The BMW X5 is a mid-size luxury SUV produced by BMW. The first generation of the X5, with the chassis code E53, made its debut in 1999, it was BMW's first SUV and it featured all-wheel drive and was available with either manual or automatic transmission. In 2006, the second generation X5 was launched, known internally as the E70, featuring the torque-split capable xDrive all-wheel drive system mated to an automatic transmission, in 2009 the X5 M performance variant was released as a 2010 model. BMW branded the X5 as a Sport Activity Vehicle rather than an SUV, to emphasize its on-road ability despite its size. Like the Lexus RX 300, the X5 heralded the shift from light truck-based body-on-frame SUVs to crossovers underpinned by unibody car platforms that would come to fruition in the late 2000s. Among German luxury automakers, while the Mercedes-Benz M-Class had beaten the X5 to the market by a year, the X5 was the first to use a unibody chassis whereas the M-Class used a light truck platform until its second generation.
While the Lexus RX is based on the Toyota Camry mass market sedan, the X5 shares its underpinnings with the BMW 5 Series performance luxury sedan. X5s are manufactured in Greer, South Carolina at the Spartanburg BMW plant and modified for armoured, security versions in Mexico at the BMW de México Toluca plant. Since July 2009, some assembly operations are performed in Kaliningrad, Russia by Avtotor. Starting with the X5, BMW's "SAV" series has since expanded with derivatives of other BMW number-series models, first in 2003 with the BMW X3 compact luxury crossover, in 2008 with the BMW X6 midsize coupe luxury crossover which shares its platform with the X5; the BMW E53 X5 crossover was manufactured between 1999 and 2006. It was benefitted from company technology, it shared the Range Rover HSE's Hill Descent System and Off Road Engine Management system, the engine and electronic system of the BMW E39 5 series. As a result, the earlier X5 models can be upgraded with newer BMW technologies. A range of petrol inline-6s, V8s and diesel engines was offered.
A facelifted version was released for the 2004 model year, with production starting in late 2003. The BMW E70 is the second generation X5 crossover, it replaced the BMW X5 in November 2006. The second generation X5 features many new technological advancements including BMW's iDrive system as standard equipment and, for the first time in a BMW, an optional third row seat raising passenger capacity to seven; the branding for the X5 from late 2008 onwards follows the new BMW nomenclature scheme, for example the X5 3.0si is now called the X5 xDrive30i, the X5 4.8i is called the X5 xDrive48i. In 2010 BMW added the new CIC hard drive iDrive system. In 2009, the xDrive35d diesel engine variant of the X5 was made available for sale in Canada and the United States, along with the BMW 335d sedan; the BMW X5 M high performance variant was introduced to the press at the New York Auto Show in April 2009, started appearing in BMW dealerships in September 2009 as a 2010 model. Sharing the same powertrain as the BMW X6 M, the X5 M features the first M Power V-8 Turbo, 555 hp and 500 lb⋅ft of torque, comes with M Dynamic Performance Control for impressive handling.
The E70 X5 received a facelift for the 2011 model year known as the LCI update. For the 2011 model year, the BMW X5 was BMW's 3rd best-selling model after the first place BMW 3 Series and BMW 5 Series, respectively; the BMW F15 is the third generation X5 crossover, unveiled on 30 May 2013 and launched in November 2013. It features the same chassis and same wheelbase of previous generation and launched with an initial choice of three engines: a 450 hp V8 petrol engine and two six-cylinder in-line diesel units, producing 258 hp with one turbo and 381 hp with three turbos, respectively. In December 2013, further engine options will become available: xDrive40d, xDrive35i and, for the first time on the X5 model, two four-cylinder engines xDrive25d and sDrive25d. In their years, BMW added a PHEV a xDrive40e with twin turbo inline 4 cylinders. In the xDrive40e an electric 83kW motor peak, 55kW continuous use with 9kWh 351V Lithium-ion battery pack; as with the previous model, it is assembled at BMW's Spartanburg plant in South Carolina, United States.
The new 2018 G05 X5 is the fourth and current generation X5 model and was unveiled online on June 6, with a planned November 2018 launch date. It is based on the new Cluster Architecture platform shared with other BMW models. All models are xDrive all-wheel drive only, initial engines include turbocharged 6-cylinder petrol, V8 petrol, 6-cylinder diesel models, it is produced in South Carolina. The BMW X5 M is a high-performance derivative of the X5; the following generations of the X5 M have been produced: E70 X5 M F85 X5 M Media related to BMW X5 at Wikimedia Commons Official website
The Iveco Daily is a large light commercial van produced by the Italian automaker Iveco since 1978. Unlike the more car-like unibody Fiat Ducato, the Daily uses a separate ladder frame typical of heavier commercial vehicles; the Iveco Daily is produced at the Iveco Suzzara plant, near Mantova in Italy, where Iveco has made substantial investments to renew the production lines. The Daily is the longest-running vehicle of the Iveco production and in over 40 years have sold over 3 million copies. Today it is marketed in 110 markets around the world; the first series Daily was offered with two models, the 35 and the 50. The larger one had load capacity up to 17 m³. In 1985, a turbodiesel version named "TurboDaily" was introduced. An Alfa Romeo badge engineered version was sold as the Alfa Romeo AR8 to the Fiat Ducato based AR6; the OM version was called OM Grinta, the turbocharged version OM TurboGrinta. 2.5l diesel 72 hp at 4,200 rpm, 141 N⋅m a 2400 rpm 2.5l turbodiesel 95 hp at 4,100 rpm, 217 N⋅m a 2300 rpm 2.5l diesel I.
D. 75 hp at 4,200 rpm, 160 N⋅m a 2200 rpm The second generation Daily was introduced in 1990, with a revised cab and improvements on the Sofim engine. Following the entry of Ford's commercial operation into Iveco, in 1986, The Daily 3.5 ton was soon removed from the UK market as it was now direct competition with Ford's Transit, the Daily stayed on in the UK at rated above 4.0 ton, now sold as Iveco-Ford Truck. The Daily has no other connection with the Transit; the second generation was facelifted in 1996. The 59-12 and 59-13 models were launched. All-wheel-drive variants were made available. 2.5l diesel 75 hp at 4,200 rpm 2.5l turbodiesel 103 hp at 3,800 rpm 2.5l tdi 116 hp at 3,800 rpm 2.8l diesel 85 hp 2.8l turbodiesel 103 hp at 3,600 rpm 2.8l tdi 122 hp at 3,600 rpm With third series the Daily got new light groups. The Turbodaily name was dropped. Two new versions were released: "Agile", with automatic gearshift, "CNG", a natural gas version. Two new load classes were introduced: Daily 65 and Daily 28.
The Iveco Daily was made "Van of the Year" for the year 2000. The third generation of the Iveco Daily and the second generation of the Renault Master share many panels and some components of the cab, including the doors due to an agreement between Iveco and Renault stipulated in July 1994; the agreement provided for the production and sharing of common components for a total of 120 thousand pieces a year produced in the various factories of Brescia, Suzzurra and Batilly. There were models with three engine options, all of type 8140 of 2.8 liters. A variant was a suction diesel with 66 kW, but they sold. Another had turbocharger, intercooler and 78 kW; the last variant had common rail injection. Shortly after receiving the largest engine variable geometry turbocharger and an output of 107 kW. In 2003 came F1A engine with 2.3 litre stroke volume and second-generation common rail injection with 74 kW and 88 kW, in 2004 came the new F1C engine of 3.0 liters, based on F1A with timing chain and 100 kW or 122 kW.
At this time, the old 8140-engine was replaced. The motors up to 88 kW had five-speed gearbox, while the more powerful engines available with a six-speed gearbox; the model could be obtained with electronic / hydraulic controlled manual gearbox, called Agile. The fourth generation was designed by Giugiaro and arrived to markets in the middle of 2006. It's available as: Van, cabin cruiser, Minibus, CNG; the minibus is commercialized with the Irisbus brand. Certain models with clean engines have been sold as the "Iveco EcoDaily" in some European markets. For the first time since the year 2000, an all-wheel-drive version of the Daily is available starting from 2007; this is developed in co-operation with the company SCAM and is available as single cab and double cab with the wheelbases 3,050 mm and 3,400 mm and double cab with wheelbase of 3,400 mm. Permissible total weight in two versions: 3,500 kg or 5,500 kg. 2.3 HPI 96 PS and 116 PS 2.3 HPT 90 PS diesel 3.0 HPI 146 PS 3.0 HPT 176 PS 3.0 CNG 136 metric horsepower The fifth generation was introduced 29 June 2011 and came into the market at the beginning of September 2011.
A version produced by Naveco of China called the Iveco Daily Ousheng was a facelift based on the fifth generation Iveco Daily, extended production starting from 2017. Euro 5 2,3 l 78 kW /270 Nm 2,3 l 93 kW /320 Nm 2,3 l 107 kW /350 Nm 3,0 l 107 kW /350 Nm 3,0 l 126 kW /400 Nm 3,0 l 150 kW /470 NmEEV 3,0 l 107 kW /370 Nm 3,0 l 126 kW /400 Nm 3,0 l CNG 100 kW /350 Nm The sixth generation was introduced in July 2014. Euro 5 2,3 l 78 kW /270 Nm 2,3 l 93 kW /320 Nm 2,3 l 107 kW /350 Nm 3,0 l 107 kW /350 Nm 3,0 l 126 kW /400 Nm 3,0 l 150 kW /470 NmEuro 6 3,0 l 107 kW /370 Nm 3,0 l 126 kW /400 Nm 3,0 l CNG 100 kW (136
A unitary authority is a type of local authority that has a single tier and is responsible for all local government functions within its area or performs additional functions which elsewhere in the relevant country are performed by national government or a higher level of sub-national government. Unitary authorities cover towns or cities which are large enough to function independently of county or other regional administration. Sometimes they consist of national sub-divisions which are distinguished from others in the same country by having no lower level of administration. In Canada, each province creates its own system of local government, so terminology varies substantially. In certain provinces there is only one level of local government in that province, so no special term is used to describe the situation. British Columbia has only one such municipality, Northern Rockies Regional Municipality, established in 2009. In Ontario the term single-tier municipalities is used, for a similar concept.
Their character varies, while most function as cities with no upper level of government, some function as counties or regional municipalities with no lower municipal subdivisions below them. They exist as individual census divisions, as well as separated municipalities. In Germany, kreisfreie Stadt is the equivalent term for a city with the competences of both the Gemeinde and the Kreis administrative level; the directly elected chief executive officer of a kreisfreie Stadt is called Oberbürgermeister. The British counties have no directly corresponding counterpart in Germany; this German system corresponds in the Czech Republic. Until 1 January 2007, the municipalities of Copenhagen and Bornholm were not a part of a Danish county. In New Zealand, a unitary authority is a territorial authority that performs the functions of a regional council. There are five unitary authorities; the Chatham Islands, located east of the South Island, have a council with its own special legislation, constituted with powers similar to those of a regional authority.
In Poland, a miasto na prawach powiatu, or shortly powiat grodzki is a big, city, responsible for district administrative level, being part of no other powiat. In total, 65 cities in Poland have this status. In the United Kingdom, "unitary authorities" are English local authorities set up in accordance with the Local Government Changes for England Regulations 1994 made under powers conferred by the Local Government Act 1992 to form a single tier of local government in specified areas and which are responsible for all local government functions within such areas. While outwardly appearing to be similar, single-tier authorities formed using older legislation are not Unitary Authorities thus excluding e.g. the Isle of Wight Council or any other single-tier authority formed under the Local Government Act 1972 or older legislation. This is distinct from the two-tier system of local government which still exists in most of England, where local government functions are divided between county councils and district or borough councils.
Until 1996 two-tier systems existed in Scotland and Wales, but these have now been replaced by systems based on a single-tier of local government with some functions shared between groups of adjacent authorities. A single-tier system has existed in Northern Ireland since 1973. For many years the description of the number of tiers in UK local government arrangements has ignored any current or previous bodies at the lowest level of authorities elected by the voters within their area such as parish or community councils. Northern Ireland is divided into 11 districts for local government purposes. In Northern Ireland local councils have no responsibility for road building or housing, their functions include waste and recycling services and community services, building control and local economic and cultural development. Since their reorganisation in 2015 councils in Northern Ireland have taken on responsibility for planning functions; the collection of rates is handled by the Property Services agency.
Category: Subdivisions of Northern Ireland Local authorities in Scotland are unitary in nature but not in name. The Local Government etc. Act 1994 created a single tier of local government throughout Scotland. On 1 April 1996, 32 local government areas, each with a council, replaced the previous two-tier structure, which had regional and district councils. Comhairle nan Eilean Siar uses the alternative Gaelic designation Comhairle; the phrase "unitary authority" is not used in Scottish legislation, although the term is encountered in publications and in use by United Kingdom government departments. Local authorities in Wales are unitary in nature but are described by the Local Government Act 1994 as "principal councils", their areas as principal areas. Various other legislation (e.g. s.9
East Riding of Yorkshire
The East Riding of Yorkshire, or East Riding, is an area in Northern England and can refer either to the administrative county of the East Riding of Yorkshire, a unitary authority, to the ceremonial county of the East Riding of Yorkshire or to the easternmost of the three subdivisions of the traditional county of Yorkshire. No two of these areas share the same geographical boundaries despite sharing the same name; the traditional East Riding of Yorkshire includes parts of ceremonial North Yorkshire such as Filey but not Goole, whereas both the administrative and ceremonial East Riding of Yorkshire include Goole but not those parts of North Yorkshire. Both the traditional and ceremonial East Riding include Kingston upon Hull, but the administrative East Riding does not as Kingston upon Hull is in its own unitary authority; the traditional East Riding covers a larger area than both the ceremonial and administrative East Riding. The East Riding, North Riding and West Riding were treated as three separate counties for many purposes, such as having separate quarter sessions.
In 1889 under the Local Government Act 1888, administrative counties with a county council were created on the historic boundaries. In 1974 both the Local Government Area and the Lieutenancy of the East Riding of Yorkshire were abolished under the Local Government Act 1972, being succeeded in most of the riding by the newly created Humberside which included parts of the West Riding and parts of Lincolnshire; the modern Local Government Area and the ceremonial East Riding of Yorkshire were formed in 1996 from the northern part of Humberside upon its abolition. At the 2011 Census, the population was 334,179; the landscape consists of a crescent of low chalk hills, the Yorkshire Wolds, surrounded by the low-lying fertile plains of Holderness and the Vale of York. The Humber Estuary and North Sea mark its eastern limits. Archaeological investigations have revealed artefacts and structures from all historical periods since the last ice age. There are no industrial centres; the area is administered from the ancient ecclesiastical town of Beverley.
Christianity is the religion with the largest following in the area and there is a higher than average percentage of retired people. The economy is based on agriculture and tourism, contributing to the rural and seaside character of the Riding with its historic buildings, nature reserves and the Yorkshire Wolds Way long-distance footpath; the open and maritime aspects and lack of major urban development have led to the high levels of energy generation from renewable sources. Major sporting and entertainment venues are concentrated in Kingston upon Hull, while the seaside and market towns support semi-professional and amateur sports clubs and provide seasonal entertainment for visitors. Bishop Burton is the site of an agricultural college, Hull provides the region's only university. On the southern border, close to Hull, the Humber Bridge spans the Humber Estuary to enable the A15 to link Hessle with Barton-upon-Humber in North Lincolnshire; when the last glacial period ended, the hunter gatherers of the Palaeolithic period followed the animal herds across the land between continental Europe and Britain.
As conditions continued to improve and vegetation became more able to support a greater diversity of animals, the annual range of seasonal movement by Mesolithic communities decreased, people became more fixed to particular localities. Until about 6,000 BC, Mesolithic people appear to have exploited their environment; as communities came to rely on a smaller territorial range and as population levels increased, attempts began to be made to modify or control the natural world. In the Great Wold Valley, pollen samples of Mesolithic date indicate that the forest cover in the area was being disturbed and altered by man, that open grasslands were being created; the Yorkshire Wolds became a major focus for human settlement during the Neolithic period as they had a wide range of natural resources. The oldest monuments found on the Wolds are the Neolithic long barrows and round barrows. Two earthen long barrows in the region are found at Fordon, on Willerby Wold, at Kilham, both of which have radiocarbon dates of around 3700 BC.
From around 2000 to 800 BC, the people of the Bronze Age built the 1,400 Bronze Age round barrows that are known to exist on the Yorkshire Wolds. These are grouped together to form cemeteries. Many of these sites can still be seen as prominent features in the present-day landscape. By the Bronze Age, an open, landscape predominated on the Wolds, it was used for grazing and for arable cultivation. The wetlands on either side of the Wolds in the River Hull valley and the Vale of York were being used for animal rearing at this time. In the Iron Age there were further cultural changes in the area. There emerged a distinctive local tradition known as the Arras Culture, named after a site at Arras, near Market Weighton. There are similarities between the chariot burials of the Arras Culture and groups of La Tene burials in northern Europe, where the burial of carts was practised; the area became the kingdom of the tribe known as the Parisi. After invading Britain in AD 43, the Romans crossed the Humber Estuary in AD 71 to invade the Northumbrian territory of the Parisi tribe.
From their bridgehead at Petuaria they travelled northwards and built roads along the Wolds to Derventio, present day Malton, westwards to the River Ouse where they built the fort of Eboracum. There is evidence of extensive use of the light soils of the Wolds for grain farming in the Roman era. Several Roman villas which were the centres of large agric
2017 New Year Honours
The 2017 New Year Honours are appointments by some of the 16 Commonwealth realms to various orders and honours to recognise and reward good works by citizens of those countries. The New Year Honours were awarded as part of the New Year celebrations at the start of January and were announced on 30 December 2016; the honours list reflected the United Kingdom's success at the 2016 Olympic Games and Paralympic Games in Rio de Janeiro, with sports stars dominating the list. The recipients of honours are displayed as they were styled before their new honour and arranged by the country whose ministers advised The Queen on the appointments by honour with grades, by divisions. Below are the individuals appointed by Elizabeth II in her right as Queen of the United Kingdom with honours within her own gift and with the advice of the Government for other honours. 1,197 people received honours, with 603 female 74% of the recipients are people honoured for services within their communities The oldest recipient was Janet Gillespie, 94, who received a British Empire Medal for her charitable service.
The youngest is Jeremiah Emmanuel. 9.3% of the recipients were people from a Black and Minority Ethnic background. 8.5% of the recipients consider themselves to have a disability. Sir Roger Gilbert Bannister. For services to sport. Sir Richard Charles Hastings Eyre. For services to drama. Dame Evelyn Elizabeth Ann Glennie. For services to music. Professor Sir Alec John Jeffreys, Emeritus Professor, University of Leicester. For services to medical research and society. Helen Mary, The Right Honourable Baroness Warnock. For services to charity and to children with special educational needs. Shirley Vivian Teresa Brittain, The Right Honourable Baroness Williams of Crosby. For services to political and public life. Professor Shankar Balasubramanian, Herchel Smith Professor of Medicinal Chemistry, University of Cambridge. For services to science and medicine. Antony James Beevor, military historian and author. For services in support of armed forces professional development. David Behan Chief Executive, Care Quality Commission.
For services to health and care. Professor Nicholas Andrew Black, Professor of Health Services Research, London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine. For services to healthcare research. Julian William Hendy Brazier Member of Parliament for Canterbury and Whitstable. For political and public service. John Park Campbell Chairman, Glenrath Farms Ltd. For services to farming and charitable service to entrepreneurship. David Anthony Crausby Member of Parliament for Bolton North East. For parliamentary and political services. Raymond Douglas Davies Musician. For services to the arts. Kenneth Arthur Dodd For services to charity. Mohammed Muktar Jama Farah For services to athletics. Professor Barry William Ife Principal, Guildhall School of Music and Drama. For services to performing arts education. Bryn Terfel Jones Opera singer. For services to music. Professor John Vincent McCanny For services to economic development. Donald McCullin Photojournalist. For services to photography. Andrew Barron Murray For services to charity.
David Charles Ord. For political service and service to the community in the South West. David Lee Pearson For services to equestrianism. Ian Clifford Powell chairman, PricewaterhouseCoopers LLP and Member and Business Services Council. For services to professional services and voluntary service. David Morgan Sloman, Chief Executive, Royal Free London NHS Foundation Trust. For services to the NHS. Professor James Cuthbert Smith Senior Group Leader, of Francis Crick Institute and Deputy chief executive officerMedical Research Council. For services to medical research and science education. David Mark Rylance Waters, actor. For services to theatre; the Right Honourable Steven John Webb. For political and public service. Diplomatic Service and Overseas ListDavid Frank Adjaye Architect. For services to architecture. Dr Jeffrey Philip Tate Chief Conductor, Hamburg Symphony Orchestra. For services to British music overseas. Civil DivisionDavid Richard Beamish, Clerk of the Parliaments, House of Lords. For parliamentary service.
Mark Andrew Lowcock Permanent Secretary, Department for International Development. For public service to international development. Military DivisionRoyal NavyMajor General Martin Linn Smith Chaplain of the Fleet Ian James Wheatley ArmyMajor General Richard John Cripwell Lieutenant General Alexander James Sanson Storrie Royal Air ForceAir Vice-Marshal Susan Catherine Gray Air Vice-Marshal Richard John KnightonCivil DivisionMichael Paul Bradley, Director General Resources, Defence Equipment and Support, Ministry of Defence. For services to defence. Sarah Church, Department for Environment and Rural Affairs. For services to British food and farming. Matthew Cyrus Coats, chief operating officer, Ministry of Justice. For public service. Peter James Reginald Fish, Director General, Government Legal Department, Legal Adviser, Home Office. For legal services to government. Jeremy Fleming, Senior Management, Ministry of Defence. For services to defence. Professor Vernon Charles Gibson Chief Scientific Adviser, Ministry of Defence.
For services to defence. Joy Hutcheon, Director General, Country Programmes, Department for International Development. For services to international development. Sue McAllister Director General, Northern Ireland Prison Service. For services to the Northern Ireland prison service. Leo Columba Martin O'Reilly, Permanent Secretary, Department for Communities, Northern
The Vauxhall Astra is a small family car, built by Vauxhall since 1979. For its first two generations, the nameplate was applied to right-hand drive versions of the Opel Kadett for use in the UK. Since 1991, Opel has used the Astra nameplate on its B/C-platform. General Motors' Saturn division in the United States of America offered a Belgian-built version of the Astra as a captive import from late 2007 until Saturn was discontinued following GM's 2010 bankruptcy; the Astra name originated with the Vauxhall-badged version of the first front-wheel drive Opel Kadett, launched in 1979 as the Opel Kadett D. This model, which went on sale in March 1980, replaced the Vauxhall Viva in the UK; the last rear-wheel drive Kadett had formed the basis of the Vauxhall Chevette, which remained in production until 1984. The Astra was Vauxhall's first model to have front wheel drive. Not all trim levels were available with all body styles. Confusingly in the British market, both the Kadett D and the Astra were sold alongside each other until the consolidation of Opel and Vauxhall dealerships in the early 1980s, when the Opel badged versions were phased out.
Production began at Opel's West German plant at Bochum in August 1979, with British deliveries of the Opel Kadett commencing in November 1979, four months before the Vauxhall-badged versions were launched. The overhead-camshaft engine was a huge leap forward from the earlier generation of small engines used in Vauxhall and Opel cars in terms of power and refinement, it was available in 1300 and 1600 forms, an 1800 fuel-injected version was added, used in the Mk 1 Astra GTE model, introduced in 1983. This version of the Astra was an alternative to the Ford Escort XR3, Volkswagen Golf GTI and Fiat Strada 105TC; the car featured a new unified engine for Vauxhall/Opel, featuring an all-aluminium head, overhead camshaft and hydraulic valve lifters, it became popular with buyers. A 1200 cc version which used the older Opel OHV engine was available. There were three body styles for the first generation Astra: hatchback and estate, all available with two or four side doors; the saloons were styled like the hatchbacks, except for a different rear window above a boot lid.
The saloon version was replaced by the Belmont saloon based on the Astra MK2 in early 1986. The white 1800GTE was the first UK car to be'colour-coded' with body trim that matched the base colour of the car, this included wheel arch extensions, front side and rear lower skirts, mirror covers and the alloy wheels were painted white; the black and red versions of the GTE had colour-coding but had the more conventional black bumpers and silver painted alloy wheels. There was a van version, badged the Bedford Astravan—the Bedford brand at that time being used for GM's commercial vehicles in Britain. Unlike the previous Opel T-Car, no Coupé was offered. Early versions of the Astra were imported from the Opel factories in Germany and Belgium, with production beginning at Vauxhall's Ellesmere Port plant on 16 November 1981. Sales of this first Astra were strong, gave Vauxhall a much-needed boost in the small family car sector after several years of declining sales with the Viva HC, it soon overtook the Austin Allegro as Britain's second most popular small family car, although it was still a long way behind the Ford Escort in terms of sales success.
The original Astra was awarded What Car?'s:'Car of the Year' for 1980. However, it was pipped to the European Car of the Year award by the Lancia Delta. Versions available were: 1200 E 1300 cc OHC 1600 cc OHC 1800 cc OHC The Mark 2 Astra was launched on 17 October 1984, it used the same range of engines and running gear as the Mark 1, but with a restyled body with better aerodynamics. It was voted 1985 European Car of the Year. Long-lived, the Mark 2 was available in estate, hatchback and cabriolet versions; the saloon was sold as the Vauxhall Belmont. However, this strategy was unsuccessful, as this was Vauxhall's only attempt at badging its hatchback-based saloon as a separate model, Ford rebadged its Orion range as Escorts in September 1993. In 1987 a special one off "design exercise" based on a 1986 1.8 GTE was built by the Ellesmere Port factory to celebrate its 25th Anniversary. The Astra GTE "Quicksilver" was first shown at the British International Motor show in 1987 and displayed in the Ellesmere Port showroom throughout the Plant's "Silver Anniversary" year.
Bertone built 6,764 cabriolets from 1987 to 1993. These came 2-litre GTEs, the latter available with powered roof and electric windows; these cars are praised for their looks. The Mark 2 Astra sold well in the UK, although it was never able to outsell the Ford Escort, it came closer than any other similar-sized car to achieving this. In 2005, a survey found the two most stolen cars in Britain to be the Vauxhall Belmont and the Vauxhall Astra Mark 2, with more than 1 in 13 Belmonts stolen. Was available in South Africa as the Opel Kadette and Opel Monza with 1.4, 1.6, 1.6i. 1.8. 1.8i and 2.0 and 2.0i motors. The Opel Monza 160Gsi was South Africas car of the year and top-selling vehicle in 1991. Soon after the Mark 2 Astra was launched, they introduced the GTE using a 1.8-litre 115 bhp lifted from the Mark 1 GTE, but this was dr