, leading to the Dutch relinquishing control of all of New Amsterdam.
In 1667 the settlement at Oyster Bay received its charter from the new English colony of New York, becoming the Township of Oyster Bay. By 1687, the last piece of land was sold by the Indians, few remained by 1709. During most of the American Revolution the town was under the control of British forces; the town was part of Queens County, until the western portion of that county was amalgamated into New York City in 1898 and Nassau County was created in 1899. In 1918 Glen Cove, to the west, incorporated as a city and formed a governing system separate from the town. Following World War II, housing replaced farmland as the population grew from about 40,000 in 1950 to more than 290,000 in 1990. Oyster Bay is home to the Seawanhaka Corinthian Yacht Club, one of the oldest yacht clubs in the Western Hemisphere, which opened in 1871. There are 40 sites presently named Town of Oyster Bay Landmarks; the town of Oyster Bay extends from Long Island Sound in the north, south to the waters of South Oyster Bay and the Atlantic Ocean.
It is bordered by the town of North Hempstead on the northwest and the town of Hempstead on the southwest. It is the easternmost of the three towns of Nassau County, with Suffolk County to the east. According to the United States Census Bureau, the town has a total area of 169.5 square miles, of which 104.4 square miles is land and 65.1 square miles, or 38.42%, is water. As with most of Long Island, the north shore is hilly, the south shore has sandy beaches, the area between is a plain. Between the 1990 Census and the 2000 census, the town exchanged territory with the towns of Hempstead and Babylon, it gained territory from the town of Huntington in Suffolk County. The Long Island Rail Road's Oyster Bay Branch serves the town's vicinity from Glen Head to Oyster Bay; the Main Line runs through the center of the town from with stations in Hicksville, Bethpage. The Port Jefferson Branch begins at Hicksville, goes through Hicksville and Syosset. Rail freight service exists along the Central Branch which begins in Bethpage.
Further south in the town, the Babylon Branch runs from Seaford to the Suffolk County Line with stations in Massapequa and Massapequa Park. The Town of Oyster Bay is served by Nassau Inter-County Express bus routes, though some routes from Suffolk County Transit enter the town from the county line. Interstate 495 is the Long Island Expressway, the sole interstate highway in the Town of Oyster Bay, with interchanges from Exits 40 in Jericho to part of Exit 48 in Plainview near the Nassau-Suffolk County Line. Northern State Park
The Astor family achieved prominence in business and politics in the United States and the United Kingdom during the 19th and 20th centuries. With ancestral roots in the Italian Alps, the Astors settled in Germany, first appearing in North America in the 18th century with John Jacob Astor, one of the wealthiest people in history. John Jacob Astor was the youngest of four sons born to butcher Johann Jacob Astor and Maria Magdalena vom Berg. John and his eldest brother George, known as'George & John Astor', were flute makers, who came to England c. 1778 from Walldorf, Germany. While working in England, he anglicized his name. In 1783, John Jacob left for Baltimore and was active first as a dealer in woodwind instruments in New York as a merchant in furs and real estate. After moving to New York, John married Sarah Cox Todd. Sarah was the daughter of Scottish immigrants Adam Sarah Cox, she worked alongside her husband as a consultant, was accused of witchcraft after her success with the company in 1817.
The accusations never led to legal action. They had eight children, including occasional poet John Jacob Astor Jr. and real estate businessman William Backhouse Astor Sr.. John Jacob's fur trading company established a Columbia River trading post at Fort Astoria in 1811, the first United States community on the Pacific coast, he financed the overland Astor Expedition in 1810–1812 to reach the outpost, in the then-disputed Oregon Country. Control of Fort Astoria played a key role in American territorial claims on the region. John and George's brother Henry emigrated to America, he was a horse racing enthusiast, purchased a thoroughbred named Messenger, brought from England to America in 1788. The horse became the founding sire of all Standardbred horses in the United States today; the third brother Melchior remained in Germany. During the 19th century, the Astors became one of the wealthiest families in the United States. Toward the end of that century, some of the family moved to England and achieved high prominence there.
During the 20th century, the number of American Astors began to decline, but their legacy lives on in their many public works including the New York Public Library. English descendants of the Astors hold two hereditary peerages: Viscount Astor and Baron Astor of Hever. While many of Astor members had joined to the Episcopal Church, John Jacob Astor remained a member of the Reformed congregation to his death. For many years, the members of the Astor family were known as "the landlords of New York", their New York City namesakes are the famous Waldorf-Astoria Hotel, an Astor Row, Astor Court, Astor Place, Astor Avenue in the Bronx, where the Astors used to stable horses. The neighborhood of Astoria, Queens, is named after the family as well. Beyond New York City, the Astor family name is imprinted in a great deal of United States history and geography. There are towns of Astor in the states of Florida, Georgia and Kansas and there are Astorias in Illinois and Oregon. In the Astoria, school district, the primary elementary school is called John Jacob Astor Elementary.
There is a neighborhood called Astor Park just south of Wisconsin. At the heart of this neighborhood is a park; the Astors were prominent on Mackinac Island and Newport, Rhode Island, with their summer house, Beechwood. At Grand Hotel on Mackinac Island, there are Lady Astor Suites. There is a Hostel in York, England called The Astor. Listed by ancestry/generation: The following list uses the d'Aboville numbering system with the leading 1 omitted; the generation is indicated by the number of digits in the descendant's index number: 1. Child, 2. Grandchild, 3. Great-grandchild, 4. Great-great-grandchild, etc. Johann Jacob Astor, married Maria Magdalena Vorfelder 1 George Peter Astor Sr. flute maker 1.1 Sarah Astor 1.2 George Peter Astor Jr. 1.3 Joseph Astor 1.4 William Henry Astor 1.5 Benjamin Astor 1.6 unknown daughter 1.7 unknown daughter 1.8 unknown daughter 2 Henry Astor I, butcher and horse racing enthusiast 3 Melchior Astor 3.1 Sophia Astor 4 John Jacob Astor Sr. fur trader, married Sarah Cox Todd 4.1 Magdalena Astor, married 1st 1807, Adrian Bentzon.
1st 1847 Laura Whetten Brevoort, m. 2nd 1867 Grace Ashburner Sedgwick 22.214.171.124 John Jacob Astor Bristed 126.96.36.199 Charles Astor Bristed Jr. who married Mary Rosa Donnelly in 1894. After her death, he married Clementina Hill in 1932. 188.8.131.52 Cecilia Bristed, an adopted daughter who inherited most of the estate of her brother, John. 4.2 Sarah Todd Astor, stillborn 4.3 John Jacob Astor Jr. occasional poet and mentally unstable, never married or had children. 4.4 William Backhouse Astor Sr. businessman, married Margaret Rebecca Armstrong, daughter of United States Secretary of War and Senator John Armstrong Jr. and Alida Livingston. 4.4.1 Emily Astor, married Samuel Cutler "Sam" Ward, lobbyist, son of banker Samuel Ward III and Julia Rush Cutler. 184.108.40.206 Margaret Astor "Maddie" Ward (1838–
Province of New York
The Province of New York was a British proprietary colony and royal colony on the northeast coast of North America. As one of the Thirteen Colonies, New York achieved independence and worked with the others to found the United States. In 1664, during the Second Anglo-Dutch War, the Dutch Province of New Netherland in America was awarded by Charles II of England to his brother James, Duke of York. James raised a fleet to take it from the Dutch and the Governor surrendered to the English fleet without recognition from the Dutch West Indies Company; the province was renamed as its proprietor. England seized de facto control of the colony from the Dutch in 1664, was given de jure sovereign control in 1667 in the Treaty of Breda and again in the Treaty of Westminster, it wasn't until 1674. The colony was one of the Middle Colonies, ruled at first directly from England; when James ascended to the throne of England as James II, the province became a royal colony. When the English arrived, the colony somewhat vaguely included claims to all of the present U.
S. states of New York, New Jersey and Vermont, along with inland portions of Connecticut and Maine in addition to eastern Pennsylvania. Much of this land was soon reassigned by the crown, leaving the territory of the modern State of New York, including the valleys of the Hudson and Mohawk Rivers, future Vermont; the territory of western New York was disputed with the Iroquois Indian nation, disputed between the English and the French from their northern colonial province of New France. Vermont was disputed with the Province of New Hampshire to the east; the revolutionary New York Provincial Congress of local representatives assumed the government on May 22, 1775, declared the province the "State of New York" in 1776, ratified the first New York Constitution in 1777. During the ensuing American Revolutionary War the British regained and occupied New York Town in September 1776, using it as its military and political base of operations in British North America, Though a British governor was technically in office, much of the remainder of the upper part of the colony was held by the rebel Patriots.
British claims in New York were ended by the Treaty of Paris of 1783, with New York establishing its independence from the crown. The final evacuation of all of New York by the British Army was followed by the return of General George Washington's Continental Army on November 25, 1783 in a grand parade and celebration; this British crown colony was established upon the former Dutch colony of New Netherland, with its core being York Shire, in what today is known as Downstate New York. The Province of New York was divided into twelve counties on November 1, 1683, by New York Governor Thomas Dongan: Albany County: all of the region, now northern and western New York. Claimed the area disputed, now Vermont. In addition, as there was no fixed western border to the colony, Albany County technically extended to the Pacific Ocean. Most of this land, Indian land for most of the province's history, has now been ceded to other states and most of the land within New York has been divided into new counties.
Cornwall County: that part of Maine between the Kennebec River and the St. Croix River from the Atlantic Ocean to the St. Lawrence River. Ceded to the Province of Massachusetts Bay in 1692. Dukes County: the Elizabeth Islands, Martha's Vineyard and Nantucket Island east of Long Island. Ceded to Massachusetts in 1692. Dutchess County: now Dutchess and Putnam counties. Kings County: the current Kings County. New York County: the current New York County. Orange County: now Orange and Rockland counties. Queens County: now Queens and Nassau counties. Richmond County: the current Richmond County. Suffolk County: the current Suffolk County. Ulster County: now Ulster and Sullivan counties and part of what is now Delaware and Greene counties. Westchester County: now Westchester and Bronx counties. On March 24, 1772: Tryon County was formed out of Albany County, it was renamed Montgomery County in 1784, with a division to Herkimer County around Little Falls. Charlotte County was formed out of Albany County, it was renamed Washington County in 1784.
In 1617 officials of the Dutch West India Company in New Netherland created a settlement at present-day Albany, in 1624 founded New Amsterdam, on Manhattan Island. New Amsterdam surrendered to Colonel Richard Nicholls on August 27, 1664. On September 24 Sir George Carteret accepted the capitulation of the garrison at Fort Orange, which he called Albany, after another of the Duke of York's titles; the capture was confirmed by the Treaty of Breda in July 1667. Easing the transition to British rule, the Articles of Capitulation guaranteed certain rights to the Dutch. In 1664, Duke of York was granted a proprietary colony which included New Netherland and present-day Maine; the New Netherland claim included western parts of present-day Massachusetts putting the new province in conflict with the Massachusetts charter. In general terms, the charter was equivalent to a conveyance of land conferring on him the right of possession, con
Otto Hermann Kahn
Otto Hermann Kahn was a German-born American investment banker, collector and patron of the arts. Otto was born on February 21, 1867 in Mannheim and raised there, by his Jewish parents and Bernard Kahn, his father had been among the refugees to the United States after the revolution of 1848 and had become an American citizen, but returned to Germany. Kahn was educated in a gymnasium in Mannheim. Kahn's ambition was to be a musician, he learned to play several instruments before he graduated from the gymnasium, but he was one of eight children, his father had set plans for the career of each one. Kahn he destined to be a banker. At 17, Kahn was placed in a bank at Karlsruhe as a junior clerk, where he remained for three years, advancing until he was grounded in the intricacies of finance, he served for a year in the Kaiser's hussars. On leaving the army he went to the London agency of Deutsche Bank, where he remained five years, he displayed such unusual talents that he became second in command when he had been there but a comparatively short time.
The English mode of life, both political and social, appealed to him, he became a naturalized British subject. In 1893, he accepted an offer from Speyer and Company of New York and went to the United States, where he spent the rest of his life. On January 8, 1896, Kahn married Addie Wolff and following the couple's year-long tour of Europe, Kahn joined Kuhn, Loeb & Co. in New York City, where his father-in-law, Abraham Wolff, was a partner. In 1917, Kahn gave up his British nationality and became a United States citizen. Besides his father-in-law, Kahn's other partners included Jacob Schiff, himself the son-in-law of Solomon Loeb, who co-founded the firm, Paul and Felix Warburg. Kahn was thrown into contact with railroad builder E. H. Harriman. In spite of defined differences in temperament and method, they became as brothers. In opposition to Harriman's gruff, aggressive manner in business, was Kahn's calm, good-humored gentle deportment. Kahn, although only 30 years old, took an equal part with Harriman in the gigantic task of reorganizing the Union Pacific Railroad, a work which in its early stages had been handled by Schiff.
Kahn proved his ability to analyze mathematically and scientifically the problems that were presented. Kahn was soon to be acknowledged as the ablest reorganizer of railroads in the United States, he applied himself to the Baltimore and Ohio Railroad, the Missouri Pacific Railroad, the Wabash Railroad, the Chicago and Eastern Illinois Railroad, the Texas and Pacific Railroad, other systems. More than once, his prompt and vigorous action averted an imminent financial panic. A notable instance was his rescuing from collapse the Pearson-Farquhar syndicate when it found itself in deep water in an attempt to combine several existing lines of railroad into a South American transcontinental system; when American International Corporation was forming, Kahn took an active part in the negotiations, brought them to a successful issue. Kahn conducted negotiations which led to the opening of the doors of the Paris Bourse to American securities and the listing there of $50,000,000 Pennsylvania bonds in 1906, the first official listing of American securities in Paris.
He had a large share in the negotiations which resulted in the issue by Kuhn and Company of $50,000,000 of City of Paris bonds and $60,000,000 Bordeaux-Lyons and Marseilles bonds. In 1933, the smooth and affable Kahn disarmed antagonism against members of the banking community during four days of testimony before the United States Senate's Pecora Commission hearings into the Wall Street Crash of 1929; the Senate's lead counsel Ferdinand Pecora wrote on page 293 in his 1939 memoir Wall Street Under Oath about Otto Kahn: "No suaver, more fluent, more diplomatic advocate could be conceived. If anyone could succeed in presenting the customs and functions of the private bankers in a favorable and prepossessing light, it was he."Kahn was a trustee of the Massachusetts Institute of Technology and of Rutgers College. He was a director in numerous corporations, including the Equitable Trust Co. of New York and the Union Pacific Railroad. During the last years of Kahn's life he became frail and suffered from arteriosclerosis, high blood pressure and attacks of angina pectoris.
On March 29, 1934, following lunch in the private dining room of Kuhn, Loeb & Co. Kahn suffered a massive heart attack and died, aged 67. Funeral services were held in the music room of his Long Island estate, followed by a burial in nearby St. John's Memorial Cemetery. An wealthy financier, Kahn was president and chairman of the board of directors of the Metropolitan Opera, vice-president of the New York Philharmonic and treasurer for the American Federation of Arts, he supported many artists such as Hart Crane, George Gershwin and Arturo Toscanini. He was smitten with Hollywood, to which Kuhn Loeb provided much commercial support and Kahn, personal support. In her second full-length film, Be Yourself, Fanny Brice sang a song that mentioned Kahn: "Is something the matter with Otto Kahn, or is something wrong with me? I wrote a note and told him what a star I would make, he sent it back and marked it'Opened by mistake.'" He was parodied as Roscoe W. Chandler in the stage and film versions of the Marx Brothers' Animal Crackers.
Kahn was chairman of the New York committee of the Shakespeare Tercentenary. He was elected to honorary membership in Phi Mu Alpha Sinfonia music fraternity by the Fraternity's Alpha Chapter at the New England Conservatory in 1917 and of the French Theatre of New York and a founder and treasurer of the New Thea
South Fork (Long Island)
The South Fork of Suffolk County, New York, United States is a peninsula in the southeastern section of the county on the South Shore of Long Island. The South Fork includes most of the Hamptons; the shorter, more northerly peninsula is known as the North Fork. The South Fork is composed of all of the Town of East Hampton and a substantial part of the Town of Southampton; the body of water to the south is the Atlantic Ocean. The South Fork and North Fork split at Riverhead, New York where the Peconic River empties into Peconic Bay, it has long been noted. The native name for this is "Paumanok"; this name is used to name a trail that navigates the entire of the South Fork, the Paumanok Path. The South Fork and North Fork are separated by Great Peconic Bay, Little Peconic Bay, Gardiners Bay. Between the two forks lie several islands, including Shelter Island; the eastern end of the South Fork, Montauk Point State Park, in the census-designated place of Montauk, New York, is the easternmost point in the State of New York, of Suffolk County.
The eastern end of the North Fork is Orient Point, New York, but is further west in relation to Montauk Point. The South Fork is most reached by roadways from the west, but the area offers commuter rail service, bus service, ferry service; the most prominent road on the south fork is Montauk Highway. However, there are numerous other roads that are traveled but unknown to most. For example, Noyac Road provides a parallel route to Montauk Highway in the northern area of the region between North Sea and Sag Harbor. Sag Harbor is served by the Bridgehampton-Sag Harbor Turnpike from Bridgehampton, Sagg Road from Sagaponack, Wainscott Northwest Road from Wainscott, the East Hampton-Sag Harbor Turnpike from East Hampton and points east; the area boasts many back roads around East Hampton, the Springs, Amagansett, such as Three Mile Harbor Road, Springs Fireplace Road, Old Stone HIghway. The Long Island Rail Road Montauk Branch has stops in Westhampton, Hampton Bays, Bridgehampton, East Hampton and Montauk.
Service is infrequent most of the time due to the fact. The easiest time to take the train to the South Fork is on Fridays, when most trains run out of the city, Sundays, when most trains run into the city, although this sequence can be applied during morning and evening rush hours; the Hampton Jitney and the Hampton Luxury Liner provide bus service between the South Fork and New York City. Local bus service is provided by Suffolk County Transit. Direct access between the South Fork and Shelter Island is via the South Ferry. Additionally, passenger ferry service runs between Montauk and Block Island, RI, New London, CT, Martha's Vineyard, MA. "Long Island Map" — Long Island Convention & Visitors Bureau and Sports Commission