Point Barrow Refuge Station
The Point Barrow Refuge Station is a historic building in the Browerville section of Utqiagvik, Alaska. Built in 1889, it is the oldest wood-frame building in Utqiagvik, its main portion is a rectangular structure with a steeply-pitched gable roof, to which a number of additions have been made. One early addition was a shed-roof section, with the capacity to hold 20 tons of coal; the building is now finished in weatherboard, but was original sheathed in vertical planking. The building was erected to house a rescue and support station for whaling ships, but served in this role only until 1896, it was adapted for use as the Captain Smythe Whaling and Trading Company, a retail establishment, most housed Brower's Cafe. The building was listed on the National Register of Historic Places in 1980. National Register of Historic Places listings in North Slope Borough, Alaska
Cape Lisburne, Alaska
Cape Lisburne is a cape located at the northwest point of the Lisburne Peninsula on the Chukchi Sea coast in Alaska. It is 40 miles northeast of the village of Arctic Slope, it is a part of the Chukchi Sea unit of Alaska Maritime National Wildlife Refuge. The first European to sight this cape was James Cook, he named it on August 21, 1778 and wrote: "The southern extreme seemed to form a point, named Cape Lisburne." An early Inupiaq name for the cape was "Uivaq," spelled "Wevok" or "Wevuk". Cape Lisburne was referred to as "Uivaq Ungasiktoq" meaning "distant cape" as opposed to "Uivaq Qanitoq" meaning "near cape." The native Inupiaq who lived there were struck by an epidemic and many died along with a Methodist missionary and the missionary is buried in the middle of a feild and the native peoples bone lay in the same general area many still exposed. The survivors fled to Point Hope, they do not return to cape lisburne viewing it as cursed land, going so far as to disembark and planes that intended to stop at the airforce base at lisburne to refuel.
From 1951 to 1983, the United States Air Force maintained a long range radar and communication facility at Cape Lisburne Air Force Station, part of the DEW Line network of radar sites along the Alaska North Slope. The site was remediated in 2005. "Cape Lisburne". Geographic Names Information System. United States Geological Survey. Retrieved 2009-07-10
Alaska Native Claims Settlement Act
The Alaska Native Claims Settlement Act was signed into law by President Richard Nixon on December 18, 1971, constituting at the time the largest land claims settlement in United States history. ANCSA was intended to resolve long-standing issues surrounding aboriginal land claims in Alaska, as well as to stimulate economic development throughout Alaska; the settlement established Alaska Native claims to the land by transferring titles to twelve Alaska Native regional corporations and over 200 local village corporations. A thirteenth regional corporation was created for Alaska Natives who no longer resided in Alaska; the act is codified as 43 U. S. C. 1601 et seq. When Alaska became a state in 1959, section 4 of the Alaska Statehood Act provided that any existing Alaska Native land claims would be unaffected by statehood and held in status quo, yet while section 4 of the act preserved Native land claims until settlement, section 6 allowed for the state government to claim lands deemed vacant. Section 6 granted the state of Alaska the right to select lands in the hands of the federal government, with the exception of Native territory.
As a result, nearly 104.5 million acres from the public domain would be transferred to the state. The state government attempted to acquire lands under section 6 of the Statehood Act that were subject to Native claims under section 4, that were occupied and used by Alaska Natives; the federal Bureau of Land Management began to process the Alaska government's selections without taking into account the Native claims and without informing the affected Native groups. It was against this backdrop. A 9.2-magnitude earthquake struck the state in 1964. Recovery efforts drew the attention of the federal government, which found that Alaska Natives had the poorest living conditions in the country; the Federal Field Committee for Development Planning in Alaska decided that Natives should receive $100 million and 10% of revenue as a royalty. Nothing was done with this proposal, a freeze on land transfers remained in effect. In 1966, Emil Notti called for a statewide meeting inviting numerous leaders around Alaska to gather and create the first meeting of a committee.
The historic meeting was held October 18, 1966 - on the 99th anniversary of the transfer of Alaska from Russia. Notti presided over the three-day conference as it discussed matters of land recommendations, claims committee's, political challenges the act would have getting through congress. Many respected politicians and business men attended the meeting and delegates were astonished at the attention which they received from well-known political figures of the state; the growing presence and political importance of Natives was evidenced when association leaders were elected to the legislature. Members of the associated gathered and were able to gain seven of the sixty seats in the legislature; when the group met a second time early in 1967, it emerged with a new name, The Alaska Federation of Natives, a new full-time President, Emil Notti. AFN would change the human rights and economic stability of the Alaska Native population forever. In 1968, Governor Walter Hickel summoned a group of Native leaders to work out a settlement that would be satisfactory to Natives.
The group asked for $20 million in exchange for requested lands. They asked for 10% of federal mineral lease revenue. In 1969, President Nixon appointed Hickel as Secretary of the Interior; the Alaska Federation of Natives protested against Hickel's nomination, but he was confirmed. Hickel worked with the AFN, negotiating with Native leaders and state government over the disputed lands. Offers went forth, with each rejecting the other's proposals; the AFN wanted rights to land, while then-Governor Keith Miller believed Natives did not have legitimate claims to state land in light of the provisions of the Alaska Statehood Act. But a succeeding Alaska state administration under Governor William A. Egan would stake out positions upon which the AFN and other stakeholders could agree. Native leaders, in addition to Alaska's congressional delegation and the state's newly elected Governor William A. Egan reached the basis for presenting an agreement to Congress; the proposed settlement terms faced challenges in both houses but found a strong ally in Senator Henry M. Jackson from Washington state.
The most controversial issues that continued to hold up approval were methods for determining land selection by Alaska Natives and financial distribution. In 1968, the Atlantic-Richfield Company discovered oil at Prudhoe Bay on the Arctic coast, catapulting the issue of land ownership into headlines. In order to lessen the difficulty of drilling at such a remote location and transporting the oil to the lower 48 states, the oil companies proposed building a pipeline to carry the oil across Alaska to the port of Valdez At Valdez, the oil would be loaded onto tankers and shipped to the contiguous states; the plan had been approved, but a permit to construct the pipeline, which would cross lands involved in the land claims dispute, could not be granted until the Native claims were settled. With major petroleum dollars on the line, pressure mounted to achieve a definitive legislative resolution at the federal level. In 1971, the Alaska Native Claims Settlement Act was signed into law by President Nixon.
It abrogated Native claims to aboriginal lands except those. In return, Natives were paid $963 million; the land and money were to be divided among regional and village tribal corporations established under the law recognizing existing leadership. In
Arctic National Wildlife Refuge
The Arctic National Wildlife Refuge is a national wildlife refuge in northeastern Alaska, United States. It consists of 19,286,722 acres in the Alaska North Slope region, it is the largest national wildlife refuge in the country larger than the Yukon Delta National Wildlife Refuge. The refuge is administered from offices in Fairbanks; the Arctic National Wildlife Refuge is the biggest and the wildest land publicly owned by the United States. ANWR includes a large variety of species of plants and animals, such as polar bears, wolves and migratory birds, that rely on the refuge. Just across the border in Yukon, are two Canadian National Parks and Vuntut; the National Wildlife Refuge System was founded by President Theodore Roosevelt in 1903, to protect boundless areas of wildlife and wetlands in the United States. This refuge system created the Migratory Bird Treaty Act of 1918 which conserves the wildlife of Alaska. In 1929, a 28-year-old forester named Bob Marshall visited the upper Koyukuk River and the central Brooks Range on his summer vacation "in what seemed on the map to be the most unknown section of Alaska."In February 1930, Marshall published an essay, "The Problem of the Wilderness,", a spirited defense of wilderness preservation in The Scientific Monthly, arguing that wilderness was worth saving not only because of its unique aesthetic qualities, but because it could provide visitors with a chance for adventure.
Marshall stated: "There is just one hope of repulsing the tyrannical ambition of civilization to conquer every niche on the whole earth. That hope is the organization of spirited people who will fight for the freedom of the wilderness." The article became a much-quoted call to action and by the late 20th century was considered seminal by wilderness historians. According to environmental journalist Brooke Jarvis, "Marshall saw the enormous unsettled Arctic lands he had explored as a possible antidote to this—not another chance to keep chasing America's so-called Manifest Destiny but a chance to stop chasing it." For Americans who would never travel there, "he thought they would benefit knowing that it still existed in the condition it always had." "In Alaska alone," Marshall wrote, "can the emotional values of the frontier be preserved."In 1953, an article was published in the journal of the Sierra Club by National Park Service planner George Collins and biologist Lowell Sumner titled "Northeast Alaska: The Last Great Wilderness".
Collins and Sumner recruited Wilderness Society President Olaus Murie and his wife Margaret Murie with an effort to permanently protect the area. In 1954, the National Park Service recommended that the untouched areas in the Northeastern region of Alaska be preserved for research and protection of nature; the controversy over whether to drill for oil in the National Wildlife Arctic Refuge has been a political controversy since 1977. The debate concerns the "Section of 1002" in ANWR; the section of 1002 is located on the coastal plain where many of the Arctic's diverse wildlife species preside. The usage of section 1002 in ANWR depends on the amount of oil worldwide. There are the opposition of drilling. Most of the supporters for drilling are big oil companies and political campaigners who sought to go after the resources that could be found in the refuge; the oppositions of drilling include people who reside in Alaska and people who want to preserve the wildlife and land for future considerations.
In 1956, Olaus and Mardy Murie led an expedition to the Brooks Range in northeast Alaska, where they dedicated an entire summer to studying the land and wildlife ecosystems of the Upper Sheenjek Valley. The conclusion resulting from these studies was an ever-deeper sense of the importance of preserving the area intact, a determination that would play an instrumental part in the decision to designate the area as wilderness in 1960; as Olaus would say in a 1963 speech to a meeting of the Wildlife Management Association of New Mexico State University, "On our trips to the Arctic Wildlife Range we saw that it was not a place for mass recreation... It takes a lot of territory to keep this alive, a living wilderness, for scientific observation and for esthetic inspiration; the Far North is a fragile place." The region first became a federal protected area in 1960 by order of Fred Andrew Seaton, Secretary of the Interior under U. S. President Dwight D. Eisenhower. In 1980, Congress passed the Alaska National Interest Lands Conservation Act.
The bill was signed into law by President Jimmy Carter on December 2, 1980. Eight million acres of the refuge, the Mollie Beattie Wilderness, are designated as wilderness area; the expansion of the refuge in 1980 designated 1.5 million acres of the coastal plain as the 1002 area and mandated studies of the natural resources of this area petroleum. Congressional authorization is required; the remaining 10.1 million acres of the refuge are designated as "minimal management," a category intended to maintain existing natural conditions and resource values. These areas are suitable for wilderness designation, although there are presently no proposals to designate them as wilderness. There are no roads within or leading into the refuge, but there are a few Native settlements scattered within. On the northern edge of the refuge is the Inupiat village of Kaktovik and on the southern boundary the Gwich'in settlement of Arctic Village. A popular wilderness route and historic passage exists between the two villages, traversing the refuge and all its ecosystems from boreal, interior forest to Arctic
Time in the United States
Time in the United States, by law, is divided into nine standard time zones covering the states and its possessions, with most of the United States observing daylight saving time for the spring and fall months. The time zone boundaries and DST observance are regulated by the Department of Transportation. Official and precise timekeeping services are provided by two federal agencies: the National Institute of Standards and Technology; the clocks run by these services are kept synchronized with each other as well as with those of other international timekeeping organizations. It is the combination of the time zone and daylight saving rules, along with the timekeeping services, which determines the legal civil time for any U. S. location at any moment. Before the adoption of four standard time zones for the continental United States, many towns and cities set their clocks to noon when the sun passed their local meridian, pre-corrected for the equation of time on the date of observation, to form local mean solar time.
Noon occurred at different times but time differences between distant locations were noticeable prior to the 19th century because of long travel times and the lack of long-distance instant communications prior to the development of the telegraph. The use of local solar time became awkward as railways and telecommunications improved. American railroads maintained many different time zones during the late 1800s; each train station set its own clock making it difficult to coordinate train schedules and confusing passengers. Time calculation became a serious problem for people traveling by train, according to the Library of Congress; every city in the United States used a different time standard so there were more than 300 local sun times to choose from. Time zones were therefore a compromise, relaxing the complex geographic dependence while still allowing local time to be approximate with mean solar time. Railroad managers tried to address the problem by establishing 100 railroad time zones, but this was only a partial solution to the problem.
Weather service chief Cleveland Abbe had needed to introduce four standard time zones for his weather stations, an idea which he offered to the railroads. Operators of the new railroad lines needed a new time plan that would offer a uniform train schedule for departures and arrivals. Four standard time zones for the continental United States were introduced at noon on November 18, 1883, when the telegraph lines transmitted time signals to all major cities. In October 1884, the International Meridian Conference at Washington DC adopted a proposal which stated that the prime meridian for longitude and timekeeping should be one that passes through the centre of the transit instrument at the Greenwich Observatory in the United Kingdom; the conference therefore established the Greenwich Meridian as the prime meridian and Greenwich Mean Time as the world's time standard. The US time-zone system grew from this, in which all zones referred back to GMT on the prime meridian. In 1960, the International Radio Consultative Committee formalized the concept of Coordinated Universal Time, which became the new international civil time standard.
UTC is, within about 1 second, mean solar time at 0°. UTC does not observe daylight saving time. For most purposes, UTC is considered interchangeable with GMT, but GMT is no longer defined by the scientific community. UTC is one of several related successors to GMT. Standard time zones in the United States are defined at the federal level by law 15 USC §260; the federal law establishes the transition dates and times at which daylight saving time occurs, if observed. It is the authority of the Secretary of Transportation, in coordination with the states, to determine which regions will observe which of the standard time zones and if they will observe daylight saving time; as of August 9, 2007, the standard time zones are defined in terms of hourly offsets from UTC. Prior to this they were based upon the mean solar time at several meridians 15° apart west of Greenwich. Only the full-time zone names listed below are official. View the standard time zone boundaries here; the United States uses nine standard time zones.
As defined by US law they are: From east to west, the four time zones of the contiguous United States are: Eastern Time Zone, which comprises the states on the Atlantic coast and the eastern two thirds of the Ohio Valley. Central Time Zone, which comprises the Gulf Coast, Mississippi Valley, most of the Great Plains. Mountain Time Zone, which comprises the states and portions of states that include the Rocky Mountains and the western quarter of the Great Plains. Pacific Time Zone, which comprises the states on the Pacific coast, plus Nevada and the Idaho panhandle. Alaska Time Zone, which comprises most of the state of Alaska. Hawaii-Aleutian Time Zone, which includes Hawaii and most of the length of the Aleutian Islands chain. Samoa Time Zone, which comprises American Samoa. Chamorro Time Zone, which comprises Guam and the Northern Mariana Islands. Atlantic Time Zone, which comprises Puerto Rico and the US Virgin Islands; some United States Minor Outlying Islands are outside the time zones defined by 15 U.
S. C. § exist in waters defined by Nautical time. In practice, military crews may
A census is the procedure of systematically acquiring and recording information about the members of a given population. The term is used in connection with national population and housing censuses; the United Nations defines the essential features of population and housing censuses as "individual enumeration, universality within a defined territory and defined periodicity", recommends that population censuses be taken at least every 10 years. United Nations recommendations cover census topics to be collected, official definitions and other useful information to co-ordinate international practice; the word is of Latin origin: during the Roman Republic, the census was a list that kept track of all adult males fit for military service. The modern census is essential to international comparisons of any kind of statistics, censuses collect data on many attributes of a population, not just how many people there are. Censuses began as the only method of collecting national demographic data, are now part of a larger system of different surveys.
Although population estimates remain an important function of a census, including the geographic distribution of the population, statistics can be produced about combinations of attributes e.g. education by age and sex in different regions. Current administrative data systems allow for other approaches to enumeration with the same level of detail but raise concerns about privacy and the possibility of biasing estimates. A census can be contrasted with sampling in which information is obtained only from a subset of a population. Modern census data are used for research, business marketing, planning, as a baseline for designing sample surveys by providing a sampling frame such as an address register. Census counts are necessary to adjust samples to be representative of a population by weighting them as is common in opinion polling. Stratification requires knowledge of the relative sizes of different population strata which can be derived from census enumerations. In some countries, the census provides the official counts used to apportion the number of elected representatives to regions.
In many cases, a chosen random sample can provide more accurate information than attempts to get a population census. A census is construed as the opposite of a sample as its intent is to count everyone in a population rather than a fraction. However, population censuses rely on a sampling frame to count the population; this is the only way to be sure that everyone has been included as otherwise those not responding would not be followed up on and individuals could be missed. The fundamental premise of a census is that the population is not known and a new estimate is to be made by the analysis of primary data; the use of a sampling frame is counterintuitive as it suggests that the population size is known. However, a census is used to collect attribute data on the individuals in the nation; this process of sampling marks the difference between historical census, a house to house process or the product of an imperial decree, the modern statistical project. The sampling frame used by census is always an address register.
Thus it is not known how many people there are in each household. Depending on the mode of enumeration, a form is sent to the householder, an enumerator calls, or administrative records for the dwelling are accessed; as a preliminary to the dispatch of forms, census workers will check any address problems on the ground. While it may seem straightforward to use the postal service file for this purpose, this can be out of date and some dwellings may contain a number of independent households. A particular problem is what are termed'communal establishments' which category includes student residences, religious orders, homes for the elderly, people in prisons etc; as these are not enumerated by a single householder, they are treated differently and visited by special teams of census workers to ensure they are classified appropriately. Individuals are counted within households and information is collected about the household structure and the housing. For this reason international documents refer to censuses of housing.
The census response is made by a household, indicating details of individuals resident there. An important aspect of census enumerations is determining which individuals can be counted from which cannot be counted. Broadly, three definitions can be used: de facto residence; this is important to consider individuals who have temporary addresses. Every person should be identified uniquely as resident in one place but where they happen to be on Census Day, their de facto residence, may not be the best place to count them. Where an individual uses services may be more useful and this is at their usual, or de jure, residence. An individual may be represented at a permanent address a family home for students or long term migrants, it is necessary to have a precise definition of residence to decide whether visitors to a country should be included in the population count. This is becoming more important as students travel abroad for education for a period of several years. Other groups causing problems of enumeration are new born babies, people away on holiday, people moving home around census day, people without a fixed address.
People having second homes because of working in another part of the country or retaining a holiday cottage are dif
Noatak National Preserve
Noatak National Preserve is a United States National Preserve in northwestern Alaska, established to protect the Noatak River Basin. The Noatak River system, located just north of the Arctic Circle, is thought to be the last remaining complete river system in the United States that has not been altered by human activities; the roadless basin was proclaimed a United States National Monument in 1978 and a National Preserve in 1980 through the passage of the Alaska National Interest Lands Conservation Act. Noatak National Preserve borders Kobuk Valley National Park on the south and borders Gates of the Arctic National Park on the east. Unlike the national parks that it borders, sport hunting is allowed in Noatak National Preserve; the preserve includes the transition zone from boreal forest to tundra near the southern edge of the preserve. The Noatak Basin is a transition zone for plants and animals between Arctic and subarctic environments; the lower portion of the Noatak valley has areas of boreal forest, but most vegetation is low-growing tundra species.
Alpine tundra occurs at high elevation, moist tundra, the most common condition, supports cottongrass, Labrador tea, mountain alder, dwarf birch and other tundra species at lower elevations. Boggy areas support bog rosemary and salmonberry. Wildlife of the Noatak tundra includes Alaskan moose, grizzly bears, black bears, wolf packs, Arctic foxes, Dall's sheep, vast herds of caribou numbering more than 230,000 individuals, a variety of birds. Larger birds include Canada geese, tundra swans, white-fronted geese and common, yellow-billed and Pacific loons. Predatory birds include rough-legged hawks and golden eagles; the central feature of the preserve is the Noatak River, is a breeding ground for a variety of commercially important fish. The most widespread salmon species is chum, pink and sockeye salmon are found as well. Several kinds of trout are found in deep lakes, with Arctic char and Arctic grayling the most common salmonids in the preserve. Burbot are found, as are nelma or sheefish, an important species for subsistence fisheries.
The Brooks Range has existed since Cretaceous time, is composed of shales and chert, with intrusions of igneous rocks from more recent volcanism. The valleys are composed of limestone and siltstone, with deposits of sand, gravel and clay. During the Wisconsonian glaciation the area as incompletely covered by ice, with higher regions glaciated. Permafrost exists in higher regions. Since Noatak is a national preserve, both subsistence hunting by local residents and sport hunting by outsiders are permitted in the preserve. If Noatak was a national park, only subsistence hunting would be allowed. Float trips on the Noatak River are a popular way to see the preserve. However, most trips on the Noatak River take place high on the river in Gates of the Arctic National Park from Twelve Mile Creek to Lake Matcherak. Longer trips can continue through the preserve, although the lower river's braided stream presents difficulties beyond Noatak village. There are a few rapids on the river of Class II+, although most of the river is Class I or Class II.
Float trip season runs from July, when the river thaws, to September. Biting insects are most prevalent in July; the 6,569,904-acre preserve extends westward from Gates of the Arctic National Park along the Brooks Range to the north and the Baird Mountains to the south, enclosing the valley of the Noatak River. It is bordered to the north by the National Petroleum Reserve–Alaska; the lower valley of the Noatak is not part of the preserve, separating the preserve from Cape Krusenstern National Monument on the coast. The southeast corner of the preserve runs to the coastline at Hotham Inlet; the distance from the headwaters in Gates of the Arctic National Park to Noatak, Alaska is about 3,540 miles. Land ownership within the preserve is federal, with 289,973 acres owned by native corporations or under easements; the entire preserve is above the Arctic Circle. Summer weather can have high temperatures of 70 to 80 °F; the climate is more maritime and temperate on the western side of the park, with harsher, more extreme conditions in the east.
Archaeological investigations of the Noatak Valley have found artifacts at sites outside of the preserve. Little has been found within the preserve boundaries. A site just outside the preserve has been dated to 11,700 years before present. Discoveries at Bering Land Bridge National Preserve imply human occupation as far back as 13,000 years ago. Similar extrapolation from sites at Cape Krusenstern and at Onion Portage in the Kobuk Valley imply occupation in times. In historical times the Naupaktomiut portion of the Inupiat people lived in the lower Noatak valley and the Noatagmuit occupied the middle and upper valley. Hunters from the area of Kotzebue and the Kobuk valley visited the Noatak valley as well. Archaeological remains indicate the presence of villages at lake shores in the preserve during the 1600s, which are believed to have been disrupted by disease-induced population decline brought about by contact with Europeans; the lower Noatak was first explored in 1850 by men from the British survey ship HMS Plover.
More surveys took place in 1885. Prospectors arrived in 1898 as a consequence of the Klondike gold rush. In the early 1900s nearly all of the remaining people in the valley concentrated at Noatak. Noatak National Monument was proclaimed on December 1, 1978 by President Jimmy Carter using his authority under the Antiquities Act. Carter took the action after the Alaska National Interest Lands Conservation Ac