Operation Chahar, known in Chinese as the Nankou Campaign, occurred in August 1937, following the Battle of Beiping-Tianjin at the beginning of Second Sino-Japanese War. This was the second attack by the Kwantung Army and the Inner Mongolian Army of Prince Teh Wang on Inner Mongolia after the failure of the Suiyuan Campaign; the Chahar Expeditionary Force was under the direct command of General Hideki Tōjō, the chief of staff of the Kwantung Army. A second force from the Peiping Railway Garrison Force the 1st Army under General Kiyoshi Katsuki, was involved; the Chinese forces opposing this invasion of Suiyuan were the Suiyuan Pacification Headquarters under the command of General Yan Xishan. Fu Zuoyi, the governor of Suiyuan, was made commander of the 7th Army Group, Liu Ju-ming, governor of Chahar, was made its deputy commander, defending Chahar with the 143rd Division and two Brigades. General Tang Enbo was sent by Chiang Kai-shek with the 13th and 17th Corps from the Central Army and made Frontline Commander in Chief.
The 1st Cavalry Corps was sent to Chahar under the command of Chiao Cheng-shou, facing the Mongolian forces of Teh Wang. Following the loss of Peiking, Tang Enbo's 13th Corps took up positions in depth along the Peiking – Suiyuan Railway at Nankou, further to the rear at Juyongguan. Gao's 17th Corps stationed its 84th Division at Chihcheng and Lungkuan, covering the flank of the 13th Corps from Japanese forces in Chahar; the 21st Division was deployed on the railroad to the rear of Tang's forces. Zhao Cheng-shou's 1st Cavalry Corps, Liu Ru-ming's 143rd Division, two Peace Preservation Brigades began an attack on the Mongol forces in northern Chahar. On August 8, the Japanese 11th Independent Mixed Brigade, commanded by Gen. Shigiyasu Suzuki, began their attack on the left flank of the 13th Corps position at Nankou, but were thwarted after three days by the difficult terrain and the stubborn resistance of the Chinese. A new attack on August 11, supported by tanks and aircraft, took Nankou Station, after which Gen. Suzuki's brigade advanced on Juyong Pass.
That same day, Chiang Kai-shek ordered the activation of the 14th Army Group under Gen. Wei Li-huang. Coming by rail from Yingchia-chuang to Yi Hsien, elements of the 14th Army Group were sent on a ten-day march through the plains west of Beiping in a flanking movement in support of Tang Enbo's forces; the Chinese 1st Army made attacks on the Japanese forces in Liangxiang and Chaili to distract them, sent a detachment to Heilung Pass to cover the advance of 14th Army Group. From the dates on a Japanese map of the battle, these forces did not reach the area until September, when it was too late, clashed with Japanese forces from September 9–17 without achieving its objective. On August 12, Tang Enbo's army counterattacked, surrounding the Japanese and cutting them off from their supplies and communications. On Aug 14th, Seishirō Itagaki's 5th Division was sent to the relief of the 11th Independent Mixed Brigade at Juyongguan. On August 16, Itagaki arrived at Nankou and began an enveloping attack on the right flank of 13th Corps, making a five pronged attack at Huanglaoyuan.
The 7th Brigade of 4th Division under Shi Jue was moved to block this maneuver, reinforcements of Li Xian-zhou's 21st Division and Zhu Huai-bing's 94th Division were brought up, engaging in days of heavy fighting. On August 17 General Yan Xishan, Director of the Taiyuan Pacification Headquarters, directed the 7th Army, under Fu Zuoyi, to move its 72nd Division and three brigades by rail from Tatung to Huailai to reinforce Gen. Tang Enbo's forces. Meanwhile, in northern Chahar the Chinese 1st Cavalry Corps captured Shangtu, Nanhaochan and Huateh from the puppet Mongolian Army of Prince Teh. Elements of the 143rd Division took Zhongli. During this Chinese advance the Japanese Chahar Expeditionary Force under Lt. General Hideki Tōjō, composed of the mechanized 1st Independent Mixed Brigade and the 2nd and 15th Mixed Brigades, gathered for a counteroffensive from Changpei to Kalgan. From August 18–19 the Chahar Expeditionary Force counterattacked from Changpei, took Shenweitaiko on the Great Wall and the Hanno Dam.
The scattered and poorly equipped Chinese forces were unable to stop the Japanese, who now threatened the Peiking – Suiyuan Railway at Kalgan. On August 20 Gen. Fu Zuoyi's 7th Army diverted its 200th and 211th Brigades, moving south by rail to join Gen. Tang Enbo's forces, back to defend Kalgan. Fu's remaining 72nd Division arrived to reinforce Chenpien, his 7th Separate Brigade was sent to defend the railhead at Huailai. On August 21, the Japanese forces broke through at the villages of Chenbiancheng. Gen. Tang Enbo's forces awaiting reinforcement. Liu Ju-ming's 143rd Division fell back to defend Kalgan from the advancing Japanese. On August 23, as Seishirō Itagaki's 5th Division pushed toward Huailai from Chenpien against Ma Yen-shou's 7th Separate Brigade, advance elements of the 14th Army Group arrived on the Japanese flank at Chingpaikou, driving off the Japanese outpost there and contacting the Japanese forces advancing to Chenpien and the front beyond. However, they were delayed in crossing the Yungting River, their attack was delayed until it was too late to stop the Japanese advance.
Due to poor communications they failed to link up with Gen. Tang En-po's forces during the battle. After 8 days and 8 nights fighting, Itagaki, on August 24, linked up with the Kwantung army's 2nd Independent Mixed Brigade at Xi
Bombing of Chongqing
The bombing of Chongqing, from 18 February 1938 to 23 August 1943, was part of a terror bombing operation conducted by the Imperial Japanese Army Air Service and Imperial Japanese Navy Air Service on the Chinese provisional capital of Chongqing, authorized by the Imperial General Headquarters. A total of 268 air raids were conducted against Chongqing, with more than 11,500 incendiary, bombs dropped; the targets were residential areas, business areas, schools and other non-military targets. These bombings were aimed at cowing the Chinese government, or as part of the planned Sichuan invasion. In the first two days of the campaign, the raids of May 1939 killed more than five thousand Chinese civilians. Two months after tens of thousands of deaths, in retaliation for firebombing, the United States embargoed the export of airplane parts to Japan, thus imposing its first economic sanction against that nation. On 5 June 1941, the Japanese flew more than 20 sorties. About 4,000 residents who hid in a tunnel were asphyxiated.
The majority of the air raids conducted against Chongqing were made with squadrons of medium-heavy bombers composed of Mitsubishi G3Ms, known as "Nells", Ki-21s "Sallys", Fiat BR.20 Cicognas, Kawasaki Ki-48 "Lilys", although towards the end of the war, Mitsubishi G4M "Bettys", Ki-67 "Peggys", Nakajima Ki-49 "Helens", Yokosuka P1Y "Frances" were deployed. Due to severe attrition of aircraft and veteran pilots of the Chinese Air Force equipped at the outbreak of the air war in 1937 with US-made aircraft and training, the Chinese Air Force relied on the Soviet Union's assistance during the retreat and defense of Wuhan in 1938 and further retreat and defense of Chongqing in 1939–41; the introduction of the Zero-sen fighter plane in 1940, the most advanced production fighter aircraft at the time, ensured the Japanese total air supremacy. Following the Japanese attack on Pearl Harbor in December 1941, the United States declared war on Japan, reinvigorating support for China against Japanese imperialist aggressions, an immediate Sino-US cooperation with planning of the Doolittle Raid against Japan in April 1942.
By August 1943, modern interceptor aircraft possessing greater speed and firepower, ground-based radar equipment, better aircrew training supplied by the US and other Allied nations left the ROCAF in a much better position to fight back and, along with the diversion of Japanese aerial assets in support of the war in the Pacific, helped curtail further Japanese bombing sorties. The last recorded air raid of the campaign took place on 19 December 1944. Three-thousand tons of bombs were dropped on the city between 1939 and 1942. According to photographer Carl Mydans, the spring 1941 bombings were "the most destructive shelling made on a city", although by comparison 2,300 tons of bombs were dropped by Allied bombers on Berlin in a single night during the Battle of Berlin. A total of 268 air raids were conducted against Chongqing. In March 2006, 40 Chinese who were wounded or lost family members during the bombings sued the Japanese government demanding 10,000,000 yen each and asked for apologies.
"By filing a lawsuit, we want the Japanese people to know about Chongqing bombings," said a victim. Memorial site "Bombing of Chongqing", Nippon News, No. 2. in the official website of NHK
Hanyu Pinyin abbreviated to pinyin, is the official romanization system for Standard Chinese in mainland China and to some extent in Taiwan. It is used to teach Standard Mandarin Chinese, written using Chinese characters; the system includes four diacritics denoting tones. Pinyin without tone marks is used to spell Chinese names and words in languages written with the Latin alphabet, in certain computer input methods to enter Chinese characters; the pinyin system was developed in the 1950s by many linguists, including Zhou Youguang, based on earlier forms of romanizations of Chinese. It was published by revised several times; the International Organization for Standardization adopted pinyin as an international standard in 1982, was followed by the United Nations in 1986. The system was adopted as the official standard in Taiwan in 2009, where it is used for international events rather than for educational or computer-input purposes, but "some cities and organizations, notably in the south of Taiwan, did not accept this", so it remains one of several rival romanization systems in use.
The word Hànyǔ means'the spoken language of the Han people', while Pīnyīn means'spelled sounds'. In 1605, the Jesuit missionary Matteo Ricci published Xizi Qiji in Beijing; this was the first book to use the Roman alphabet to write the Chinese language. Twenty years another Jesuit in China, Nicolas Trigault, issued his Xi Ru Ermu Zi at Hangzhou. Neither book had much immediate impact on the way in which Chinese thought about their writing system, the romanizations they described were intended more for Westerners than for the Chinese. One of the earliest Chinese thinkers to relate Western alphabets to Chinese was late Ming to early Qing dynasty scholar-official, Fang Yizhi; the first late Qing reformer to propose that China adopt a system of spelling was Song Shu. A student of the great scholars Yu Yue and Zhang Taiyan, Song had been to Japan and observed the stunning effect of the kana syllabaries and Western learning there; this galvanized him into activity on a number of fronts, one of the most important being reform of the script.
While Song did not himself create a system for spelling Sinitic languages, his discussion proved fertile and led to a proliferation of schemes for phonetic scripts. The Wade–Giles system was produced by Thomas Wade in 1859, further improved by Herbert Giles in the Chinese–English Dictionary of 1892, it was popular and used in English-language publications outside China until 1979. In the early 1930s, Communist Party of China leaders trained in Moscow introduced a phonetic alphabet using Roman letters, developed in the Soviet Oriental Institute of Leningrad and was intended to improve literacy in the Russian Far East; this Sin Wenz or "New Writing" was much more linguistically sophisticated than earlier alphabets, but with the major exception that it did not indicate tones of Chinese. In 1940, several thousand members attended a Border Region Sin Wenz Society convention. Mao Zedong and Zhu De, head of the army, both contributed their calligraphy for the masthead of the Sin Wenz Society's new journal.
Outside the CCP, other prominent supporters included Sun Fo. Over thirty journals soon appeared written in Sin Wenz, plus large numbers of translations, some contemporary Chinese literature, a spectrum of textbooks. In 1940, the movement reached an apex when Mao's Border Region Government declared that the Sin Wenz had the same legal status as traditional characters in government and public documents. Many educators and political leaders looked forward to the day when they would be universally accepted and replace Chinese characters. Opposition arose, because the system was less well adapted to writing regional languages, therefore would require learning Mandarin. Sin Wenz fell into relative disuse during the following years. In 1943, the U. S. military engaged Yale University to develop a romanization of Mandarin Chinese for its pilots flying over China. The resulting system is close to pinyin, but does not use English letters in unfamiliar ways. Medial semivowels are written with y and w, apical vowels with r or z.
Accent marks are used to indicate tone. Pinyin was created by Chinese linguists, including Zhou Youguang, as part of a Chinese government project in the 1950s. Zhou is called "the father of pinyin," Zhou worked as a banker in New York when he decided to return to China to help rebuild the country after the establishment of the People's Republic of China in 1949, he became an economics professor in Shanghai, in 1955, when China's Ministry of Education created a Committee for the Reform of the Chinese Written Language, Premier Zhou Enlai assigned Zhou Youguang the task of developing a new romanization system, despite the fact that he was not a professional linguist. Hanyu Pinyin was based on several existing systems: Gwoyeu Romatzyh of 1928, Latinxua Sin Wenz of 1931, the diacritic markings from zhuyin. "I'm not the father of pinyin," Zhou said years later. It's a lo
The Jiangqiao Campaign was a series of battles and skirmishes occurring after the Mukden Incident, during the invasion of Manchuria by the Imperial Japanese Army, prior to the Second Sino-Japanese War. After the Mukden Incident, the Japanese Kwantung Army overran the provinces of Liaoning and Jilin, occupying major cities and railways. At that time, the Chairman Wan Fulin of Heilongjiang Province was in Beijing, leaving the provincial government leaderless. Zhang Xueliang telegraphed the Kuomintang government in Nanjing for instructions, appointed General Ma Zhanshan as acting Chairman and Military Commander-in-chief of Heilongjiang Province on October 16, 1931. General Ma Zhanshan took office the next day, he held military meetings and inspected the defense positions while facing down parties who wished to surrender, saying “I am appointed as Chairman of the Province, I have the responsibility to defend the Province and I will never be a surrendering general". In November 1931, General Ma Zhanshan chose to disobey the Kuomintang government's ban on further resistance to the Japanese invasion and attempted to prevent Japanese forces from crossing into Heilongjiang province by defending a strategic railway bridge across the Nen River near Jiangqiao.
This bridge had been dynamited earlier by Ma's forces during the fighting against pro-Japanese collaborationist forces of General Zhang Haipeng. A repair crew, guarded by 800 Japanese soldiers, went to work on 4 November 1931, but fighting soon erupted with the 2,500 Chinese troops nearby; each side charged the other with opening fire without provocation. The skirmish continued for over three hours, until the Japanese drove General Ma's troops off toward Qiqihar. General Ma Zhanshan returned to counterattack with a much larger force. Japanese Major General Shogo Hasebe, had the sluggish river on his left, the railway on his right. Wide swamplands made the Japanese left wing impregnable, forcing Ma to concentrate his cavalry against the exposed Japanese right wing. Although dislodging the Japanese from their advance positions, Ma was unable to recapture the bridge, which the Japanese continued to repair. Ma was forced to withdraw his troops in the face of Japanese tanks and artillery. Ma became a national hero for his resistance to the Japanese, reported in the Chinese and international press.
The publicity inspired more volunteers to enlist in the Anti-Japanese Volunteer Armies. On November 15, 1931, despite having lost more than 400 killed and 300 wounded since November 5, General Ma declined a Japanese ultimatum to surrender Qiqihar. On the November 17, in subzero weather, 3,500 Japanese troops of the 2nd division, under the command of General Jiro Tamon, mounted an attack on Qiqihar's 8,000 defenders along a five-mile front on the heights of San-chien-fang south of Tangchi. Japanese cavalry charged down the Chinese front line cutting a swath into which Japanese infantry followed. Ma's right flank held at first; the Chinese cavalry tried to encircle the Japanese right flank, but were stopped by Japanese artillery and close air support. The superior Japanese firepower turned the battle. Chinese units fled across the frozen steppes. On November 18, Ma evacuated Qiqihar. By November 19, he led his troops to the east to defend Hailun, his forces had suffered serious casualties and their strength was now much reduced.
However once Ma was forced to retire up the Nonni River valley, he managed to regroup his forces and maintain their morale. Japanese troops attempting to press Ma's men further up the Nonni River towards Koshen in the cold suffered large casualties on several occasions. At the same time the Japanese began their occupation of Qiqihar, securing control of all three Manchurian provincial capitals. At Mukden and Kirin the Japanese had established collaborationist Chinese governments. At Qiqihar they established another government under pro-Japanese General Zhang Jinghui. Japan secured control of the central section of the Chinese Eastern Railway, the eastern section was still under the control of General Ting Chao in Harbin. Second Sino-Japanese War Mukden Incident Coogan, Anthony. Northeast China and the Origins of the Anti-Japanese United Front. Modern China, Vol. 20, No. 3, pp. 282-314: Sage Publications. Matsusaka, Yoshihisa Tak; the Making of Japanese Manchuria, 1904-1932. Harvard University Asia Center.
ISBN 0-674-01206-2. Ma Zhanshan Notes On A Guerrilla Campaign Two War Lords, Time Magazine Nov. 16, 1931 Hero Ma, Time Magazine Nov. 23, 1931 Rout of Ma, Time Magazine Nov. 30, 1931Topographic maps of campaign area. Chi-chi-ha-erh nl51-2 San-chien-fang 三间房 area, Qiqihar Wang-yeh-miao nl51-5 Nenjiang Bridge area
Battle of Rehe
The Battle of Rehe was the second part of Operation Nekka, a campaign by which the Empire of Japan captured the Inner Mongolian province of Rehe from the Chinese warlord Zhang Xueliang and annexed it to the new state of Manchukuo. The battle was fought from February 21 to March 1, 1933. Following the establishment of Manchukuo, the Kwantung Army launched an operation to secure its southern frontier with China by attacking and capturing Shanhaiguan Pass at the Great Wall on 3 January 1933; the province of Rehe, on the northern side of the Great Wall, was the next target. Declaring the province to be a portion of Manchuria, the Japanese Army hoped to secure it through the defection of Gen. Tang Yulin to the Manchukuo cause; when this failed, the military option was placed into action. Assigned to this operation were the Japanese 6th Division and 8th Division and 14th and 33rd Mixed Brigades of infantry, 4th Cavalry Brigade with Type 92 Heavy Armoured Cars and the 1st Special Tank Company; the Japanese army's Chief of Staff requested Emperor Hirohito's sanction for the "strategic operation" against Chinese forces in Rehe.
Hoping that it was the last of the army's operations in the area and that it would bring an end to the Manchurian matter, the Emperor approved, while stating explicitly that the army was not to go beyond China's Great Wall. On February 23, 1933, the offensive was launched. On February 25 Chaoyang and Kailu were taken. On March 2 the Japanese 4th Cavalry Brigade encountered resistance from the forces of Sun Dianying, after days of fighting took over Chifeng. Sun Dianying mounted a counterattack against the Japanese 6th Division on the same day, at one time penetrated to near the Japanese headquarters. On March 4 Japanese cavalry and the 1st Special Tank Company with Type 89 Tanks. took Chengde, the capital of Rehe. Rehe was subsequently annexed to Manchukuo. Zhang Xueliang was forced by the Kuomintang government to relinquish his posts for “medical reasons.” Chinese forces fell back in disarray to the Great Wall, where after a series of battles and skirmishes, the Japanese Army seized a number of strategic points, agreed to a cease fire and a negotiated settlement whereby a demilitarized zone would be established between the Great Wall and Beijing.
However, this would prove to be only a temporary respite before the full scale combat of the Second Sino-Japanese War erupted in earnest in 1937. Order of battle Operation Jehol Fenby, Jonathan. Chiang Kai-shek: China's Generalissimo and the Nation He Lost. Carroll & Graf Publishers. ISBN 0-7867-1318-6. Hsu Long-hsuen and Chang Ming-kai, History of The Sino-Japanese War 2nd Ed. 1971. Translated by Wen Ha-hsiung, Chung Wu Publishing. Pg. 159–161. 中國抗日戰爭正面戰場作戰記, Guo Rugui, editor-in-chief Huang Yuzhang, Jiangsu People's Publishing House, Date published: 2005-7-1, ISBN 7-214-03034-9 Jowett, Philipp. Rays of the Rising Sun, Volume 1: Japan's Asian Allies 1931–45, China and Manchukuo. Helion and Company Ltd. ISBN 1-874622-21-3. Battles of the Great Wall THE HISTORY OF BATTLES OF IMPERIAL JAPANESE TANKS Jan. 23, 1933 issue of TIME magazine, "On Bended Knee" Feb. 27, 1933 issue of TIME magazine, Bumps & Blood Mar. 6, 1933 issue of TIME magazine War of Jehol Mar. 6, 1933 issue of TIME magazine, Two-Gun Tang Mar. 13, 1933 issue of TIME magazine Glorious 16th Dec. 11, 1933 issue of TIME magazine, Generalissimo's Last Straw
Zhou Baozhong was a commander of the Northeast Anti-Japanese United Army resisting the pacification of Manchukuo by the Empire of Japan. After the Chinese Civil War he was made Vice chairman of Yunnan People's Government in 1949. In February 1964 he died in Beijing. Zhou Baozhong The volunteer armies of northeast China
Soviet invasion of Manchuria
The Soviet invasion of Manchuria, formally known as the Manchurian Strategic Offensive Operation or the Manchurian Operation, began on 9 August 1945 with the Soviet invasion of the Japanese puppet state of Manchukuo. It was the last campaign of the Second World War, the largest of the 1945 Soviet–Japanese War, which resumed hostilities between the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics and the Empire of Japan after six years of peace. Soviet gains on the continent were Manchukuo and northern Korea; the Soviet entry into the war and the defeat of the Kwantung Army was a significant factor in the Japanese government's decision to surrender unconditionally, as it made apparent the Soviet Union had no intention of acting as a third party in negotiating an end to hostilities on conditional terms. Since 1983, the operation has sometimes been called Operation August Storm after U. S. Army historian David Glantz used this title for a paper on the subject; as agreed with the Allies at the Tehran Conference in November 1943 and the Yalta Conference in February 1945, the Soviet Union entered World War II's Pacific Theater within three months of the end of the war in Europe.
The invasion began on 9 August 1945 three months after the German surrender on May 8. Although the commencement of the invasion fell between the American atomic bombing of Hiroshima, on 6 August, only hours before the Nagasaki bombing on 9 August, the timing of the invasion had been planned well in advance and was determined by the timing of the agreements at Tehran and Yalta, the long-term buildup of Soviet forces in the Far East since Tehran, the date of the German surrender some three months earlier. At 11pm Trans-Baikal time on 8 August 1945, Soviet foreign minister Vyacheslav Molotov informed Japanese ambassador Naotake Satō that the Soviet Union had declared war on Japan, that from 9 August the Soviet government would consider itself to be at war with Japan. At one minute past midnight Trans-Baikal time on 9 August 1945, the Soviets commenced their invasion on three fronts to the east and north of Manchuria: the Khingan–Mukden Offensive Operation. Though the battle extended beyond the borders traditionally known as Manchuria—that is, the traditional lands of the Manchus—the coordinated and integrated invasions of Japan's northern territories has been called the Battle of Manchuria.
It has been referred to as the Manchurian Strategic Offensive Operation. The Far East Command, under Marshal of the Soviet Union Aleksandr Vasilevsky, had a plan to conquer Manchuria, simple but huge in scale, calling for a massive pincer movement over all of Manchuria; this was to be performed by the Transbaikal Front from the west and by the 1st Far Eastern Front from the east. The only Soviet equivalent of a theater command that operated during the war, Far East Command, consisted of three Red Army fronts; the Transbaikal Front, under Marshal Rodion Malinovsky, included: 17th Army 36th Army 39th Army 53rd Army 6th Guards Tank Army Soviet Mongolian Cavalry Mechanized Group under Issa Pliyev 12th Air Army. The Transbaikal Front was to form the western half of the Soviet pincer movement, attacking across the Inner Mongolian desert and over the Greater Khingan mountains; these forces had as their objectives firstly to secure Mukden to meet troops of the 1st Far Eastern Front at the Changchun area in south central Manchuria, in doing so finish the double envelopment.
Amassing over one thousand tanks and self-propelled guns, the 6th Guards Tank Army was to serve as an armored spearhead, leading the Front's advance and capturing objectives 350 km inside Manchuria by the fifth day of the invasion. The 36th Army was attacking from the west, but with the objective of meeting forces of the 2nd Far Eastern Front at Harbin and Tsitsihar; the 1st Far Eastern Front, under Marshal Kirill Meretskov, included: 1st Red Banner Army 5th Army 25th Army 35th Army 10th Mechanized Corps 9th Air Army. The 1st Far Eastern Front was to form the eastern half of the pincer movement; this attack involved the 1st Red Banner Army, the 5th Army and the 10th Mechanized Corps striking towards Mudanjiang. Once that city was captured, this force was to advance towards the cities of Jilin and Harbin, its final objective was to link up with the forces of the Transbaikal Front at Changchun and Jilin thus closing the double envelopment movement. As a secondary objective, the 1st Far Eastern Front was to prevent Japanese forces from escaping to Korea, invade the Korean Peninsula up to the 38th parallel, establishing in the process what became North Korea.
This secondary objective was to be carried out by the 25th Army. Meanwhile, the 35th Army was tasked with capturing the cities of Boli and Mishan; the 2nd Far Eastern Front, under General Maksim Purkayev, included: 2nd Red Banner Army 15th Army 16th Army 5th Separate Rifle Corps Chuguevsk Operational Group Amur Military Flotilla 10th Air Army. The 2nd Far Eastern Front was deployed