The Darling River is the third longest river in Australia, measuring 1,472 kilometres from its source in northern New South Wales to its confluence with the Murray River at Wentworth, New South Wales. Including its longest contiguous tributaries it is 2,844 km long, making it the longest river system in Australia; the Darling River is the outback's most famous waterway. The Darling has been in poor health, suffering from overuse of its waters, pollution from pesticide runoff and prolonged drought. In some years it has flowed at all; the river has declining water quality. Increased rainfall in its catchment in 2010 has improved flow, but the health of the river will depend on long-term management; the Division of Darling, Division of Riverina-Darling, Electoral district of Darling and Electoral district of Lachlan and Lower Darling were named after the river. The Queensland headwaters of the Darling were colonized from 1815 onward. In 1828 the explorers Charles Sturt and Hamilton Hume were sent by the Governor of New South Wales, Sir Ralph Darling, to investigate the course of the Macquarie River.
He discovered the Bogan River and early in 1829, the upper Darling, which he named after the Governor. In 1835, Major Thomas Mitchell travelled a 483-kilometre portion of the Darling River. Although his party never reached the junction with the Murray River he assumed the rivers joined. In 1856, the Blandowski Expedition set off for the junction of the Darling and Murray Rivers to discover and collect fish species for the National Museum; the expedition was a success with 17,400 specimens arriving in Adelaide the next year. Although its flow is extraordinarily irregular, in the 19th century the Darling became a major transportation route, the pastoralists of western New South Wales using it to send their wool by shallow-draft paddle steamer from busy river ports such as Bourke and Wilcannia to the South Australian railheads at Morgan and Murray Bridge, but over the past century the river's importance as a transportation route has declined. In 1992, the Darling River suffered from severe cyanobacterial bloom that stretched the length of the river.
The presence of phosphorus was essential for the toxic algae to flourish. Flow rates, turbulence and temperature were other contributing factors. In 2008, the Federal government purchased Toorale Station in northern New South Wales for A$23 million; the purchase allowed the government to return eleven gigalitres of environmental flows back into the Darling. In 2019 a crisis on the Lower Darling saw up to 1 million fish die. A report by the Australia Institute said this was due to the decisions by the Murray-Darling Basin Authority on instructions from the New South Wales government, it said the reasons for those decisions appeared to be about building the case for the new Broken Hill pipeline and the Menindee Lakes project. Maryanne Slattery, senior water researcher with the Australia Institute; the whole Murray–Darling river system, one of the largest in the world, drains all of New South Wales west of the Great Dividing Range, much of northern Victoria and southern Queensland and parts of South Australia.
Its meandering course is three times longer than the direct distance. Much of the land that the Darling flows through are plains and is therefore flat, having an average gradient of just 16 mm per kilometre; the Darling begins between Brewarrina and Bourke at the confluence of the Culgoa and Barwon rivers. These tributaries include its tributaries. Other rivers join the Darling near Bourke or below - the Bogan River, the Warrego River and Paroo River. South east of Broken Hill, the Menindee Lakes are a series of lakes that were once connected to the Darling River by short creeks; the Menindee Lake Scheme has reduced the frequency of flooding in the Menindee Lakes. As a result, about 13,800 hectares of lignum and 8,700 hectares of Black box have been destroyed. Weirs and constant low flows have fragmented blocked fish passage; the Darling River runs south-south-west, leaving the Far West region of New South Wales, to join the Murray River on the New South Wales - Victoria border at Wentworth, New South Wales.
The Barrier Highway at Wilcannia, the Silver City Highway at Wentworth and the Broken Hill railway line at Menindee, all cross the Darling River. Part of the river north of Menindee marks the border of Kinchega National Park. In response to the 1956 Murray River flood, a weir was constructed at Menindee to mitigate flows from the Darling River; the north of the Darling River is in the Southeast Australia temperate savanna ecoregion and the southwest of the Darling is part of the Murray Darling Depression ecoregion. Major settlements along the river include Brewarrina, Louth, Wilcannia, Menindee and Wentworth. Wentworth was Australia's busiest inland port in the late 1880s. Navigation by steamboat to Brewarrina was first achieved in 1859. Brewarrina was the location of intertribal meetings for Indigenous Australians who speak Da
Newcastle, New South Wales
The Newcastle metropolitan area is the second most populated area in the Australian state of New South Wales and the Newcastle and Lake Macquarie local government areas. It is the hub of the Greater Newcastle area which includes most parts of the local government areas of City of Newcastle, City of Lake Macquarie, City of Cessnock, City of Maitland and Port Stephens Council. Located at the mouth of the Hunter River, it is the predominant city within the Hunter Region. Famous for its coal, Newcastle is the largest coal exporting harbour in the world, exporting 159.9 million tonnes of coal in 2017. Beyond the city, the Hunter Region possesses large coal deposits. Geologically, the area is located in the central-eastern part of the Sydney basin. Newcastle and the lower Hunter Region were traditionally occupied by the Awabakal and Worimi Aboriginal People, who called the area Malubimba. Based on Aboriginal language references documented in maps and geological descriptions, eight landmarks have been dual-named by the NSW Geographic Names Board with their traditional Aboriginal names.
They include Nobbys Head known as Whibayganba. In September 1797 Lieutenant John Shortland became the first European settler to explore the area, his discovery of the area was accidental. While returning, Lt. Shortland entered what he described as "a fine river", which he named after New South Wales' Governor John Hunter, he returned with the area's abundant coal. Over the next two years, coal mined from the area was the New South Wales colony's first export. Newcastle gained a reputation as a "hellhole" as it was a place where the most dangerous convicts were sent to dig in the coal mines as harsh punishment for their crimes. By the start of the 19th century the mouth of the Hunter River was being visited by diverse groups of men, including coal diggers, timber-cutters, more escaped convicts. Philip Gidley King, the Governor of New South Wales from 1800, decided on a more positive approach to exploit the now obvious natural resources of the Hunter Valley. In 1801, a convict camp called King's Town was established to mine cut timber.
In the same year, the first shipment of coal was dispatched to Sydney. This settlement closed less than a year later. A settlement was again attempted as a place of secondary punishment for unruly convicts; the settlement was named Coal River Kingstown and renamed Newcastle, after England's famous coal port. The name first appeared by the commission issued by Governor King on 15 March 1804 to Lieutenant Charles Menzies of the marine detachment on HMS Calcutta at Port Jackson, appointing him superintendent of the new settlement; the new settlement, comprising convicts and a military guard, arrived at the Hunter River on 27 March 1804 in three ships: HMS Lady Nelson, the Resource and the James. The convicts were rebels from the 1804 Castle Hill convict rebellion; the link with Newcastle upon Tyne and whence many of the 19th century coal miners came, is still obvious in some of the place-names – such as Jesmond, Wickham and Gateshead. Morpeth, New South Wales is a similar distance north of Newcastle as Morpeth, Northumberland is north of Newcastle upon Tyne.
Under Captain James Wallis, commandant from 1815 to 1818, the convicts' conditions improved, a building boom began. Captain Wallis laid out the streets of the town, built the first church of the site of the present Christ Church Anglican Cathedral, erected the old gaol on the seashore, began work on the breakwater which now joins Nobbys Head to the mainland; the quality of these first buildings was poor, only breakwater survives. During this period, in 1816, the oldest public school in Australia was built in East Newcastle. Newcastle remained a penal settlement until 1822; as a penal colony, the military rule was harsh at Limeburners' Bay, on the inner side of Stockton peninsula. There, convicts were sent to burn oyster shells for making lime. Military rule in Newcastle ended in 1823. Prisoner numbers were reduced to 100, the remaining 900 were sent to Port Macquarie. After removal of the last convicts in 1823, the town was freed from the infamous influence of the penal law, it began to acquire the aspect of a typical Australian pioneer settlement, a steady flow of free settlers poured into the hinterland.
The formation during the nineteenth century of the Newcastle and Hunter River Steamship Company saw the establishment of regular steamship services from Morpeth and Newcastle with Sydney. The company had a fleet of freighters as well as several fast passenger vessels, including the PS Newcastle and the PS Namoi; the Namoi had first-class cabins with the latest facilities. Because of the coal supply, small ships plied between Newcastle and Sydney, Brisbane and Adelaide, carrying coal to gas works and bunkers for shipping, railways; these were known as "sixty-milers", referring to the nautical journey between Newcastle and Sydney. These ships continued in service until recent times. During World War II, Newcastle was an important industrial centre for the Australian war effort. In the early hours of 8 June 1942, the Japanese
Tamworth Regional Council
Tamworth Regional Council is a local government area in the New England region of New South Wales, Australia. The area under administration is located adjacent to the New England Highway and the Main North railway line, it was established in March 2004 through the amalgamation of the former City of Tamworth with surrounding shires of Barraba, Manilla and Parry. The Mayor of Tamworth Regional Council is Cr. Col Murray, an independent politician; the area includes the city of Tamworth and the towns and villages of Attunga, Bendemeer, Duri, Limbri, Moonbi, Nundle, Upper Manilla and the suburbs of Calala, Daruka Estate, East Tamworth, Forest Hills, Kingswood, North Tamworth, Oxley Vale, South Tamworth, Tamworth Central Business District, West Tamworth. Tamworth Region has a number of heritage-listed sites, including: Kootingal, New England Highway: Moonby House Manilla, Tamworth-Barraba railway: Manilla railway underbridges Tamworth, Fitzroy Street: Tamworth Post Office Tamworth, King George V Memorial Avenue: King George V Avenue of Memorial English Oaks Tamworth, Main Northern railway: Tamworth railway station Tamworth, Main Northern railway: Peel River railway bridge Tamworth, Marius Street: Dominican Roman Catholic Convent Tamworth, Peel Street: Tamworth Peel Barracks At the 2016 census, there were 59,663 people in the Tamworth Regional local government area, of these 48.7 per cent were male and 51.3 per cent were female.
Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander people made up 10.1 per cent of the population, greater than three times higher than the national and average of 2.9 per cent. The median age of people in the Tamworth Regional Council was 40 years, marginally higher than the national median of 38 years. Children aged 0 – 14 years made up 20.2 per cent of the population and people aged 65 years and over made up 18.8 per cent of the population. Of people in the area aged 15 years and over, 47.6 per cent were married and 13.2 per cent were either divorced or separated. Population growth in the Tamworth Regional Council between the 2011 census and the 2016 census was 6.0 per cent. When compared with total population growth of Australia for the same period, being 8.8 per cent, population growth in the Tamworth Regional local government area was lower than the national average. The median weekly income for residents within the Tamworth Regional Council was lower than the national average. At the 2016 census, the proportion of residents in the Tamworth Regional local government area who stated their ancestry as Australian or Anglo-Saxon exceeded 85 per cent of all residents.
In excess of 70% of all residents in the Tamworth Regional Council nominated a religious affiliation with Christianity at the 2016 census, higher than the national average of 60 per cent. Meanwhile, as at the census date, compared to the national average, households in the Tamworth Regional local government area had a lower than average proportion where two or more languages are spoken. Tamworth Regional Council is composed of nine Councillors elected proportionally as a single ward. All Councillors are elected for a fixed four-year term of office; the Mayor is elected by the Councillors at the first meeting of the Council. The most recent election was held on 10 September 2016, the makeup of the Council is as follows: The current Council, elected in 2016, in order of election, is
Mount Kaputar National Park
The Mount Kaputar National Park is a national park located in New South Wales, surrounding the proximities of Mount Kaputar, a volcano active between 17 and 21 million years ago. It is located 50 km east of 570 km northwest of Sydney. Millions of years of erosion have since carved the volcanic region into the lava terraces, volcanic plugs, dykes of Nandewar Range; the central feature of the region is Mount Kaputar, the park's namesake, which rises to an altitude of 1,510 m. The 360 degree view from the summit of the mountain encompasses one-tenth of New South Wales' area or 80,000 square kilometres; the park protects a wide range of biomes, including semi-arid woodland, subalpine heath, eucalypt forests, provides a habitat for a range of animals, including bats, wallabies and the unique red triangle slug, known to appear after rainfall. Before it was a national park, the area was used as grazing land for domestic animals; the conditions in the park are harsh, but several pioneering families lived there, remnants of their occupation remain.
Sheep and cattle continued to graze on the plateau until around the 1950s. It was an isolated place, the stockmen in charge of the cattle would not see another human for months at a time. In 1925 some 775 ha of land around Mount Kaputar were declared a "Reserve for Public Recreation". Two years a trust, known as the Mount Kaputar Trust, was formed to give guidance on managing the park; the area was expanded to 14,244 ha and proclaimed a full national park in 1959. Eight years in 1967, the Fund relinquished the duties of controlling the park to the newly established National Parks and Wildlife Service, the park is still administered by a regional advisory board. In 1965, two cabins were constructed at Dawsons Spring, providing accommodations including a permanent water supply for showers and toilets, a picnic facility. Today there are 3 cabins, including the one facilitated from Bark Hut; the park is popular with rockclimbers, there are 11 walks in the park, as well as a camping ground. However, the most popular site in the park is Scutts Hut, located upward of Kurrawonga Falls.
The hut is the former home of a pioneer family living in the vicinity of the park. It is accessible via a fire trail from the Bark Hut camping grounds; the hut has been restored with an earthen floor and an open fireplace. The hut is built on the banks of Horsearm Creek. Protected areas of New South Wales
Australia the Commonwealth of Australia, is a sovereign country comprising the mainland of the Australian continent, the island of Tasmania and numerous smaller islands. It is the world's sixth-largest country by total area; the neighbouring countries are Papua New Guinea and East Timor to the north. The population of 25 million is urbanised and concentrated on the eastern seaboard. Australia's capital is Canberra, its largest city is Sydney; the country's other major metropolitan areas are Melbourne, Brisbane and Adelaide. Australia was inhabited by indigenous Australians for about 60,000 years before the first British settlement in the late 18th century, it is documented. After the European exploration of the continent by Dutch explorers in 1606, who named it New Holland, Australia's eastern half was claimed by Great Britain in 1770 and settled through penal transportation to the colony of New South Wales from 26 January 1788, a date which became Australia's national day; the population grew in subsequent decades, by the 1850s most of the continent had been explored and an additional five self-governing crown colonies established.
On 1 January 1901, the six colonies federated. Australia has since maintained a stable liberal democratic political system that functions as a federal parliamentary constitutional monarchy, comprising six states and ten territories. Being the oldest and driest inhabited continent, with the least fertile soils, Australia has a landmass of 7,617,930 square kilometres. A megadiverse country, its size gives it a wide variety of landscapes, with deserts in the centre, tropical rainforests in the north-east and mountain ranges in the south-east. A gold rush began in Australia in the early 1850s, its population density, 2.8 inhabitants per square kilometre, remains among the lowest in the world. Australia generates its income from various sources including mining-related exports, telecommunications and manufacturing. Indigenous Australian rock art is the oldest and richest in the world, dating as far back as 60,000 years and spread across hundreds of thousands of sites. Australia is a developed country, with the world's 14th-largest economy.
It has a high-income economy, with the world's tenth-highest per capita income. It is a regional power, has the world's 13th-highest military expenditure. Australia has the world's ninth-largest immigrant population, with immigrants accounting for 26% of the population. Having the third-highest human development index and the eighth-highest ranked democracy globally, the country ranks in quality of life, education, economic freedom, civil liberties and political rights, with all its major cities faring well in global comparative livability surveys. Australia is a member of the United Nations, G20, Commonwealth of Nations, ANZUS, Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development, World Trade Organization, Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation, Pacific Islands Forum and the ASEAN Plus Six mechanism; the name Australia is derived from the Latin Terra Australis, a name used for a hypothetical continent in the Southern Hemisphere since ancient times. When Europeans first began visiting and mapping Australia in the 17th century, the name Terra Australis was applied to the new territories.
Until the early 19th century, Australia was best known as "New Holland", a name first applied by the Dutch explorer Abel Tasman in 1644 and subsequently anglicised. Terra Australis still saw occasional usage, such as in scientific texts; the name Australia was popularised by the explorer Matthew Flinders, who said it was "more agreeable to the ear, an assimilation to the names of the other great portions of the earth". The first time that Australia appears to have been used was in April 1817, when Governor Lachlan Macquarie acknowledged the receipt of Flinders' charts of Australia from Lord Bathurst. In December 1817, Macquarie recommended to the Colonial Office. In 1824, the Admiralty agreed that the continent should be known by that name; the first official published use of the new name came with the publication in 1830 of The Australia Directory by the Hydrographic Office. Colloquial names for Australia include "Oz" and "the Land Down Under". Other epithets include "the Great Southern Land", "the Lucky Country", "the Sunburnt Country", "the Wide Brown Land".
The latter two both derive from Dorothea Mackellar's 1908 poem "My Country". Human habitation of the Australian continent is estimated to have begun around 65,000 to 70,000 years ago, with the migration of people by land bridges and short sea-crossings from what is now Southeast Asia; these first inhabitants were the ancestors of modern Indigenous Australians. Aboriginal Australian culture is one of the oldest continual civilisations on earth. At the time of first European contact, most Indigenous Australians were hunter-gatherers with complex economies and societies. Recent archaeological finds suggest. Indigenous Australians have an oral culture with spiritual values based on reverence for the land and a belief in the Dreamtime; the Torres Strait Islanders, ethnically Melanesian, obtained their livelihood from seasonal horticulture and the resources of their reefs and seas. The northern coasts and waters of Australia were visited s
Gunnedah Shire is a local government area in the North West Slopes region of New South Wales, Australia. The Shire is located adjacent to the Liverpool Plains in the Namoi River valley and is traversed by the Oxley Highway and the Kamilaroi Highway; the Shire was established in 1980 from the amalgamation of the Municipality of Gunnedah and Liverpool Plains Shire. It includes the town of Gunnedah and surrounding villages of Curlewis, Carroll, Emerald Hill, Tambar Springs and Kelvin; the Mayor of Gunnedah Shire Council is Cr. Jamie Chaffey, unaligned with any political party; the Gunnedah Shire is situated on the LIverpool Plains between the Nandewar and Great Dividing Ranges, with the tallest hills being 400 to 500 metres above sea level. The climate is hot in summer, mild in winter and dry, although heavy rain in catchment areas cause flooding of the Namoi River. Major floods cut transport links to Gunnedah isolating it from the outside world; the Gunnedah area is noted for its abundance of native wildlife, including kangaroos and koalas.
Koalas can be found in trees within the town, as well as in the surrounding countryside with the help of signs placed by the local tourist centre. At the 2011 census, there were 12,066 people in the Gunnedah local government area, of which there was an equal number of males and females. Gamilaroi Nation of Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander people made up 11.3% of the population, four-and-a-half times higher than both the national and state averages. The median age of people in the Gunnedah Shire was 40 years. Children aged 0 – 14 years made up 21.1% of the population and people aged 65 years and over made up 18.4% of the population. Of people in the area aged 15 years and over, half were married and 9.9% were either divorced or separated. Population growth in the Gunnedah Shire between the 2001 census and the 2011 census was nominal; when compared with total population growth of Australia for the same periods, being 5.78% and 8.32% population growth in the Gunnedah local government area was lower than the national average.
The median weekly income for residents within the Gunnedah Shire was below the national average. At the 2011 census, the proportion of residents in the Gunnedah local government area who stated their ancestry as Australian or Anglo-Saxon exceeded 87% of all residents. In excess of 72% of all residents in the Gunnedah Shire nominated a religious affiliation with Christianity at the 2011 census, higher than the national average of 50.2%. Meanwhile, as at the census date, compared to the national average, households in the Gunnedah local government area had a lower than average proportion where two or more languages are spoken. Gunnedah Shire Council is composed of nine Councillors elected proportionally as a single ward. All Councillors are elected for a fixed four-year term of office; the Mayor is elected by the Councillors at the first meeting of the Council. The most recent election was held on 10 September 2016, the makeup of the Council is as follows: The current Council, elected in 2016, in order of election, is
Manilla, New South Wales
Manilla is a small town in New South Wales, located on Fossickers Way 45 kilometres northwest of the regional city of Tamworth and 27 kilometres northeast of the historic village Somerton. At the 2006 census, Manilla had a population of 2,550 people. Manilla is famous for its setting as a fishing and paragliding area and soon to be the destination for ABCs Triple J "one night stand" music festival; the name Manilla comes from the Gamilaraay language, is said to mean'winding river'. Manilla was established in the 1850s at the junction of the Manilla River, it was the centre of Manilla Shire local government area, but this was amalgamated with Tamworth City Council and portions of Parry and Nundle Shire Councils to form Tamworth Regional Council in 2004. It lies next to the Bundarra-Barraba Important Bird Area, important for the conservation of the critically endangered regent honeyeater. Manilla is well known for Split Rock Dam on the Manilla River and Lake Keepit on the Namoi River. Bowling Club Caravan Park Royal Hotel Motel Police Station Post Office Swimming Pool Sportsground Tennis Courts War Memorial Hall and Pre-School Fuel Station & Cafe North Store - Manilla The junction of the Manilla and Namoi Rivers was for generations, a camping ground for the local indigenous people, members of the large Kamilaroi tribes of northwestern New South Wales.
During the 1850s, teamsters with bullock waggons were transporting goods from the Hunter District through the Manilla area to outlying cattle stations and the northern goldfield settlements of Bingara and Bundarra. Teams were delayed at the junction of the Namoi and Manilla Rivers by high water. In 1853, enterprising Englishman George Veness arrived at ‘The Junction’ to set up a store and wine shop at the teamsters’ camping ground. In doing so, Veness is acknowledged as the Founder of Manilla; the town's early prosperity was founded on the productive wheat and pastoral industries. Manilla features a new library centre. Located within the Tamworth Regional Council office in the main street of Manilla, the library is a new type of facility, known globally as a convergence centre; this means there are many facilities on offer including Centrelink Agency, the Manilla Book Club, a free weekly Storytime for preschool aged children and many other community activities. Australian singer-songwriter Darren Hanlon immortalised the town of Manilla in his song'Manilla NSW' which appeared on his 2006 record,'Fingertips and Mountaintops'.
Manilla has a number of heritage-listed sites, including: Tamworth-Barraba railway: Manilla railway underbridges In recent years, Manilla has become famous throughout the world as a major sports flying centre supporting hang gliding, ultralight aircraft and gliders. It hang glider launch sites. In 1998 local paragliding instructor and developer of Mt Borah, Godfrey Wenness, gained the world distance record with a flight of 335 kilometres. Major free-flight competitions are staged annually during the summer months; the 10th FAI Paragliding World Championships were held at the site in 2007, attended by 150 pilots from 41 nations. In the week prior to the event Manilla was in the headlines around the world for the survival of paraglider pilot Ewa Wiśnierska of Germany, sucked up into a thunderstorm to 9,946 metres; the dramatic story was made into a TV documentary Miracle in the Storm which won an AFI award and was nominated for a Logie Award. Henry Burrell, an amateur naturalist, photographer & film-maker, began unlocking the secrets of the platypus.
Stan Coster, an Australian country music singer-songwriter. Fiona Coote, aged 14, in 1994 became Australia's second and its youngest heart transplant recipient. Anna Henderson, an ABC News journalist. Dally Messenger, a rugby league and rugby union, he held the licence of The Royal Hotel. Harry M. Miller, bought the Manilla property "Dunmore" in the 1970s. John Quayle, former Australian Rugby League CEO, began playing rugby league with Manilla as a boy. Anne Rouen, an historical fiction author. Godfrey Wenness ASM, paragliding pilot and instructor, developed the Mt Borah airsports facility and school in 1994. Guinness Book of World Records for the longest flight in a paraglider in 1998. Australian Sports Medal. Media related to Manilla, New South Wales at Wikimedia Commons More History - Manilla Museum Website