Hato Petera College
Hato Petera College was an integrated, co-educational college in Northcote Central, New Zealand for students from Year 9 to Year 13. It existed for 90 years, opening on 3 June 1928 and closing on 31 August 2018; the school had a strong Māori character. It was located on part of the land given by Sir George Grey, Governor of New Zealand, to Bishop Pompallier, the first Bishop of Auckland, in 1849 for education purposes; the school was established and staffed in 1928 by the Mill Hill Fathers and the Marist Brothers provided staff. Hato Petera College was the only Māori Catholic co-educational learning institute. In 2016 the school roll was 35, following the closure of the boarding facilities in 2017, the roll plummeted. A commissioner was appointed by the Minister of Education to manage the school while consultations to decide its future took place. In June 2018, the school was facing imminent closure and it was closed on 31 August 2018. A 9,500-acre area of land was purchased by Governor Sir George Grey from "...
Ngāti Paoa and their related tribes of Ngāti Maru, Ngāti Tamatera, Ngāti Whānaunga, Te Kawerau and Ngāti Whātua. Eruera Maihi Patuone, the Ngāpuhi chief was concerned in the sale because his wife at that time was Riria, a member of the Hauraki tribes." The Governor set aside 359 acres of the purchase for educational purposes. Of this, 250 acres —"the Roman Catholic Endowment Block"—was given to Bishop Pompallier, who endeavored to carry out this intention; the area which became the site of the college was an area of 32 acres. The area was occupied by a girls' orphanage which burnt down in 1913. A large house was existing on the site in 1928 and this became the residence of the Mill Hill Fathers. Hato Petera College was founded as a school to train boys as catechists to assist Mill Hill priests in the Māori mission; the catechist tradition was created in New Zealand by Bishop Pompallier and many Māori catechists were trained at his St Mary's Seminary which began its existence near the present site of Hato Petera College.
The Mill Hill priests came to New Zealand in 1886 to work amongst Māori. The value of catechists was soon recognised when it became apparent that there were not enough priests to carry out this task and that their formal training was necessary; the school was opened on 3 June 1928 by the sixth Catholic Bishop of Auckland. This was with an enrolment of 13 students, they were taught by two Dutch priests, Fathers Edward Bruning and John Spierings and two lay teachers. The intention was to train the boys to become men of prayer to give religious instruction and to help in other religious duties, they were chosen by the priests of the mission to be given the necessary training in Catholic Doctrine. The school was to support itself from its farm; the first Rector was Father Bruning. He was succeeded by Father Joseph Zenna. From 1933 to 1960, the Rector was the Dutchman Dean Martin Alink ) who himself physically constructed much of the college as well as being the superior of the Mill Hill mission in New Zealand.
He remained at the college until his death in 1964. By the 1940s, it was becoming apparent that the school needed to fulfil a wider educational role for Māori youth than to be just a school for catechists. In 1946 the school was registered as a secondary school; the Marist Brothers, who had expressed a wish to be involved in Māori education on their own property near the school, instead agreed to provide staff for the secondary school from that year. At the end of 1969 the Mill Hill Fathers withdrew from the college and its administration was in the hands of the Marist Brothers from January 1970; the College changed its name from "St Peter's Māori College" to "Hato Petera College" in 1972. In 1982 the proprietor of the College signed an integration Agreement with the Minister of Education and the College entered the State education system; the College became co-educational in 1993. The school was closed on 31 August 2018. Hato Petera College was established to support Maori Catholic children of modest backgrounds.
A student's Māori-Catholic background, Māori socio-economic background, "whanau connection through history to the kāinga" were among the factors considered in accepting an enrolment. This approach was established by the integration agreement between the New Zealand Government and the Bishop of Auckland, the proprietor of the College, under the Private Schools Conditional Integration Act 1975; the enrolment of non-Catholic students at the school was limited to 5 per cent of the total roll. The College’s special character nurtured students as Maori Catholic in living and learning the values of Jesus Christ through religious education ceremonies and observances which valued the College’s patron saints, Hato Petera, Hato Hohepa, Hato Maherino and tūpuna Māori; the curriculum included "the pillars that derive from the vision" of St Marcellin and the Marist Brothers "and followers of his charism – his spirituality." These were: Presence, Family spirit, in the
Takapuna is a central, coastal suburb of North Shore, located in the northern North Island of New Zealand, at the beginning of a south-east-facing peninsula forming the northern side of the Waitematā Harbour. While small in terms of population, it was the seat of the North Shore City Council before amalgamation into Auckland Council in 2010 and contains substantial shopping and entertainment areas, being considered the CBD of the North Shore; the population of the census area of "Takapuna Central" was 3,144 in the 2013 census, an increase of 330 from 2006. The census area does not include some streets to the west of the CBD which are considered as part of Takapuna. Takapuna is located on the isthmus of a peninsula which extends south into the northern waters of the Waitemata at the harbour's eastern end; as such, the suburb has a coastline on Shoal Bay, an arm of the Waitemata to the southwest, as well as having a coast on the Hauraki Gulf to the northeast. The northern end of the suburb is dominated by the large volcanic crater of Lake Pupuke.
Some points in Takapuna are less than 500 metres from all three of these bodies of water. The Hauraki coastline includes a kilometre long crescent shaped beach, a popular recreation area. To the southeast of Takapuna lies the six-kilometre-long peninsula which contains the suburbs of Belmont and Devonport. To the west lie the suburbs of Hillcrest and Northcote; the suburb of Milford lies on the far shore of Lake Pupuke. The Māori place name Takapuna referred to a freshwater spring that flowed from the base of North Head into a swamp behind Cheltenham Beach. In 1841 the wife of Eruera Maihi Patuone sold 9500 acres of Auckland's North Shore to the Crown. Referred to as Takapuna Parish, the North Shore was surveyed and subdivided in 1844. In 1851 Governor Grey gifted back to Patuone 110 acres between the inlet beside Barry's Point Road and Takapuna Beach to use until his death; this area included a Māori settlement known as Waiwharariki, on the small Shoal Bay headland now crossed by Esmonde Road.
The earliest subdivisions of farmland for suburban development were the "Hurstmere" estate in 1886 and the "Pupuke" Estate in 1889. The Takapuna and Milford Beach areas, as well as the land surrounding Lake Pupuke soon became popular spots for wealthy businessmen building summer homes to entertain in a rural surrounding, many moved here permanently, commuting to work in Auckland via ferry. A local history archive is maintained by the New Zealand Collection of Takapuna Public Library, it includes an index of the local newspapers, photographs, oral histories, historical material relating to Takapuna. Takapuna had a local government like other suburbs in Auckland at that time; the local government was called Takapuna Borough Council, which started in 1913 and merged into Takapuna City Council in 1961. It merged into North Shore City Council in 1989 amalgamating into Auckland Council in November 2010. 1913–1914 Ewen William Alison 1914–1921 William Blomfield 1921–1924 Arthur Mason Gould 1924–1925 James William Hayden 1925–1927 John D. M. Morrison 1927–1931 Julius Warwick W. Williamson 1931–1950 John Guiniven 1950–1956 Douglas Raymond Sheath 1956–1961 William Holmes Henderson 1961–1965 William Holmes Henderson 1965–1986 Arthur Frederick Thomas 1986–1989 Winifred "Wyn" Norien Hoadley The Takapuna Beach area is a nightlife hub and boutique shopping centre of the North Shore, having many bars, restaurants and shops.
The Block NZ's first season took place in Takapuna. Shania Twain's 2003 music video for When You Kiss Me was shot in Takapuna; as a recognised area by council for future intensification, the beachfront will become the backyard for the estimated 15,000 residents and 15,000 employees who will inhabit Takapuna by 2040. The area has potential in its central business area and wider precincts to further develop into the southern hub of the North Shore. Takapuna is home to Takapuna AFC who compete in the Lotto Sport Italia NRFL Division 1A. Onewa domain was the former home ground of North Harbour, but the team has since moved to QBE Stadium. Rosmini College is a boys' secondary school with a roll of 1,084. St Joseph's School is a coeducational contributing primary school with a roll of 393, they are state integrated Catholic schools located adjacent to each other. Rosmini College was founded in 1962, St Joseph's in 1894. Takapuna Normal Intermediate is a coeducational intermediate school with a roll of 602.
It was established in 1970. Takapuna School is a coeducational contributing primary school with a roll of 472, it celebrated its 125th jubilee in 2004. All these schools have a high decile rating. Takapuna Grammar School is to the southeast of Takapuna, it is the main public secondary school in the area with a roll of 1691. Its funding decile is 10. Lorde - singer-songwriter Takapuna Beach Photographs of Takapuna held in Auckland Libraries' heritage collections
North Shore, New Zealand
The North Shore is part of the urban area of Auckland, New Zealand, located to the north of the Waitematā Harbour. The North Shore was North Shore City, a distinct territorial authority district, governed by the North Shore City Council from 1989 until 2010, when it was incorporated into Auckland Council; the city had an estimated population of 229,000 at 30 June 2010, making it the fourth most populous city in New Zealand prior to the November 2010 reorganisation. The former city was the country's fourth largest city in land, with an area of 129.81 square kilometres and a coastline of 141 kilometres. It was the most densely populated city in the country because, unlike other New Zealand cities, most of the city's area was urban or suburban in character; the North Shore comprises a large suburban area to the north of downtown Auckland. The North Shore has been administered by various councils over the years, in the most recent past the North Shore City Council. On 1 November 2010, North Shore City Council and the six other local councils and Auckland Regional Council merged to create Auckland Council.
Today, the entire area has been divided among four local boards of the amalgamated Auckland Council: Devonport-Takapuna, Upper Harbour and Hibiscus and Bays. The administrative area of North Shore City Council was bounded by Rodney District to the north, Waitematā Harbour to the south and the Rangitoto Channel of the Hauraki Gulf to the east; the seat of the council was in Takapuna. North Shore City was divided into the following wards, which each ward was further divided into two community boards. Albany Community Board: Albany2, Albany Heights, Fairview Heights, Greenhithe2, Lucas Heights, Paremoremo, Rosedale, Schnapper Rock, Unsworth Heights, Windsor Park; the European history of the North Shore was dominated by rural settlement, with people from the "main" Auckland venturing there only during weekends, when the beaches and many coastal settlements were favourite daytripper goals reached by the ferries connecting the North Shore to Auckland. By the 1950s, only about 50,000 people lived on the Shore, its growth rate was still about half that of the areas south of the Waitemata because few jobs were on offer.
This changed with the construction of the Auckland Harbour Bridge in 1959, which opened up the Shore for Auckland expansion – vehicle volumes on the bridge became three times the forecast volume within the first decade – and began turning parts of it into a dormitory town for people working in the Auckland CBD or further south. The growth became significant enough for the North Shore to be considered a city in its own right, though densities remained still below what is typical south of the Harbour. On 1 November 2010 the North Shore boundaries were amalgamated with the rest of the entire Auckland Region, the North Shore City Council was abolished and replaced by a single unitary city authority. All council services and facilities are now under authority of the Auckland Council. Commuting within the North Shore itself can be done easily, but those who commute to Auckland City and need to cross the Auckland Harbour Bridge face severe traffic congestion; the alternative route through western suburbs is prone to nose-to-tail traffic at peak times.
As with the greater Auckland area, there has been much discussion regarding the problem at both national and local government levels, but little concrete action related to the high cost and difficulty of providing additional crossings over the Waitematā Harbour. Several options for new bridges and tunnels have been studied in depth, but at the moment, the official position is to mitigate congestion effects instead of providing new infrastructure; the Northern Busway running alongside the Northern Motorway, together with park and ride or drop-off areas at most of its stations, serves as the spine of a bus-based rapid transit system for North Shore and Hibiscus Coast citizens. The busway was operational between Constellation and Akoranga in February 2008. A number of North Shore suburbs have a regular ferry service to Auckland City, including Devonport, Stanley Bay, Birkenhead. Others are planned for Takapuna and Browns Bay. A plan in the mid-2000s to turn North Shore streets into a venue for a three-day V8 supercar race generated controversy.
The city was run by a 15-member council and mayor, democratically elected every three years using the First Past The Post voting system. The
Northcote, New Zealand
There is a suburb named Northcote in Christchurch. Northcote is a suburb of Auckland in northern New Zealand, it is situated on the North Shore, on the northern shores of Waitematā Harbour, four km northwest of Auckland CBD. The suburb includes the peninsula of Northcote Point and the northern approaches to the Auckland Harbour Bridge. In 1882, the St Heliers and Northcote Land Company was formed and some land in the area was subdivided. In 1889 a major subdivision was the result. Before the construction of the Harbour Bridge, the Northcote Wharf was utilised by Auckland Harbour ferry services. After the bridge was opened in 1959, the number of ferry crossings fell and the Northcote Point peninsula became a quiet cul-de-sac; the wooden Northcote Tavern was once in the thick of things. Northcote had a local government just like other suburbs in Auckland at that time; the local government was called Northcote Borough Council, which started in 1908 and merged into North Shore City Council in 1989. It amalgamated into Auckland Council in November 2010.
1908 Alexander Bruce 1908–1912 Herbert Cadness 1912–1917 George Fraser 1917–1919 John Byrne Tonar 1919–1921 Arthur Edwin Greenslade 1921–1925 William Ernest Richardson 1925–1927 Charles Archibald Deuxberry 1927–1931 Arthur Edwin Greenslade 1931–1941 Robert Martin 1941–1944 Ernest Clyde Fowler 1944–1956 Frank Montagne Pearn 1956–1962 John Forsyth Potter 1962–1968 Albert Ernest James Holdaway 1968–1974 Alfred James Evans 1974–1979 Trevor Edwin La Roche 1979–1989 Jean Sampson Northcote is surrounded by the suburbs of Birkenhead and Takapuna to the west and north, the waters of Shoal Bay, an arm of the Waitemata, to the south and east. State Highway 1 stretches along the waterfront of Shoal Bay, heading north from the bridge towards Albany. To the north of Northcote Point on one of the main routes leading to and from the Harbour Bridge is the Northcote Shopping Centre, developed in the early 1960s, it is now a multi-cultural retail hub featuring many Asian food outlets. The population was 4,122 in the 2006 census, an increase of 129 from 2001.
The population was 4254 in the 2013 census. Northcote College is a coeducational secondary school with a decile rating of 9 and a roll of 1258, it was established in 1877. During its early years, the College incorporated Standards five and six which were transferred to Northcote Intermediate School when, established as a separate entity on its present site in Lake Road in 1958. Close by to the Intermediate is Onepoto Primary School, which serves the central Northcote area. Northcote Primary School is a coeducational contributing primary school with a decile rating of 9 and a roll of 377, it was established on its present site in 1918. The Northcote area war memorial stands at the front of the school, on the corner of Lake and Onewa Roads. St Mary's School is a primary school with a decile rating of 7 and a roll of 402, it is a state integrated Catholic school, which provides education for both boys and girls in years 1–6, for girls only in years 7–8. It celebrated its 75th Jubilee in 2008. Hato Petera College was a state integrated Maori Catholic co-educational school for year 9–13 students.
In June 2018, it was facing imminent closure and it was closed on 31 August 2018. AUT's North Campus is located on Northcote. Northcote is home to the Northcote Tigers rugby league club and the Northcote Birkenhead Rugby Union Sports Club. Auckland ferry services run by Fullers Group stop at Northcote Point, near the northern end of the Auckland Harbour Bridge. Hodgson, Terence; the Heart of Colonial Auckland, 1865–1910. Random Century NZ. Photographs of Northcote held in Auckland Libraries' heritage collections. Photographs of Northcote Point held in Auckland Libraries' heritage collections
Auckland is a city in the North Island of New Zealand. Auckland is the largest urban area in the country, with an urban population of around 1,628,900, it is located in the Auckland Region—the area governed by Auckland Council—which includes outlying rural areas and the islands of the Hauraki Gulf, resulting in a total population of 1,695,900. A diverse and multicultural city, Auckland is home to the largest Polynesian population in the world; the Māori-language name for Auckland is Tāmaki or Tāmaki-makau-rau, meaning "Tāmaki with a hundred lovers", in reference to the desirability of its fertile land at the hub of waterways in all directions. The Auckland urban area ranges to Waiwera in the north, Kumeu in the north-west, Runciman in the south. Auckland lies between the Hauraki Gulf of the Pacific Ocean to the east, the low Hunua Ranges to the south-east, the Manukau Harbour to the south-west, the Waitakere Ranges and smaller ranges to the west and north-west; the surrounding hills are covered in rainforest and the landscape is dotted with dozens of dormant volcanic cones.
The central part of the urban area occupies a narrow isthmus between the Manukau Harbour on the Tasman Sea and the Waitematā Harbour on the Pacific Ocean. Auckland is one of the few cities in the world to have a harbour on each of two separate major bodies of water; the isthmus on which Auckland resides was first settled around 1350 and was valued for its rich and fertile land. The Māori population in the area is estimated to have peaked at 20,000 before the arrival of Europeans. After a British colony was established in 1840, William Hobson Lieutenant-Governor of New Zealand, chose the area as his new capital, he named the area for Earl of Auckland, British First Lord of the Admiralty. It was replaced as the capital in 1865 by Wellington, but immigration to Auckland stayed strong, it has remained the country's most populous city. Today, Auckland's central business district is the major financial centre of New Zealand. Auckland is classified as a Beta + World City because of its importance in commerce, the arts, education.
The University of Auckland, established in 1883, is the largest university in New Zealand. Landmarks such as the Auckland Art Gallery Toi o Tāmaki, the Harbour Bridge, the Sky Tower, many museums, parks and theatres are among the city's significant tourist attractions. Auckland Airport handles around one million international passengers a month. Despite being one of the most expensive cities in the world, Auckland is ranked third on the 2016 Mercer Quality of Living Survey, making it one of the most liveable cities; the isthmus was settled by Māori circa 1350, was valued for its rich and fertile land. Many pā were created on the volcanic peaks; the Māori population in the area is estimated to have been about 20,000 before the arrival of Europeans. The introduction of firearms at the end of the eighteenth century, which began in Northland, upset the balance of power and led to devastating intertribal warfare beginning in 1807, causing iwi who lacked the new weapons to seek refuge in areas less exposed to coastal raids.
As a result, the region had low numbers of Māori when European settlement of New Zealand began. On 27 January 1832, Joseph Brooks Weller, eldest of the Weller brothers of Otago and Sydney, bought land including the site of the modern city of Auckland, the North Shore, part of Rodney District for "one large cask of powder" from "Cohi Rangatira". After the signing of the Treaty of Waitangi in February 1840, the new Governor of New Zealand, William Hobson, chose the area as his new capital and named it for George Eden, Earl of Auckland Viceroy of India; the land that Auckland was established on was given to the Governor by a local iwi, Ngāti Whātua, as a sign of goodwill and in the hope that the building of a city would attract commercial and political opportunities for iwi. Auckland was declared New Zealand's capital in 1841, the transfer of the administration from Russell in the Bay of Islands was completed in 1842; however in 1840 Port Nicholson was seen as a better choice for an administrative capital because of its proximity to the South Island, Wellington became the capital in 1865.
After losing its status as capital, Auckland remained the principal city of the Auckland Province until the provincial system was abolished in 1876. In response to the ongoing rebellion by Hone Heke in the mid-1840s, the government encouraged retired but fit British soldiers and their families to migrate to Auckland to form a defence line around the port settlement as garrison soldiers. By the time the first Fencibles arrived in 1848, the rebels in the north had been defeated. Outlying defensive towns were constructed to the south, stretching in a line from the port village of Onehunga in the west to Howick in the east; each of the four settlements had about 800 settlers. In the early 1860s, Auckland became a base against the Māori King Movement, the 12,000 Imperial soldiers stationed there led to a strong boost to local commerce. This, continued road building towards the south into the Waikato, enabled Pākehā influence to spread from Auckland; the city's population grew rapidly, from 1,500 in 1841 to 3,635 in 1845 to 12,423 by 1864.
The growth occurred to other mercantile-dominated cities around the port and with problems of overcrowding and pollution. Auckland's population of ex-soldiers was far greater than that of other settlements: about 50 percent of the popula
New Zealand census
The New Zealand Census of Population and Dwellings is a national population and housing census conducted by government department Statistics New Zealand every five years. There have been thirty-three censuses since 1851. In addition to providing detailed information about national demographics, the results of the census play an important part in the calculation of resource allocation to local service providers; the 2018 census took place on Tuesday, 6 March 2018. The next census is expected in March 2023. Since 1926, the census has always been held on a Tuesday. Since 1966, the census occurs at midnight on a Tuesday in March; these are statistically the month and weekday on which New Zealanders are least to be travelling. Until 2018, census forms were hand-delivered by census workers during the lead-in to the census, with one form per person and a special form with questions about the dwelling. In addition, teams of census workers attempt to cover all hospitals, camp grounds and transport systems where people might be found at midnight.
In 2018, the process was different. The majority of households received an access code in the post and were encouraged to complete their census online. If preferred, households could request paper census forms; the smallest geographic unit used in the census for population data is the mesh block, which there are 39,300 of, with an average of 110 people in each. The 2018 Census collected data on the following topics: * Required to be included under the Statistics Act 1975 or the Electoral Act 1993 The first full census in New Zealand was conducted in 1851, the census was triennial until 1881, at which time it became five-yearly; the 1931 census was cancelled due to the effects of the Great Depression, as was the 1941 census due to World War II. The 1946 census was brought forward to Tuesday 25 September 1945, so that the results could be used for an electoral redistribution before the 1946 election. 1951 was the first year in which Māori and European New Zealanders were treated with European New Zealanders having had a different census form in previous years and separate censuses in the nineteenth century.
Results for those censuses before 1966 have been destroyed with a few exceptions and those since will not be available before 2066. The 2006 census was held on 7 March. For the first time, respondents had the option of completing their census form via the Internet rather than by a printed form; the 2011 census was scheduled for 8 March. However, due to the Christchurch earthquake on 22 February 2011, it was cancelled. For the first time all 2011 census forms would have been digitally archived. On 27 May 2011 Statistics New Zealand announced that a census would take place in March 2013; the legislation required to change the census date was introduced to Parliament in August 2011. The 2013 census was held on Tuesday 5 March 2013 and the 2018 census was held on Tuesday 6 March 2018. A few people object to the attempt to evade it; the most famous of these is the Wizard of New Zealand, Ian Brackenbury Channell, who has avoided the census on numerous occasions. He spent the night of the 1981 census in a boat beyond New Zealand's 20 km territorial limit in order to avoid enumeration in the country.
He has publicly burnt census forms. Following the 2006 census, Statistics New Zealand prosecuted 72 people for failing to return their forms, with 41 convictions. After the 2013 census, they wrote to 450 people in July 2013 who had failed to return the forms, of whom 99 were prosecuted, resulting in 46 convictions. Most of those convicted were fined $50 to $500 per charge. Results of the 2013 census were released over an 18-month period, beginning 15 October 2013, it recorded 4,242,048 people who were resident in New Zealand on 5 March 2013. This represents an increase of 214,101 people since the 2006 census. McRobie, Alan. Electoral Atlas of New Zealand. Wellington: GP Books. ISBN 0-477-01384-8. Statistics New Zealand - census page New Zealand 2013 Census
A suburb is a mixed-use or residential area, existing either as part of a city or urban area or as a separate residential community within commuting distance of a city. In most English-speaking countries, suburban areas are defined in contrast to central or inner-city areas, but in Australian English and South African English, suburb has become synonymous with what is called a "neighborhood" in other countries and the term extends to inner-city areas. In some areas, such as Australia, China, New Zealand, the United Kingdom, a few U. S. states, new suburbs are annexed by adjacent cities. In others, such as Saudi Arabia, Canada and much of the United States, many suburbs remain separate municipalities or are governed as part of a larger local government area such as a county. Suburbs first emerged on a large scale in the 19th and 20th centuries as a result of improved rail and road transport, which led to an increase in commuting. In general, they have lower population densities than inner city neighborhoods within a metropolitan area, most residents commute to central cities or other business districts.
Suburbs tend to proliferate around cities that have an abundance of adjacent flat land. The English word is derived from the Old French subburbe, in turn derived from the Latin suburbium, formed from sub and urbs; the first recorded usage of the term in English, was made by John Wycliffe in 1380, where the form subarbis was used, according to the Oxford English Dictionary. In Australia and New Zealand, suburbs have become formalised as geographic subdivisions of a city and are used by postal services in addressing. In rural areas in both countries, their equivalents are called localities; the terms inner suburb and outer suburb are used to differentiate between the higher-density areas in proximity to the city center, the lower-density suburbs on the outskirts of the urban area. The term'middle suburbs' is used. Inner suburbs, such as Te Aro in Wellington, Eden Terrace in Auckland, Prahran in Melbourne and Ultimo in Sydney, are characterised by higher density apartment housing and greater integration between commercial and residential areas.
In New Zealand, most suburbs are not defined which can lead to confusion as to where they may begin and end. Although there is a geospatial file defining suburbs for use by emergency services developed and maintained by Fire and Emergency New Zealand, in collaboration with other government agencies, to date this file has not been released publicly. New Zealand company Koordinates Limited requested access to the geospatial file under the Official Information Act 1982 but this request was rejected by the New Zealand Fire Service on the basis that it would prejudice the health & safety of, or cause material loss, to the public. In September 2014 a decision was made by the Ombudsman of New Zealand ruling that the New Zealand Fire Service refusal to release the geospatial file without agreeing to terms which included, among other restrictions, a prohibition on redistribution of the geospatial file, was reasonable. In the United Kingdom and in Ireland, suburb refers to a residential area outside the city centre, regardless of administrative boundaries.
Suburbs, in this sense, can range from areas that seem more like residential areas of a city proper to areas separated by open countryside from the city centre. In large cities such as London and Leeds, suburbs include separate towns and villages that have been absorbed during a city's growth and expansion, such as Ealing and Guiseley. In the United States and Canada, suburb can refer either to an outlying residential area of a city or town or to a separate municipality or unincorporated area outside a town or city; the earliest appearance of suburbs coincided with the spread of the first urban settlements. Large walled towns tended to be the focus around which smaller villages grew up in a symbiotic relationship with the market town; the word'suburbani' was first used by the Roman statesman Cicero in reference to the large villas and estates built by the wealthy patricians of Rome on the city's outskirts. Towards the end of the Eastern Han Dynasty, the capital, was occupied by the emperor and important officials.
As populations grew during the Early Modern Period in Europe, urban towns swelled with a steady influx of people from the countryside. In some places, nearby settlements were swallowed up as the main city expanded; the peripheral areas on the outskirts of the city were inhabited by the poorest. Due to the rapid migration of the rural poor to the industrialising cities of England in the late 18th century, a trend in the opposite direction began to develop; this trend accelerated through the 19th century in cities like London and Manchester that were growing and the first suburban districts sprung up around the city centres to accommodate those who wanted to escape the squalid conditions of the industrial towns. Toward the end of the century, with the development of public transit systems such as the underground railways and buses, it became possible for the majority of the city's population to reside outside the city and to commute into the