A silent film is a film with no synchronized recorded sound. In silent films for entertainment, the plot may be conveyed by the use of title cards, written indications of the plot and key dialogue lines; the idea of combining motion pictures with recorded sound is nearly as old as film itself, but because of the technical challenges involved, the introduction of synchronized dialogue became practical only in the late 1920s with the perfection of the Audion amplifier tube and the advent of the Vitaphone system. During the silent-film era that existed from the mid-1890s to the late 1920s, a pianist, theater organist—or in large cities, a small orchestra—would play music to accompany the films. Pianists and organists would play either from improvisation; the term silent film is a retronym—a term created to retroactively distinguish something. Early sound films, starting with The Jazz Singer in 1927, were variously referred to as the "talkies," "sound films," or "talking pictures." Within a decade, the widespread production of silent films for popular entertainment had ceased, the industry had moved into the sound era, in which movies were accompanied by synchronized sound recordings of spoken dialogue and sound effects.
Most early motion pictures are considered lost because the nitrate film used in that era was unstable and flammable. Additionally, many films were deliberately destroyed because they had little value in the era before home video, it has been claimed that around 75 percent of silent films have been lost, though these estimates may be inaccurate due to a lack of numerical data. The earliest precursors to film began with image projection through the use of a device known as the magic lantern, which utilized a glass lens, a shutter, a persistent light source to project images from glass slides onto a wall; these slides were hand-painted, after the advent of photography in the 19th century, still photographs were sometimes used. Thus the invention of a practical photography apparatus preceded cinema by only fifty years; the next significant step toward the invention of cinema was the development of an understanding of image movement. Simulations of movement date as far back as to 1828—only four years after Paul Roget discovered the phenomenon he called "Persistence of Vision."
Roget showed that when a series of still images is shown at a considerable speed in front of a viewer's eye, the images merge into one registered image that appears to show movement. This is an optical illusion, since the image is not moving; this experience was further demonstrated through Roget's introduction of the thaumatrope, a device that spun at a high speed a disk with an image on its surface. The three features necessary for motion pictures to work were "a camera with sufficiently high shutter speed, a filmstrip capable of taking multiple exposures swiftly, means of projecting the developed images on a screen." The first projected proto-movie was made by Eadweard Muybridge between 1877 and 1880. Muybridge set up a row of cameras along a racetrack and timed image exposures to capture the many stages of a horse's gallop; the oldest surviving film was created by Louis Le Prince in 1888. It was a two-second film of people walking in "Oakwood streets" garden, titled Roundhay Garden Scene.
The development of American inventor Thomas Edison's Kinetograph, a photographic device that captured sequential images, his Kinetoscope, a device for viewing those images, allowed for the creation and exhibition of short films. Edison made a business of selling Kinetograph and Kinetoscope equipment, which laid the foundation for widespread film production. Due to Edison's lack of securing an international patent on his film inventions, similar devices were "invented" around the world. In France, for example and Louis Lumière created the Cinématographe, which proved to be a more portable and practical device than both of Edison's as it combined a camera, film processor, projector in one unit. In contrast to Edison's "peepshow"-style kinetoscope, which only one person could watch through a viewer, the cinematograph allowed simultaneous viewing by multiple people, their first film, Sortie de l'usine Lumière de Lyon, shot in 1894, is considered the first true motion picture. The invention of celluloid film, strong and flexible facilitated the making of motion pictures.
This film was 35 mm wide and was pulled using four sprocket holes, which became the industry standard. This doomed the cinematograph; the art of motion pictures grew into full maturity in the "silent era". The height of the silent era was a fruitful period, full of artistic innovation; the film movements of Classical Hollywood as well as French Impressionism, German Expressionism, Soviet Montage began in this period. Silent filmmakers pioneered the art form to the extent that every style and genre of film-making of the 20th and 21st centuries has its artistic roots in the silent era; the silent era was a pioneering one from a technical point of view. Three-point lighting, the close-up, long shot and continuity editing all became prevalent long before silent films were replaced by "talking pictures" or "talkies" in the late 1920s; some scholars claim that the artistic quality of cinema decreased for several years, during the early 1930s, until film directors and production staff adapted to the new "talkies" around the late 1930s.
Jesse L. Lasky
Jesse Louis Lasky was an American pioneer motion picture producer. He was a key founder of Paramount Pictures with Adolph Zukor, father of screenwriter Jesse L. Lasky Jr. Born in to a Jewish family in San Francisco, California, he worked at a variety of jobs but began his entertainment career as a vaudeville performer that led to the motion picture business. In 1911, Lasky was the producer of two Broadway musicals: Paris and A La Broadway. Beatrice deMille was producing plays on Broadway and she introduced him to her son Cecil B. DeMille, they ventured into motion pictures in 1913. Lasky's sister, married Samuel Goldwyn and in 1913 Lasky and Goldwyn teamed with Cecil B. DeMille and Oscar Apfel to form the Jesse L. Lasky Feature Play Company. With limited funds, they rented a barn near Los Angeles where they made Hollywood's first feature film, DeMille's The Squaw Man. Known today as the Lasky-DeMille Barn, it is home to the Hollywood Heritage Museum. Other films produced by the studio include: Brewster's Millions directed by Oscar Apfel as well as Cecil B.
DeMille and starring Edward Abeles, Joseph Singleton, Sydney Deane, Miss Bartholomew. DeMille and starring Robert Edeson, Theodore Roberts, Winifred Kingston, Horace B. Carpenter. DeMille and starring H. B. Warner, Rita Stanwood, Theodore Roberts, Betty Johnson. DeMille and starring Charles Richman, Theodore Roberts, Fred Montague, Monroe Salisbury. DeMille with Max Figman, C. F. Le None, Fred Montague, Fred L. Wilson starring. DeMille with Edmund Breese, Fred Montague, Jane Darwell, Dick La Reno starring. DeMille and starring Fannie Ward, Sessue Hayakawa, Jack Dean, James Neill. In 1927, Lasky was one of the 36 people. Financial problems arose within the industry as a result of the Great Depression and the Famous Players-Lasky Company went into receivership in 1933. Lasky partnered with Mary Pickford to produce films but within a few years she dissolved their business relationship. Lasky found work as a producer at one of the big studios until 1945 when he formed his own production company, he made his last film in 1951 and in 1957 published his autobiography, I Blow My Own Horn.
Jesse L. Lasky died at age 77 from a heart attack in Beverly Hills, he is interred in Hollywood Forever Cemetery, adjacent to Paramount Studios, in Hollywood. For his contribution to the motion picture industry, Lasky has a star on the Hollywood Walk of Fame at 6433 Hollywood Boulevard. Lasky Drive in Beverly Hills was named in his honor. Works by or about Jesse L. Lasky at Internet Archive Jesse L. Lasky on IMDb Jesse L. Lasky at Find a Grave
Shannon Day was an American silent film actress who appeared in supporting parts in numerous productions. As a teenager, she appeared on Broadway, her film debut came in 1921 in Cecil B. DeMille's Forbidden Fruit. Forbidden Fruit Man, Woman & Marriage The Affairs of Anatol After the Show The Woman He Married One Clear Call Captain Fly-by-Night North of the Rio Grande The Ordeal Manslaughter All the Brothers Were Valiant The Vanishing American Breed of the Sea The Gypsy Romance The Barrier Stranded Hotel Variety Shannon Day on IMDb Shannon Day at the Internet Broadway Database Shannon Day photo gallery – University of Washington, Sayre Collection Portrait of Shannon Day
Rollin S. Sturgeon
Rollin Summers Sturgeon was an American film director of silent films active from 1910 to 1924. He directed 101 films during this period. 1910 Uncle Tom's Cabin 1912 Bill Wilson's Gal 1913 The Transition 1913 The Ballyhoo's Story 1914 Tony, the Greaser 1914 Only a Sister Rollin S. Sturgeon on IMDb
In films, an intertitle is a piece of filmed, printed text edited into the midst of the photographed action at various points. Intertitles used to convey character dialogue are referred to as "dialogue intertitles", those used to provide related descriptive/narrative material are referred to as "expository intertitles". In modern usage, the terms refer to similar text and logo material inserted at or near the start of films and television shows. In this era intertitles were always called "subtitles" and had Art Deco motifs, they were a mainstay of silent films once the films became of sufficient length and detail to necessitate dialogue and/or narration to make sense of the enacted or documented events. The British Film Catalogue credits the 1898 film Our New General Servant by Robert W. Paul as the first British film to use intertitles. Film scholar Kamilla Elliott identifies another early use of intertitles in the 1901 British film Scrooge, or, Marley's Ghost; the first Academy Awards presentation in 1929 included an award for "Best Title Writing" that went to Joseph W. Farnham for no specific film.
The award was never given again, as intertitles went out of common use due to the introduction of "talkies". In modern use, intertitles are used to supply an epigraph, such as a poem, or to distinguish various "acts" of a film or multimedia production by use as a title card. However, they are most used as part of a historical drama's epilogue to explain what happened to the depicted characters and events after the conclusion of the story proper; the development of the soundtrack eliminated their utility as a narrative device, but they are still used as an artistic device. For instance, intertitles were used as a gimmick in Frasier; the BBC's drama Threads uses them to give location and information on distant events beyond Sheffield. Law & Order and its related spinoffs used them to give not only the location, but the date of the upcoming scene. Guy Maddin is a modern filmmaker known for recreating the style of older films, uses intertitles appropriately; some locally produced shows, such as quiz bowl game shows, use animated variations of intertitles to introduce the next round.
Intertitles have had a long history in the area of amateur film as well. The efforts of home movie aficionados to intertitle their works post-production have led to the development of a number of innovative approaches to the challenge. Lacking access to high quality film dubbing and splicing equipment, amateur film makers must plan ahead when making a film to allow space for filming an intertitle over the existing film. Intertitles may be printed neatly on a piece of paper, a card, or a piece of cardboard and filmed, or they may be formed from adhesive strips and affixed to glass. In the early 1980s, digital recording technology improved to the point where intertitles could be created in born-digital format and recorded directly onto the film. Several specialty accessories from this period such as Sony's HVT-2100 Titler and cameras such as Matsushita's Quasar VK-743 and Zenith VC-1800 could be used to generate intertitles for home movies. Early 1980s video game consoles and applications catering to the demo scene were adapted for the generation and recording of intertitles for home films.
Among these were included the ColecoVision, the Magnavox Odyssey², the Bally Astrocade, the intertitle-specialized Famicom Titler. Acknowledgment Billing Character generator Closing credits Credit Digital on-screen graphic Lower third Opening credits Subtitle Supertitle Title sequence WGA screenwriting credit system
Western is a genre of various arts which tell stories set in the latter half of the 19th century in the American Old West centering on the life of a nomadic cowboy or gunfighter armed with a revolver and a rifle who rides a horse. Cowboys and gunslingers wear Stetson hats, neckerchief bandannas, spurs, cowboy boots and buckskins. Recurring characters include the aforementioned cowboys, Native Americans, lawmen, bounty hunters, gamblers and settlers; the ambience is punctuated with a Western music score, including American and Mexican folk music such as country, Native American music, New Mexico music, rancheras. Westerns stress the harshness of the wilderness and set the action in an arid, desolate landscape of deserts and mountains; the vast landscape plays an important role, presenting a "...mythic vision of the plains and deserts of the American West". Specific settings include ranches, small frontier towns, saloons and isolated military forts of the Wild West. Common plots include: The construction of a telegraph line on the wild frontier.
Ranchers protecting their family ranch from rustlers or large landowners or who build a ranch empire. Revenge stories, which hinge on the chase and pursuit by someone, wronged. Stories about cavalry fighting Native Americans. Outlaw gang plots. Stories about a lawman or bounty hunter tracking down his quarry. Many Westerns use a stock plot of depicting a crime showing the pursuit of the wrongdoer, ending in revenge and retribution, dispensed through a shootout or quick-draw duel; the Western was the most popular Hollywood genre from the early 20th century to the 1960s. Western films first became well-attended in the 1930s. John Ford's landmark Western adventure Stagecoach became one of the biggest hits in 1939 and it made John Wayne a mainstream screen star; the popularity of Westerns continued with the release of classics such as Red River. Westerns were popular throughout the 1950s and 1960s. Many of the most acclaimed Westerns were released during this time, including High Noon, The Searchers, Cat Ballou, The Wild Bunch and Butch Cassidy and the Sundance Kid.
Classic Westerns such as these have been the inspiration for various films about Western-type characters in contemporary settings, such as Junior Bonner, set in the 1970s, The Three Burials of Melquiades Estrada, set in the 21st century. The Western genre sometimes portrays the conquest of the wilderness and the subordination of nature in the name of civilization or the confiscation of the territorial rights of the original, Native American, inhabitants of the frontier; the Western depicts a society organized around codes of honor and personal, direct or private justice–"frontier justice"–dispensed by gunfights. These honor codes are played out through depictions of feuds or individuals seeking personal revenge or retribution against someone who has wronged them; this Western depiction of personal justice contrasts with justice systems organized around rationalistic, abstract law that exist in cities, in which social order is maintained predominately through impersonal institutions such as courtrooms.
The popular perception of the Western is a story that centers on the life of a semi-nomadic wanderer a cowboy or a gunfighter. A showdown or duel at high noon featuring two or more gunfighters is a stereotypical scene in the popular conception of Westerns. In some ways, such protagonists may be considered the literary descendants of the knight errant which stood at the center of earlier extensive genres such as the Arthurian Romances. Like the cowboy or gunfighter of the Western, the knight errant of the earlier European tales and poetry was wandering from place to place on his horse, fighting villains of various kinds and bound to no fixed social structures but only to their own innate code of honor, and like knights errant, the heroes of Westerns rescue damsels in distress. The wandering protagonists of Westerns share many characteristics with the ronin in modern Japanese culture; the Western takes these elements and uses them to tell simple morality tales, although some notable examples are more morally ambiguous.
Westerns stress the harshness and isolation of the wilderness and set the action in an arid, desolate landscape. Western films have specific settings such as isolated ranches, Native American villages, or small frontier towns with a saloon. Oftentimes, these settings appear deserted and without much structure. Apart from the wilderness, it is the saloon that emphasizes that this is the Wild West: it is the place to go for music, gambling, drinking and shooting. In some Westerns, where civilization has arrived, the town has a church, a general store, a bank and a school; the American Film Institute defines Western films as those "set in the American West that the spirit, the struggle and the demise of the new frontier." The term Western, used to describe a narrative film genre, appears to have originated with a July 1912 article in Motion Picture World magazine. Most of the characteristics of Western films were part of 19th-century popular Western
Charles Stanton Ogle
Charles Stanton Ogle was an American silent film actor. Born in Steubenville, Ogle first performed in live theatre, making his first appearance on Broadway in 1905, he embarked on a career in film with Edison Studios in The Bronx, New York in 1908, appearing in The Boston Tea Party directed by Edwin S. Porter, he went on to portray the monster in the first film version of Frankenstein, starred in the first serial film, What Happened to Mary. Ogle portrayed Long John Silver in the 1920 screen version of Treasure Island, which featured Lon Chaney, he went on to become a prolific character actor, making the last of his more than 300 film appearances in 1926. Ogle died in California of arteriosclerosis. Charles Stanton Ogle on IMDb