The Passaic River is a river 80 mi long, in northern New Jersey in the United States. The river in its upper course flows in a circuitous route, meandering through the swamp lowlands between the ridge hills of rural and suburban northern New Jersey, called the Great Swamp, draining much of the northern portion of the state through its tributaries. In its lower portion, it flows through the most urbanized and industrialized areas of the state, including along downtown Newark; the lower river suffered from industrial abandonment in the 20th century. In April 2014, the U. S. Environmental Protection Agency announced a $1.7 billion plan to remove 4.3 million cubic yards of toxic mud from the bottom of lower eight miles of the river. It is considered one of the most polluted stretches of water in the nation and the project one of the largest clean-ups undertaken; the Passaic rises in southern Morris County. It begins between Spring Hill and Hardscrabble Road, travelling northeast and crossing Corey Lane before entering the Buck Hill Tract Natural Area.
At this point the river begins to flow south, through Morristown National Historical Park, forms the boundary between Morris and Somerset counties. In its current path, it passes through the southeast edge and drains Lord Stirling Park along the western edge of the Great Swamp, which it drains through several small tributaries including Black Brook; the river passes through a gorge in Millington and turns abruptly northeast, flowing through the valley between Long Hill to the west and the Second Watchung Mountain to the east. It forms the boundary between Morris and Union counties as it passes Berkeley Heights, New Providence, Summit. Near Chatham it turns north, forming the boundary between Essex counties, it passes Livingston and Fairfield, where it flows through the Hatfield Swamp and is joined by the Rockaway River just after the Whippany River runs into it. Southwest of Lincoln Park it passes through the Great Piece Meadows, where it turns abruptly eastward and is joined at Two Bridges by its major tributary, the Pompton River meandering through Little Falls, New Jersey as it drops over a fall, across some rapids, under Passaic County Route 646 and an abandoned railroad trestle.
The river flows northeast into the city of Paterson, where it drops over the Great Falls of the Passaic. On the north end of Paterson, it turns abruptly south, flowing between Paterson and Clifton on the west and Hawthorne, Fair Lawn, Elmwood Park, Garfield on the east, next through the city of Clifton. At Elmwood Park it begins to form Dundee Lake, created by the Dundee Dam built in 1845; the river becomes navigable two and a half miles downstream of the Dundee Dam at the Eighth Street/Locust Ave Bridge in Wallington where the dredged Wallington Reach channel begins. Proceeding beyond the Wallington Reach, the river remains navigable via a series of maintained channels to its final destination, Newark Bay, it passes Passaic, Clifton again Nutley and Belleville on the west. In its lowest reaches, it flows along the northeast portion of the city of Newark on the west, passing Kearny, East Newark, Harrison, New Jersey on the eastern bank. Near downtown Newark it makes an abrupt easterly bend south around Ironbound, joining the Hackensack River at the northern end of Newark Bay, a back bay of New York Harbor.
The Passaic River formed as a result of drainage from a massive proglacial lake that formed in Northern New Jersey at the end of the last ice age 13,000 years ago. That prehistoric lake is now known as Glacial Lake Passaic and was centered in the present lowland swamps of Morris County, forming because of a blockage of the normal drainage path; the lake level rose high enough that the water flowed out of a new outlet. The Passaic River found a new path to the ocean via the Millington Gorge and the Paterson Falls as the glacier that covered the area retreated northward and the lake drained; as a result, the river as we now know. Prior to European colonialization along the Passaic in the late 17th century, the valley was the territory of the Lenape groups now known as the Acquackanonk and Hackensack, who used the river for fishing. To that end they built overflow dams, to create pools and where the fish could be trapped. Many of these archeological sites are still present and, in some cases, in good condition.
The river was significant in the early industrial development of New Jersey. It provided a navigable route connected by canals to the Delaware River starting in the late 18th century, it was an early source of hydropower at the Great Falls of the Passaic in Paterson, resulting in the early emergence of the area as the center of industrial mills. Much of the lower river suffered severe pollution during the 19th and 20th centuries because of the development. Although the health of the river has improved due to enactment of the 1972 Clean Water Act and other environmental legislation, the decline of industry along the river, it still suffers from substantial degradation of water quality; the sediment at the mouth of the river near Newark Bay remains contaminated by such pollutants as dioxin. The dioxin was generated principally by the Diamond Shamrock Chemical Plant in Newark, as a waste product resulting from the production of the agent orange defoliation chemical used during the Vietnam War; the cleanup of the dioxin contamination on the bottom of the river is the subject of a major environmental lawsuit regarding the responsibility for the cleanup.
In 2008 the U. S. Environmental Protection Agency reached a settlement with Occidental Chemical Cor
Woonsocket, Rhode Island
Woonsocket is a city in Providence County, Rhode Island, United States. The population was 41,186 at the 2010 census. Woonsocket lies directly south of the Massachusetts state line and constitutes part of both the Providence metropolitan area and the larger Greater Boston Combined Statistical Area; the city is the corporate headquarters of a pharmacy services provider. It is home to Landmark Medical Center, the Museum of Work and Culture, the American-French Genealogical Society. Before the arrival of European settlers in northern Rhode Island during the 17th century, today's Woonsocket region was inhabited by three Native American tribes—the Nipmucs and Narragansetts. In 1661, the English theologian Roger Williams purchased the area from the "Coweset and Nipmucks", in a letter referred to modern day Woonsocket as "Niswosakit". Other possible derivations to the name include several Nipmuc geographic names from nearby Massachusetts; these include Woonksechocksett, from Worcester County meaning "fox country", Wannashowatuckqut from Worcester County, meaning "at the fork of the river".
Another theory states Woonsocket derives from "thunder mist", in reference to the largest waterfall on the Blackstone River, which lies at the center of the city. Yet another theory proposes that the city was named after Woonsocket Hill in neighboring North Smithfield. Woonsocket Falls Village was founded in the 1820s, its fortunes expanded. With the Blackstone River providing ample water power, the region became a prime location for textile mills. In 1831 Edward Harris built his first textile mill in Woonsocket. Woonsocket as a town was not established until 1867 when three villages in the town of Cumberland, namely Woonsocket Falls and Jenckesville became the town of Woonsocket. By this time the beginnings of the French Canadian emigration had been felt. In 1871, three additional industrial villages in Smithfield, Hamlet and Globe, were added to the town establishing its present boundaries. Woonsocket was incorporated as city in 1888. During the Great Depression the local textile industry closed.
At this point 75 percent of the population was of French-Canadian descent. French-language newspapers were published and sold here, radio programs and movies shown were in French. Most conversations in public were in French; the city's fortunes were revived in World War II, when it became a center of fabric manufacturing for the war effort. In the postwar years, the Woonsocket economy adjusted to a mix of manufacturing, retail and financial services operations. However, in the early 1980s Woonsocket was again plagued by high unemployment rates. In 1980 seventy percent of Woonsocket's population was French-Canadian descent. Beginning in 1979, Woonsocket became home to Autumnfest, an annual cultural festival that takes place on Columbus Day Weekend, at World War II Veteran's Memorial State Park, it has become one of the city's most popular events. According to the United States Census Bureau, the city has a total area of 8.0 square miles, of which 7.7 square miles is land and 0.3 square miles is water.
Woonsocket is drained by the Blackstone River. Adjacent communities include Blackstone and Bellingham, along with Cumberland and North Smithfield, Rhode Island. Woonsocket has a strong humid continental climate with four distinct seasons. Being influenced by both the sea and the interior during winter, diurnal temperature variation is high, with days most being above freezing before severe frosts hit at night. At the 2010 census Woonsocket had a population of 41,186; the population was 71.3% non-Hispanic white, 14.2% Hispanic or Latino, 6.4% African American, 5.4% Asian, 0.4% Native American and 4.3% reporting two or more races. At the census of 2000, there were 43,224 people, 17,750 households, 10,774 families residing in the city; the population density was 5,608.8 people per square mile. There were 18,757 housing units at an average density of 2,433.9 per square mile. The racial makeup of the city was 83.14% White, 4.44% African American, 0.32% Native American, 4.06% Asian, 0.03% Pacific Islander, 4.86% from other races, 3.14% from two or more races.
Hispanic or Latino of any race were 9.32% of the population. Woonsocket is a part of the Providence metropolitan area, which has an estimated population of 1,622,520. There were 17,750 households out of which 31.2% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 39.4% were married couples living together, 16.2% had a female householder with no husband present, 39.3% were non-families. 32.7% of all households were made up of individuals and 12.5% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.37 and the average family size was 3.02. In the city, the population was spread out with 25.8% under the age of 18, 9.2% from 18 to 24, 30.0% from 25 to 44, 19.7% from 45 to 64, 15.2% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 35 years. For every 100 females, there were 91.2 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 86.8 males. The median income for a household in the city was $30,819, the median income for a family was $38,353. Males had a median income of $31,465 versus $24,638 for females.
The per capita income for the city was $16,223. About 16.7% of families and 19.4% of the population were below the poverty line, including 31.3% of those under age 18 and 14.7% of those age 65 or over. In March 2013, the Washington Post reported that one-third of Woonsocket’s population used food stamps, putting local merchants on a "boom
Rail transport is a means of transferring of passengers and goods on wheeled vehicles running on rails known as tracks. It is commonly referred to as train transport. In contrast to road transport, where vehicles run on a prepared flat surface, rail vehicles are directionally guided by the tracks on which they run. Tracks consist of steel rails, installed on ties and ballast, on which the rolling stock fitted with metal wheels, moves. Other variations are possible, such as slab track, where the rails are fastened to a concrete foundation resting on a prepared subsurface. Rolling stock in a rail transport system encounters lower frictional resistance than road vehicles, so passenger and freight cars can be coupled into longer trains; the operation is carried out by a railway company, providing transport between train stations or freight customer facilities. Power is provided by locomotives which either draw electric power from a railway electrification system or produce their own power by diesel engines.
Most tracks are accompanied by a signalling system. Railways are a safe land transport system. Railway transport is capable of high levels of passenger and cargo utilization and energy efficiency, but is less flexible and more capital-intensive than road transport, when lower traffic levels are considered; the oldest known, man/animal-hauled railways date back to the 6th century BC in Greece. Rail transport commenced in mid 16th century in Germany in the form of horse-powered funiculars and wagonways. Modern rail transport commenced with the British development of the steam locomotives in the early 19th century, thus the railway system in Great Britain is the oldest in the world. Built by George Stephenson and his son Robert's company Robert Stephenson and Company, the Locomotion No. 1 is the first steam locomotive to carry passengers on a public rail line, the Stockton and Darlington Railway in 1825. George Stephenson built the first public inter-city railway line in the world to use only the steam locomotives all the time, the Liverpool and Manchester Railway which opened in 1830.
With steam engines, one could construct mainline railways, which were a key component of the Industrial Revolution. Railways reduced the costs of shipping, allowed for fewer lost goods, compared with water transport, which faced occasional sinking of ships; the change from canals to railways allowed for "national markets" in which prices varied little from city to city. The spread of the railway network and the use of railway timetables, led to the standardisation of time in Britain based on Greenwich Mean Time. Prior to this, major towns and cities varied their local time relative to GMT; the invention and development of the railway in the United Kingdom was one of the most important technological inventions of the 19th century. The world's first underground railway, the Metropolitan Railway, opened in 1863. In the 1880s, electrified trains were introduced, leading to electrification of tramways and rapid transit systems. Starting during the 1940s, the non-electrified railways in most countries had their steam locomotives replaced by diesel-electric locomotives, with the process being complete by the 2000s.
During the 1960s, electrified high-speed railway systems were introduced in Japan and in some other countries. Many countries are in the process of replacing diesel locomotives with electric locomotives due to environmental concerns, a notable example being Switzerland, which has electrified its network. Other forms of guided ground transport outside the traditional railway definitions, such as monorail or maglev, have been tried but have seen limited use. Following a decline after World War II due to competition from cars, rail transport has had a revival in recent decades due to road congestion and rising fuel prices, as well as governments investing in rail as a means of reducing CO2 emissions in the context of concerns about global warming; the history of rail transport began in the 6th century BC in Ancient Greece. It can be divided up into several discrete periods defined by the principal means of track material and motive power used. Evidence indicates that there was 6 to 8.5 km long Diolkos paved trackway, which transported boats across the Isthmus of Corinth in Greece from around 600 BC.
Wheeled vehicles pulled by men and animals ran in grooves in limestone, which provided the track element, preventing the wagons from leaving the intended route. The Diolkos was in use for over 650 years, until at least the 1st century AD; the paved trackways were later built in Roman Egypt. In 1515, Cardinal Matthäus Lang wrote a description of the Reisszug, a funicular railway at the Hohensalzburg Fortress in Austria; the line used wooden rails and a hemp haulage rope and was operated by human or animal power, through a treadwheel. The line still exists and is operational, although in updated form and is the oldest operational railway. Wagonways using wooden rails, hauled by horses, started appearing in the 1550s to facilitate the transport of ore tubs to and from mines, soon became popular in Europe; such an operation was illustrated in Germany in 1556 by Georgius Agricola in his work De re metallica. This line used "Hund" carts with unflanged wheels running on wooden planks and a vertical pin on the truck fitting into the gap between the planks to keep it going the right way.
The miners called the wagons Hunde from the noise. There are many references to their use in central Europe in the 16th century; such a transport system was used by German miners at Cal
Bridgeport is a historic seaport city in the U. S. state of Connecticut. It is in Fairfield County, at the mouth of the Pequonnock River on Long Island Sound, 60 miles from Manhattan and 40 miles from The Bronx, it is bordered by the towns of Trumbull to the north, Fairfield to the west, Stratford to the east. As of 2017, Bridgeport had an estimated population of 146,579, which made it the largest city in Connecticut and the fifth-most populous in New England; the Greater Bridgeport area is the 48th-largest urban area in the United States. The showman P. T. Barnum was a resident of the city and served as the town's mayor in the late 19th century. Barnum housed his circus in town during winter; the first Subway restaurant opened in Bridgeport's North End in 1965. The Frisbie Pie Company was in Bridgeport, Bridgeport is credited as the birthplace of the Frisbee. After World War II, industrial restructuring and suburbanization caused the loss of many jobs and affluent residents, leaving Bridgeport struggling with poverty and crime.
Bridgeport was inhabited by the Paugussett native American tribe at the time of its English colonization. The earliest European communal settlement was in the historical Stratfield district, along US Route 1. Closeby, Mount Grove Cemetery was laid out on what was a native village that extended past the 1650s, it is an ancient Paugusett burial ground. The English farming community grew and became a center of trade and whaling; the town incorporated to subsidize the Housatonic Railroad and industrialized following the rail line's connection to the New York and New Haven railroad. The namesake of the town was the need for bridges over the Pequonnock River that provided a navigable port at the mouth of the river. Manufacturing was the mainstay of the local economy until the 1970s; the first documented English settlement within the present city limits of Bridgeport took place in 1644, centered at Black Rock Harbor and along North Avenue between Park and Briarwood Avenues. The place was called Pequonnock, after a band of the Paugussett, an Algonquian-speaking Native American people who occupied this area.
One of their sacred sites was Golden Hill, which overlooked the harbor and was the location of natural springs and their planting fields. The Golden Hill Indians were granted a reservation here by the Colony of Connecticut in 1639. Bridgeport's early years were marked by residents' reliance on farming; this was similar to the economy of the Paugusset, who had cultivated corn and squash. A village called Newfield began to develop around the corner of State and Water streets in the 1760s; the area became known as Stratfield in 1695 or 1701, due to its location between the existing towns of Stratford and Fairfield. During the American Revolution, Newfield Harbor was a center of privateering. By the time of the State of Connecticut's ratification of the American constitution in 1781, many of the local farmers held shares in vessels trading at Newfield Harbor or had begun trading in their own name. Newfield expanded around the coasting trade with Boston, New York, Baltimore and the international trade with the West Indies.
The commercial activity of the village was clustered around the wharves on the west bank of the Pequonnock, while the churches were erected inland on Broad Street. In 1800, the village the first so incorporated in the state, it was named for the Newfield or Lottery Bridge across the Pequonnock, connecting the wharves on its east and west banks. Bridgeport Bank was established in 1806. In 1821, the township of Bridgeport became independent of Stratford; the West India trade died down around 1840, but by that time the Bridgeport Steamship Company and Bridgeport Whaling Company had been incorporated and the Housatonic Railroad chartered. The HRRC ran upstate along the Housatonic Valley, connecting with Massachusetts's Berkshire Railroad at the state line. Bridgeport was chartered as Connecticut's fifth city in 1836 in order to enable the town council to secure funding to provide to the HRRC and ensure that it would terminate in Bridgeport; the Naugatuck Railroad—connecting Bridgeport to Waterbury and Winsted along the Naugatuck—was chartered in 1845 and began operation four years later.
The same year, the New York and New Haven Railroad began operation, connecting Bridgeport to New York and the other towns along the north shore of the Long Island Sound. Now a major junction for western Connecticut, the city industrialized. Following the Civil War, it held several iron foundries and factories manufacturing firearms, metallic cartridges, horse harnesses and blinds. Wheeler & Wilson's sewing machines were exported throughout the world. Bridgeport annexed the West End and the village of Black Rock and its busy harbor in 1870. In 1875, P. T. Barnum was elected mayor of the town, which afterwards served as the winter headquarters of Barnum and Bailey's Circus and Buffalo Bill's Wild West Show. From 1870 to 1910, Bridgeport became the major industrial center of Connecticut and its population rose from around 25,000 to over 100,000, including thousands of Irish, Hungarians, Germans and Italian immigrants. Among the initiatives, the Singer factory joined Wheeler & Wilson in producing sewing machines and the Locomobile Company of America was a prom
Stratford is a town in Fairfield County, United States. It is situated on Long Island Sound along Connecticut's "Gold Coast" at the mouth of the Housatonic River. Stratford is in the Bridgeport–Stamford–Norwalk Metropolitan Statistical Area, it was founded by Puritans in 1639. The population was 51,384 as of the 2010 census, it is bordered on the west by Bridgeport, to the north by Trumbull and Shelton, on the east by Milford. Stratford has a historical legacy in aviation, the military, theater. Stratford was founded in 1639 by Puritan leader Reverend Adam Blakeman, William Beardsley, either 16 families or 35 families who had arrived in Connecticut from England seeking religious freedom. In 1639 the General Court in Hartford made reference to the town as the "new plantation at Pequannock". In 1640 the community was known as Cupheag, a Native American Paugussett word meaning "at the enclosed place" or "place of shelter". By April 13, 1643, the growing town was known as Stratford, changed to honor William Shakespeare's birthplace of Stratford-upon-Avon in England.
Stratford is one of many towns in the northeastern American colonies founded as part of the Great Migration in the 1630s when Puritan families fled an polarized England in the decade before the civil war between Charles I and Parliament. Some of the Stratford settlers were from families who had first moved from England to the Netherlands to seek religious freedom, like their predecessors on the Mayflower, decided to come to the New World when their children began to adopt the Dutch culture and language. Like other Puritan or Pilgrim towns founded during this time, early Stratford was a place where church leadership and town leadership were united under the pastor of the church, in this case Reverend Blakeman; the goal of these communities was to create perfect outposts of religious idealism where the wilderness would separate them from the interference of kings, parliaments, or any other secular authority. Blakeman ruled Stratford until his death in 1665, but as the second generation of Stratford grew up, many of the children rejected what they perceived as the exceptional austerity of the town's founders.
This and generations sought to change the religious dictums of their elders, the utopian nature of Stratford and similar communities was replaced with more standard colonial administration. By the late 17th century, the Connecticut government had assumed political control over Stratford. Many descendants of the original founding Puritan families remain in Stratford today after over 350 years. Despite its Puritan origins, Stratford was the site of the first Anglican church in Connecticut, founded in 1707 and ministered by the Rev. Dr. Samuel Johnson. Settlers from Stratford went on to found other American cities and towns, including Newark, New Jersey, established in 1666 by members of the Stratford founding families who believed the town's religious purity had been compromised by the changes after Blakeman's death. Other towns such as Cambria, New York were founded or expanded around new churches by Stratford descendants taking part in the westward migration. U. S. President Gerald Ford was a descendant of one of the Stratford founding families, led by William Judson.
Stratford was one of the two principal settlements in southwestern Connecticut, the other being Fairfield. Over time it gave rise to several new towns that incorporated separately; the following towns were created from parts of Stratford: Shelton in 1789. In 1789 Ripton Parish became the Town of Huntington. Monroe created from Huntington in 1823Nichols Long Hill, North Stratford separated from Stratford and became the town of Trumbull in 1797Bridgeport in 1821 According to the United States Census Bureau, the town has a total area of 19.9 square miles, of which 17.6 square miles is land and 2.3 square miles, or 11.52%, is water. Stratford has a minimum elevation of zero feet above sea level along its coastline, with a maximum altitude of 295 feet near its northern border, an average elevation of 23 feet; the town contains all in the Housatonic River. These are Carting Island, Long Island, Peacock Island, Pope's Flat north of Interstate 95, as well as Goose Island. None of these islands are habitable because of their low elevations.
A sixth island known as Brinsmade Island washed away prior to 1964. Long Beach – Approximately 1.5 miles long, the eastern end of the beach is open to the public and has parking and lifeguards. The central part of the beach is a nature preserve whose land is set aside for wildlife nesting seabirds, such as kestrels and ospreys; the western end of the beach was once the site of about 40 cottages, which were abandoned because of the town's discontinuation of the lease to the land. The cottages were demolished in fall 2010. Russian Beach – Located between Long and Short beaches, Russian Beach has parking and the Point-No-Point walkway. Fishing is allowed. Short Beach – Short Beach Park is 30 acres in size and sits at the mouth of the Housatonic River, it has three picnic pavilions, basketball courts, tennis courts, volleyball courts, a handicapped-accessible playground, a skateboard park, a lighted softball field, a soccer field, two baseball fields and a lacrosse field. The bea
Central Falls, Rhode Island
Central Falls is a city in Providence County, Rhode Island, United States. The population was 19,376 at the 2010 census. With an area of only 1.29 square miles, it is the smallest and most densely populated city in the smallest state, the 27th most densely populated incorporated place in the United States. It is one of only four incorporated places in New England that have a higher population density than the city of Boston; the city takes its name from a waterfall on the Blackstone River. In May 2010, Central Falls went into receivership filed for bankruptcy August 1, 2011. Prior to the arrival of Europeans the area was home to Nipmuc and Narragansett peoples. Central Falls has historic significance as being the site of a major battle during King Philip's War, it was here on March 26, 1676 that Narragansett Indians ambushed Captain Michael Pierce and his Plymouth Colony troops who were pursuing them. Nearly all those ambushed were killed including nine taken prisoner and tortured to death at nearby Cumberland, Rhode Island.
A stone memorial marks the mass grave at the site known as "Nine Men's Misery". In the 18th century, Captain Stephen Jenks built a trip hammer and blacksmith shop along the Blackstone River, forming the nucleus of what would become Central Falls. Other manufacturers, including a chocolate maker, set up shop in the building and the new village became known as Chocolateville. In 1824, Stephen Jenks suggested thus giving the village its permanent name. Central Falls was one of the many villages within the town of Smithfield, but in 1871, having experienced a growth spurt, it split into three smaller towns: Smithfield, North Smithfield and Lincoln. Central Falls became part of the town of Lincoln. Lincoln experienced its own growth spurt, so in 1895 Lincoln split into two towns, giving birth to the city of Central Falls. While Quakers made up the majority of the first European settlers in the area, they were soon followed by a diverse mix of immigrants from Ireland and French Canada. By the 20th century, Central Falls had experienced its own population explosion and for a while was the most densely populated city in the United States.
In recent decades, a large number of Hispanic immigrants have found a home in Central Falls. Central Falls has always been an diverse city, so much so that when the city celebrated its 100th anniversary with a parade in 1995, more than 100 countries were represented. Central Falls is located at 41°53′24″N 71°23′33″W. According to the United States Census Bureau, the city has a total area of 1.3 square miles, of which 1.2 square miles is land and 0.1 square miles is water. It is drained by the Blackstone River; as of the census of 2000, there were 18,928 people, 6,696 households, 4,359 families residing in the city. The population density was 15,652.0 people per square mile. There were 7,270 housing units at an average density of 6,011.7 per square mile. The racial makeup of the city was 57.16% White, 5.82% African American, 0.57% Native American, 0.68% Asian, 0.04% Pacific Islander, 28.35% from other races, 7.38% from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 47.77% of the population.
There were 6,696 households out of which 38.9% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 36.4% were married couples living together, 21.6% had a female householder with no husband present, 34.9% were non-families. 29.3% of all households were made up of individuals and 12.7% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.74 and the average family size was 3.38. In the city, the population was spread out with 29.2% under the age of 18, 11.8% from 18 to 24, 31.6% from 25 to 44, 15.8% from 45 to 64, 11.5% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 30 years. For every 100 females, there were 98.7 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 93.7 males. The median income for a household in the city was $22,628, the median income for a family was $26,844. Males had a median income of $23,854 versus $18,544 for females; the per capita income for the city was $10,825. About 25.9% of families and 29.0% of the population were below the poverty line, including 40.8% of those under age 18 and 29.3% of those age 65 or over.
As of the 2010 U. S. Census, Central Falls was the only majority-minority municipality in Rhode Island with 60.31 percent of its residents identifying as Hispanic/Latino with Puerto Ricans and Colombians making up the largest share among the ethnicity. According to the U. S. Census Bureau's American Community Survey, Central Falls had a median household income of $28,901 during the 2012-2016 estimates, making it the poorest municipality in Rhode Island. Residents are served by the Central Falls School District; this school district is appointed by the State of Rhode Island Department of Education. In February 2010, the entire faculty and administrative staff of Central Falls High School was fired after the teachers' union refused to accept one of the "No Child Left Behind" options for restructuring failing schools. In accordance with NCLB legislation, schools deemed failing have four options to follow for restructuring; the teachers' union refused to accept to work 25 minutes of extra time under the "transforming model", so the superintendent proceeded and chose the "turnaround model", which requires a district to fire the entire staff.
They may rehire up to 50% of the teachers for the beginning of the next school year. The school h
Keene, New Hampshire
Keene is a city in and the seat of Cheshire County, New Hampshire, United States. The population was 23,409 at the 2010 census. Keene is home to Antioch University New England, it hosted the state's annual pumpkin festival—then called the Keene Pumpkin Festival—from 1991 until 2014, after which the festival moved to Laconia. A new, child-focused Keene Pumpkin Festival, organized by the state festival's previous organizers, has taken its place in the city since 2017. In 1735 Colonial Governor Jonathan Belcher granted lots in the township of "Upper Ashuelot" to 63 settlers who paid five pounds each. Settled after 1736, it was intended to be a fort town protecting the Province of Massachusetts Bay from French and their Native allies during the French and Indian Wars, the North American front of the Seven Years' War; when the boundary between Massachusetts and New Hampshire was fixed in 1741, Upper Ashuelot became part of New Hampshire. In 1747, during King George's War, the village was burned by Natives.
Colonists fled to safety, but would return to rebuild in 1749. It was regranted to its inhabitants in 1753 by Governor Benning Wentworth, who renamed it "Keene" after Sir Benjamin Keene, English minister to Spain and a West Indies trader. Located at the center of Cheshire County, Keene was designated as the county seat in 1769. Land was set off for the towns of Sullivan and Roxbury, although Keene would annex 154 acres from Swanzey. Timothy Dwight, the Yale president who chronicled his travels, described the town as "...one of the prettiest in New England." Situated on an ancient lake bed surrounded by hills, the valley with fertile meadows was excellent for farming. The Ashuelot River was used to provided water power for sawmills and tanneries. After the railroad was constructed to the town in 1848, numerous other industries were established. Keene became a manufacturing center for wooden-ware, chairs, shutters, pottery, soap, woolen textiles, saddles, mowing machines and sleighs, it had a brickyard and foundry.
Keene was incorporated as a city in 1874, by 1880 had a population of 6,784. New England manufacturing declined in the 20th century, however during the Great Depression. Keene is today a center for insurance and tourism; the city retains a considerable inventory of fine Victorian architecture from its mill town era. An example is the Keene Public Library, which occupies a Second Empire mansion built about 1869 by manufacturer Henry Colony. Keene's manufacturing success was brought on in part by its importance as a railroad city; the Cheshire Railroad, Manchester & Keene Railroad, the Ashuelot Railroad all met here. By the early 1900s all had been absorbed by the Maine Railroad. Keene was home to two railroad yards; the Manchester & Keene Branch was abandoned following the floods of 1936. Beginning in 1945, Keene was a stopping point for the Boston & Maine's streamlined trainset known at that time as the Cheshire. Keene became notable in 1962 when F. Nelson Blount chose the city for the site of his Steamtown, U.
S. A. attraction. But Blount's plan fell through and, after one operating season in Keene, the museum was relocated to nearby Bellows Falls, Vermont; the Boston & Maine abandoned the Cheshire Branch in 1972, leaving the Ashuelot Branch as Keene's only rail connection to the outside world. In 1978 the B&M leased switching operations in Keene to the Green Mountain Railroad, which took over the entire Ashuelot Branch in 1982. Passenger decline and track conditions forced the Green Mountain to end service on the Ashuelot Branch in 1983 and return operating rights to the B&M. However, there were no longer enough customers to warrant service on the line. In 1984 the last train arrived in and departed Keene, consisting of Boston & Maine EMD GP9 1714, pulling flat cars to carry rails removed from the railyard. Track conditions on the Ashuelot Branch were so poor at the time that the engine returned light to Brattleboro. A hi-rail truck was used instead to remove the flatcars. In 1995 the freight house, one of the last remaining railroad buildings in town, burned due to arson.
Since the late 20th century, the railroad beds through town were redeveloped as the Cheshire Rail Trail and the Ashuelot Rail Trail. In 2011, radical activist Thomas Ball immolated himself on the steps of a courthouse in Keene to protest what he considered the court system's abuse of divorced fathers' rights. Keene is located at 42°56′01″N 72°16′41″W. According to the United States Census Bureau, the city has a total area of 37.5 square miles. 37.3 square miles of it is land and 0.3 square miles of it is water, comprising 0.67% of the town. Keene is drained by the Ashuelot River; the highest point in Keene is the summit of Grays Hill in the city's northwest corner, at 1,388 feet above sea level. Keene is within the Connecticut River watershed, with all of the city except for the northwest corner draining to the Connecticut via the Ashuelot. State highways converge on Keene from nine directions. New Hampshire Route 9 leads northeast to Concord, the state capital, west to Brattleboro, Vermont. Route 10 leads north to Newport and southwest to Massachusetts.
Route 12 leads northwest to Walpole and Charlestown and southeast to Massachusetts. Route 101 leads east to Peterborough and Manchester, Route 32 leads south to Swanzey, New Hampshire, to Athol and Route 12A leads north to Surry and Alstead. A limited-access bypass used variously by Routes 9, 10, 12, 101 passes around the north and south sides of downtown. Keene is served by Dillant–Hopkins Airport, located