Mary Stevenson Cassatt was an American painter and printmaker. She was born in Allegheny City, but lived much of her adult life in France, where she first befriended Edgar Degas and exhibited among the Impressionists. Cassatt created images of the social and private lives of women, with particular emphasis on the intimate bonds between mothers and children, she was described by Gustave Geffroy in 1894 as one of "les trois grandes dames" of Impressionism alongside Marie Bracquemond and Berthe Morisot. Cassatt was born in Allegheny City, now part of Pittsburgh, she was born into an upper-middle-class family: Her father, Robert Simpson Cassat, was a successful stockbroker and land speculator. He was descended from French Huguenot Jacques Cossart, who came to New Amsterdam in 1662, her mother, Katherine Kelso Johnston, came from a banking family. Katherine Cassatt and well-read, had a profound influence on her daughter. To that effect, Cassatt's lifelong friend Louisine Havemeyer wrote in her memoirs: "Anyone who had the privilege of knowing Mary Cassatt's mother would know at once that it was from her and her alone that inherited her ability."
The ancestral name had been Cossart. A distant cousin of artist Robert Henri, Cassatt was one of seven children, of whom two died in infancy. One brother, Alexander Johnston Cassatt became president of the Pennsylvania Railroad; the family moved eastward, first to Lancaster, Pennsylvania to the Philadelphia area, where she started her schooling at the age of six. Cassatt grew up in an environment. While abroad she learned German and French and had her first lessons in drawing and music, it is that her first exposure to French artists Jean Auguste Dominique Ingres, Eugène Delacroix, Camille Corot, Gustave Courbet was at the Paris World's Fair of 1855. In the exhibition were Edgar Degas and Camille Pissarro, both of whom were her colleagues and mentors. Though her family objected to her becoming a professional artist, Cassatt began studying painting at the Pennsylvania Academy of the Fine Arts in Philadelphia at the early age of 15. Part of her parents' concern may have been Cassatt's exposure to feminist ideas and the bohemian behavior of some of the male students.
As such and her network of friends were lifelong advocates of equal rights for the sexes. Although about 20 percent of the students were female, most viewed art as a valuable skill, she continued her studies from 1861 through the duration of the American Civil War. Among her fellow students was Thomas Eakins the controversial director of the Academy. Impatient with the slow pace of instruction and the patronizing attitude of the male students and teachers, she decided to study the old masters on her own, she said, "There was no teaching" at the Academy. Female students could not use live models, until somewhat and the principal training was drawing from casts. Cassatt decided to end her studies: At that time, no degree was granted. After overcoming her father's objections, she moved to Paris in 1866, with her mother and family friends acting as chaperones. Since women could not yet attend the École des Beaux-Arts, Cassatt applied to study with masters from the school and was accepted to study with Jean-Léon Gérôme, a regarded teacher known for his hyper-realistic technique and his depiction of exotic subjects.
Cassatt augmented her artistic training with daily copying in the Louvre, obtaining the required permit, necessary to control the "copyists," low-paid women, who daily filled the museum to paint copies for sale. The museum served as a social place for Frenchmen and American female students, like Cassatt, were not allowed to attend cafes where the avant-garde socialized. In this manner, fellow artist and friend Elizabeth Jane Gardner met and married famed academic painter William-Adolphe Bouguereau. Toward the end of 1866, she joined a painting class taught by a noted genre artist. In 1868, Cassatt studied with artist Thomas Couture, whose subjects were romantic and urban. On trips to the countryside, the students drew from life the peasants going about their daily activities. In 1868 one of her paintings, A Mandoline Player, was accepted for the first time by the selection jury for the Paris Salon. With Elizabeth Jane Gardner, whose work was accepted by the jury that year, Cassatt was one of two American women to first exhibit in the Salon.
A Mandoline Player is in the Romantic style of Corot and Couture, is one of only two paintings from the first decade of her career, documented today. The French art scene was in a process of change, as radical artists such as Courbet and Manet tried to break away from accepted Academic tradition and the Impressionists were in their formative years. Cassatt's friend Eliza Haldeman wrote home that artists "are leaving the Academy style and each seeking a new way just now everything is Chaos." Cassatt, on the other hand, continued to work in the traditional manner, submitting works to the Salon for over ten years, with increasing frustration. Returning to the United States in the late summer of 1870—as the Franco-Prussian War was starting—Cassatt lived with her family in Altoona, her father continued to resist her chosen vocation, paid for her basic needs, but not her art supplies. Cassatt placed two
The World Series is the annual championship series of Major League Baseball in North America, contested since 1903 between the American League champion team and the National League champion team. The winner of the World Series championship is determined through a best-of-seven playoff, the winning team is awarded the Commissioner's Trophy; as the series is played during the fall season in North America, it is sometimes referred to as the Fall Classic. Prior to 1969, the team with the best regular season win-loss record in each league automatically advanced to the World Series; as of 2018, the World Series has been contested 114 times, with the AL winning 66 and the NL winning 48. The 2018 World Series took place between the Los Angeles Dodgers and Boston Red Sox from October 23–28, with the Red Sox winning in five games to earn their ninth title; this was the first World Series meeting between these two teams since 1916. Having lost to the Houston Astros in the 2017 World Series, the Dodgers became the 11th team to lose the World Series in consecutive seasons.
In the American League, the New York Yankees have played in 40 World Series and won 27, the Philadelphia/Kansas City/Oakland Athletics have played in 14 and won 9, the Boston Red Sox have played in 13 and won 9, including the first World Series. In the National League, the St. Louis Cardinals have appeared in 19 and won 11, the New York/San Francisco Giants have played in 19 and won 8, the Brooklyn/Los Angeles Dodgers have appeared in 20 and won 6, the Cincinnati Reds have appeared in 9 and won 5; as of 2018, no team has won consecutive World Series championships since the New York Yankees in 1998, 1999, 2000—the longest such drought in Major League Baseball history. Until the formation of the American Association in 1882 as a second major league, the National Association of Professional Base Ball Players and the National League represented the top level of organized baseball in the United States. All championships were awarded to the team with the best record at the end of the season, without a postseason series being played.
From 1884 to 1890, the National League and the American Association faced each other in a series of games at the end of the season to determine an overall champion. These series were disorganized in comparison to the modern World Series, with the terms arranged through negotiation of the owners of the championship teams beforehand; the number of games played ranged from as few as three in 1884, to a high of fifteen in 1887. Both the 1885 and 1890 Series ended in each team having won three games with one tie game; the series was promoted and referred to as "The Championship of the United States", "World's Championship Series", or "World's Series" for short. In his book Krakatoa: The Day the World Exploded: August 27, 1883, Simon Winchester mentions in passing that the World Series was named for the New York World newspaper, but this view is disputed; the 19th-century competitions are, not recognized as part of World Series history by Major League Baseball, as it considers 19th-century baseball to be a prologue to the modern baseball era.
Until about 1960, some sources treated the 19th-century Series on an equal basis with the post-19th-century series. After about 1930, many authorities list the start of the World Series in 1903 and discuss the earlier contests separately. Following the collapse of the American Association after the 1891 season, the National League was again the only major league; the league championship was awarded in 1892 by a playoff between half-season champions. This scheme was abandoned after one season. Beginning in 1893—and continuing until divisional play was introduced in 1969—the pennant was awarded to the first-place club in the standings at the end of the season. For four seasons, 1894–1897, the league champions played the runners-up in the post season championship series called the Temple Cup. A second attempt at this format was the Chronicle-Telegraph Cup series, played only once, in 1900. In 1901, the American League was formed as a second major league. No championship series were played in 1901 or 1902 as the National and American Leagues fought each other for business supremacy.
After two years of bitter competition and player raiding, the National and American Leagues made peace and, as part of the accord, several pairs of teams squared off for interleague exhibition games after the 1903 season. These series were arranged by the participating clubs. One of them matched the two pennant winners, Pittsburgh Pirates of the NL and Boston Americans of the AL, it had been arranged well in advance by the two owners, as both teams were league leaders by large margins. Boston upset Pittsburgh by five games to three, winning with pitching depth behind Cy Young and Bill Dinneen and with the support of the band of Royal Rooters; the Series brought much civic pride to Boston and proved the new American League could beat the Nationals. The 1904 Series, if it had been held, would have been between the AL's Boston Americans and the NL's New York Giants. At that point there was no gover
Perry South (Pittsburgh)
Perry South is a neighborhood on Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania's North Side. The neighborhood takes its name from Perrysville Avenue, which "was a part of the Venango trail, an Indian path leading north of'Allegheny Town'. Commodore Perry used the Trail to carry supplies from Pittsburgh to Erie for his lake battle against the British during the War of 1812." Perrysville Avenue is an extension of Federal Street, the main north-south thoroughfare of old Allegheny City. Federal Street ends, Perrysville Avenue begins, where the flat river plain gives way to a steep hill. Perry South is thus a hilltop neighborhood that runs along Perrysville Avenue from the river plain to Riverview Park; the hill on which the neighborhood is built provides natural borders to the west, to the east, to the south. The neighborhood was developed as a streetcar suburb, so it consists exclusively of residential housing, with a small business district at the intersection of Perrysville Avenue and Charles Avenue, it experienced white flight after 1960: from 1960 to 1970, the neighborhood's total population declined from 16,000 people to 13,000, while its African-American population, located exclusively in the Charles Street valley, increased from 15% to 20%.
From 1970 to 2000, the total population decreased to just 5,200 people, of whom 65% were African-American. Current residents have formed the Perry South Citizens Council in an effort to prevent decay and to improve the neighborhood's business district; the southwestern corner of the neighborhood was once called Pleasant Valley, a small area, once considered to be a neighborhood in its own right. A 1977 report about Pleasant Valley states that "Pleasant Valley was known as Snyder's Hollow and its stream was a favorite ice skating spot; the neighborhood was settled by Germans, Irish and Poles. Josh Gibson, Hall of Fame catcher for the Homestead Grays, a Negro National League team of the 1920s, lived there." Pleasant Valley consists of rowhouses which were built by the owners of the Pleasant Valley Street Railway - which operated the streetcars that first allowed Perry South to be developed. A series of these rowhouses, on Brightridge Street, have been listed with the National Register of Historic Places.
Perry South has seven borders with the Pittsburgh neighborhoods of Perry North to the north, Northview Heights to the northeast, Spring Hill-City View to the east, Fineview to the southeast, Central North Side to the south, California-Kirkbride to the southwest, Marshall-Shadeland from the west to the north-northwest. List of Pittsburgh neighborhoods Interactive Pittsburgh Neighborhoods Map
Chateau is a neighborhood in Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania's North Side area. It has a zip code of 15233, has representation on Pittsburgh City Council by the council member for District 6, it is on the banks of the Ohio River and is separated from the neighborhood of Manchester by PA Route 65. As of the 2000 U. S. Census, Chateau has a population of 39. A 2006 investigation by the Pittsburgh Post-Gazette found the neighborhood uninhabited; this may be because the neighborhood consists of warehouses and places of business along the Ohio River. In August 2009, the Rivers Casino opened along the Ohio River in the Chateau neighborhood; the Carnegie Science Center and the Manchester Craftsmen's Guild are located in Chateau. Chateau has four land borders with the Pittsburgh neighborhoods of Manchester to the north and north-northeast, Allegheny West to the northeast, North Shore to the east, Marshall-Shadeland to the northwest. Across the Ohio River, Chateau runs adjacent with the Pittsburgh neighborhoods of Esplen, West End Valley and the South Shore List of Pittsburgh neighborhoods Interactive Pittsburgh Neighborhoods Map
Carnegie Free Library of Allegheny
The Carnegie Free Library of Allegheny is situated in the Allegheny Center neighborhood of Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania. Donated to the public by entrepreneur Andrew Carnegie, it was built from 1886 to 1890 on a design by John L. Smithmeyer and Paul J. Pelz, it was commissioned in the first Carnegie library to be commissioned in the United States. Yet it did not open until 1890 thus making it the second library to open; the first one to open being the Carnegie Free Library of Braddock, built for steel-workers in Braddock, 9 miles up the Monongahela River from Pittsburgh. The building features the first Carnegie Music Hall in the United States; the Music Hall at the Braddock Library would not open until an 1893 expansion of that structure. The running costs were met from local taxes – unlike the Carnegie Library in Braddock, which received an endowment from Carnegie. After a mid-2000s lightning strike, the library was moved to a new building a few blocks north on Federal Street; the New Hazlett Theater is now the primary tenant.
In April 2019, the Children's Museum of Pittsburgh will open Musuem Lab, a makerspace for youth 10+. It was listed on the National Register of Historic Places in 1974
Snow cones are a variation of shaved ice or ground-up ice desserts served in paper cones or foam cups. Although if it is in a cup, it is referred to as a'snowball'; the dessert consists of ice shavings. Depending on the region of North America, the terms "snowball" and "snow cone" may refer to different things. Where the distinction is made, the former refers to a dessert made of finely shaved ice, while the latter contains ground-up ice, coarser and more granular. In the 1850s, the American Industrial Revolution made ice commercially available. Ice houses in New York would sell ice to places like Florida. To transport the ice to Florida, the ice houses would send a wagon with a huge block of ice south; the route to Florida would pass right through Baltimore where children would run up to the wagon and ask for a small scraping of ice. Before long, mothers started to make flavoring in anticipation of their children receiving some ice; the first flavor the women made is still a Baltimore favorite: egg custard.
Egg custard was an easy flavor to make as the only ingredients were eggs and sugar. By the 1870s, the snowball's popularity had risen to the degree that in the warm summer months, theaters would sell snowballs to keep their patrons cool; because of this association with the theater, snowballs were thought of as an upper-class commodity. Signs in theaters instructing patrons to finish their snowballs before coming in to the second act are the earliest tangible evidence of snowballs. In the theaters in Baltimore during the time hand shavers were used to shave the ice. Around the city, snowballs were served on newspaper, but in the classy theaters, butchers' boats were used. In the 1890s, many people started to invent easier ways to make snowballs. In that decade, patents for electric ice shavers were filed. During the Great Depression and World War II, snowballs became available outside of Baltimore; as snowballs were so cheap, they were one of the few treats. This inexpensiveness earned snowballs Penny Sunday.
People in need of a job could sell snowballs. The treat became more popular during World War II, when all available ice cream was sent to soldiers, creating a need for an icy treat; this newfound lack of competition helped. In Hawaii, "shave ice" is similar to snowballs, is sold in cone-shaped paper cups. "Rainbow," a popular flavor, consists of three colors of syrup chosen for their color rather than their taste compatibility. A scoop of vanilla ice cream or sweetened azuki beans is first added to the bottom of the cup and is capped with condensed milk. Vendors in Texas and northern Mexico serve finely shaved ice desserts. Called a raspa, they are sold from a roadside stand or trailer, they come in many flavors, including picosito. In central and southern Mexico it is called "raspado", most bought from street cart vendors, both sugar syrups or chili flavors are added. In Costa Rica, these are called "copos" and are sold in a similar fashion, though no spicy or chili options are available; the dessert ais kacang served in Malaysia and Singapore is another form of shaved ice.
Ais kacang was served with red beans but now includes various fruits and other sweet toppings. In Japan they are known as kakigōri, in India it is called a "gola" and served on popsicle sticks. In Britain the term snowball is sometimes used, however it refers to a different treat; however Slush are both similar and are common in the UK. They are served in the same places as ice creams. In Perú this dessert is called Raspadilla, served in cups along with a spoon and/or a straw, it consists in ground ice, thick and topped with juices of different flavors that can be combined the most common flavors are pineapple and strawberry juices but it can be served with berries juice, passion fruit juice, chicha morada, in some cases but uncommon it can be topped with condensed milk or yogurt. Its popular in the beaches during summertime, but it is consumed in the towns and the cities as well, it is sold in carts spread around some streets and avenues of the city, being prepared at the moment but all of them serve the portion of ice in the cup in front of the customer and ask which flavor of juice would be poured on top of the ice they put a spoon and the straw.
In France this dessert is called Granité hawaïen. In the United States Virgin Islands a similar desert is called "fraco" -- sometimes spelled "fraico". Kala Khatta is a syrup made from some other parts of South Asia, it is used as a flavoring for Indian ice lollipops or popsicles, sold as street food. Crushed ice is mounted on a stick to make the lollipop. Kala khatta syrup and seasonings such as salt and pepper are poured on the lollipop. Bingsu - shaved ice dessert Grattachecca - traditional Roman snow cone Halo-halo - a popular Filipino dessert Italian ice - water ice Granita - a similar Italian ice based sweet snack Granizado - a similar Spanish ice based sweet snack Piragua - the
Annexation is the administrative action and concept in international law relating to the forcible acquisition of one state's territory by another state. It is held to be an illegal act, it is distinct from conquest, which refers to the acquisition of control over a territory involving a change of sovereignty, differs from cession, in which territory is given or sold through treaty, since annexation is a unilateral act where territory is seized and held by one state. It follows military occupation of a territory. Annexation can be legitimized via general recognition by international bodies. International law regarding the use of force by states has evolved in the 20th century. Key agreements include the 1907 Porter Convention, the 1920 Covenant of the League of Nations and the 1928 Kellogg–Briand Pact, culminating in Article 2 of Chapter I of the United Nations Charter, in force today: "All Members shall refrain in their international relations from the threat or use of force against the territorial integrity or political independence of any state, or in any other manner inconsistent with the Purposes of the United Nations".
Since the use of force against territorial integrity or political independence is illegal, the question as to whether title or sovereignty can be transferred in such a situation has been the subject of legal debate. It is held that countries are under obligation to abide by the Stimson Doctrine that a state: "cannot admit the legality of any situation de facto nor... recognize any treaty or agreement entered into between those Governments... not... recognize any situation, treaty or agreement which may be brought about by means contrary to the covenants and obligations of the Pact of Paris of August 27, 1928". These principles were reconfirmed by the 1970 Friendly Relations Declaration. During World War II, the use of annexation deprived whole populations of the safeguards provided by international laws governing military occupations; the Fourth Geneva Convention of 1949 amplified the Hague Conventions of 1899 and 1907 with respect to the question of the protection of civilians. The authors of the Fourth Geneva Convention made a point of giving the rules regarding inviolability of rights "an absolute character", thus making it much more difficult for a state to bypass international law through the use of annexation.
GCIV Article 47, in the first paragraph in Section III: Occupied territories, restricted the effects of annexation on the rights of persons within those territories: Protected persons who are in occupied territory shall not be deprived, in any case or in any manner whatsoever, of the benefits of the present Convention by any change introduced, as the result of the occupation of a territory, into the institutions or government of the said territory, nor by any agreement concluded between the authorities of the occupied territories and the Occupying Power, nor by any annexation by the latter of the whole or part of the occupied territory. In 1954, the residents of Dadra and Nagar Haveli, a Portuguese enclave within India, ended Portuguese rule with the help of nationalist volunteers. From 1954 to 1961, the territory enjoyed de facto independence. In 1961, the territory was merged with India after its government signed an agreement with the Indian government. In 1961, India and Portugal engaged in a brief military conflict over Portuguese-controlled Goa and Daman and Diu.
India invaded and conquered the areas after 36 hours of fighting, ending 451 years of Portuguese colonial rule in India. The action was viewed in India as a liberation of Indian territory. A condemnation of the action by the United Nations Security Council was vetoed by the Soviet Union. Goa and Daman and Diu were incorporated into India. During the British colonial rule in India, Sikkim had an ambiguous status, as an Indian princely state or as an Indian protectorate. Prior to Indian independence, Jawaharlal Nehru, acting as the leader of Executive Council, agreed that Sikkim would not be treated as an Indian state. Between 1947 and 1950, Sikkim enjoyed de facto independence. However, the Indian independence spurred popular political movements in Sikkim and the ruler Chogyal came under pressure, he requested Indian help to quell the uprising, offered. Subsequently, in 1950, India signed a treaty with Sikkim bringing it under its suzerainty, controlling its external affairs, defence and communications.
A state council was established in 1955 to allow for constitutional government under the Sikkimese monarch. Meanwhile, trouble was brewing in the state after the Sikkim National Congress demanded fresh elections and greater representation for the Nepalese. In 1967 India and China went to war in Sikkim, Cho La incident where a Chinese occupation was attempted and repulsed. In 1973, riots in front of the palace led to a formal request for protection from India; the Chogyal was proving to be unpopular with the people. In 1975, the Kazi appealed to the Indian Parliament for a change in Sikkim's status so that it could become a state of India. In April, the Indian Army moved into Sikkim, seizing the city of Gangtok and disarming the Palace Guards. A referendum was held in. A few weeks on May 16, 1975, Sikkim became the 22nd state of the Indian Union and the monarchy was abolished. On 18 September 1955 at 10:16 am, in what would be the final territorial expansion of the British Empire, Rockall was declared annexed by the British Crown when Lieutenant-Commander