Endemism is the ecological state of a species being unique to a defined geographic location, such as an island, country or other defined zone, or habitat type. The extreme opposite of endemism is cosmopolitan distribution. An alternative term for a species, endemic is precinctive, which applies to species that are restricted to a defined geographical area; the word endemic is from New Latin endēmicus, from Greek ενδήμος, endēmos, "native". Endēmos is formed of en meaning "in", dēmos meaning "the people"; the term "precinctive" has been suggested by some scientists, was first used in botany by MacCaughey in 1917. It is the equivalent of "endemism". Precinction was first used by Frank and McCoy. Precinctive seems to have been coined by David Sharp when describing the Hawaiian fauna in 1900: "I use the word precinctive in the sense of'confined to the area under discussion'...'precinctive forms' means those forms that are confined to the area specified." That definition excludes artificial confinement of examples by humans in far-off botanical gardens or zoological parks.
Physical and biological factors can contribute to endemism. The orange-breasted sunbird is found in the fynbos vegetation zone of southwestern South Africa; the glacier bear is found only in limited places in Southeast Alaska. Political factors can play a part if a species is protected, or hunted, in one jurisdiction but not another. There are two subcategories of endemism: neoendemism. Paleoendemism refers to species that were widespread but are now restricted to a smaller area. Neoendemism refers to species that have arisen, such as through divergence and reproductive isolation or through hybridization and polyploidy in plants. Endemic types or species are likely to develop on geographically and biologically isolated areas such as islands and remote island groups, such as Hawaii, the Galápagos Islands, Socotra. Hydrangea hirta is an example of an endemic species found in Japan. Endemics can become endangered or extinct if their restricted habitat changes, particularly—but not only—due to human actions, including the introduction of new organisms.
There were millions of both Bermuda petrels and "Bermuda cedars" in Bermuda when it was settled at the start of the seventeenth century. By the end of the century, the petrels were thought extinct. Cedars ravaged by centuries of shipbuilding, were driven nearly to extinction in the twentieth century by the introduction of a parasite. Bermuda petrels and cedars are now rare. Principal causes of habitat degradation and loss in endemistic ecosystems include agriculture, urban growth, surface mining, mineral extraction, logging operations and slash-and-burn agriculture
Aralia californica, known by the common name elk clover though not a clover, is a large herb in the family Araliaceae, the only member of the ginseng family native to California and southwestern Oregon. It is called California aralia and California spikenard, it is a deciduous, perennial plant growing to a height of 2–3 m on stems which are thick but not woody. The stems bear large green pinnately compound or tri-pinnately compound leaves 1–2 m long and 1 m broad, the leaflets 15–30 cm long and 7–15 cm broad; the leaflets are arranged opposite with an odd terminal leaflet. The greenish white flowers are produced in large compound racemes of umbels 30–45 cm in diameter at the stem apex, it is distributed into Oregon. It is more common in cooler, moister areas in northern California in the San Francisco Bay Area; this plant is sometimes substituted for other species of its genus which are used as herbal remedies, such as American spikenard and Japanese spikenard. A preparation of the root has traditionally been used as an anti-inflammatory and cough suppressant.
The Concow tribe call the plant mâl-ē-mē'. Jepson Flora Project: Aralia californica USDA Plants Profile Photo gallery
Sequoia sempervirens is the sole living species of the genus Sequoia in the cypress family Cupressaceae. Common names include coastal redwood and California redwood, it is an evergreen, long-lived, monoecious tree living 1,200 -- more. This species includes the tallest living trees on Earth, reaching up to 379 feet in height and up to 29.2 feet in diameter at breast height. These trees are among the oldest living things on Earth. Before commercial logging and clearing began by the 1850s, this massive tree occurred in an estimated 2,100,000 acres along much of coastal California and the southwestern corner of coastal Oregon within the United States; the name sequoia sometimes refers to the subfamily Sequoioideae, which includes S. sempervirens along with Sequoiadendron and Metasequoia. Here, the term redwood on its own refers to the species covered in this article, not to the other two species. Scottish botanist David Don described the redwood as the evergreen taxodium in his colleague Aylmer Bourke Lambert's 1824 work A description of the genus Pinus.
Austrian botanist Stephan Endlicher erected the genus Sequoia in his 1847 work Synopsis coniferarum, giving the redwood its current binomial name of Sequoia sempervirens. Endlicher derived the name Sequoia from the Cherokee name of George Gist spelled Sequoyah, who developed the still-used Cherokee syllabary; the redwood is one of each in its own genus, in the subfamily Sequoioideae. Molecular studies have shown that the three are each other's closest relatives with the redwood and giant sequoia as each other's closest relatives; however and colleagues in 2010 queried the polyploid state of the redwood and speculate that it may have arisen as an ancient hybrid between ancestors of the giant sequoia and dawn redwood. Using two different single copy nuclear genes, LFY and NLY, to generate phylogenetic trees, they found that Sequoia was clustered with Metasequoia in the tree generated using the LFY gene, but with Sequoiadendron in the tree generated with the NLY gene. Further analysis supported the hypothesis that Sequoia was the result of a hybridization event involving Metasequoia and Sequoiadendron.
Thus and colleagues hypothesize that the inconsistent relationships among Metasequoia and Sequoiadendron could be a sign of reticulate evolution among the three genera. However, the long evolutionary history of the three genera make resolving the specifics of when and how Sequoia originated once and for all a difficult matter—especially since it in part depends on an incomplete fossil record; the coast redwood can reach 115 m tall with a trunk diameter of 9 m. It has a conical crown, with horizontal to drooping branches; the bark can be thick, up to 1-foot, quite soft and fibrous, with a bright red-brown color when freshly exposed, weathering darker. The root system is composed of wide-spreading lateral roots; the leaves are variable, being 15–25 mm long and flat on young trees and shaded shoots in the lower crown of old trees. On the other hand, they are scale-like, 5–10 mm long on shoots in full sun in the upper crown of older trees, with a full range of transition between the two extremes.
They have two blue-white stomatal bands below. Leaf arrangement is spiral, but the larger shade leaves are twisted at the base to lie in a flat plane for maximum light capture; the species is monoecious, with seed cones on the same plant. The seed cones are ovoid, 15–32 mm long, with 15–25 spirally arranged scales; each cone scale bears three to seven seeds, each seed 3–4 mm long and 0.5 mm broad, with two wings 1 mm wide. The seeds are open at maturity; the pollen cones are 4 -- 6 mm long. Its genetic makeup is unusual among conifers, being a hexaploid and allopolyploid. Both the mitochondrial and chloroplast genomes of the redwood are paternally inherited. Coast redwoods occupy a narrow strip of land 750 km in length and 5–47 mi in width along the Pacific coast of North America; the prevailing elevation range is 98–2,460 ft above sea level down to 0 and up to 3,000 ft. They grow in the mountains where precipitation from the incoming moisture off the ocean is greater; the tallest and oldest trees are found in deep valleys and gullies, where year-round streams can flow, fog drip is regular.
The trees above the fog layer, above about 2,296 ft, are shorter and smaller due to the drier and colder conditions. In addition, Douglas fir and tanoak crowd out redwoods at these elevations. Few redwoods grow close to the ocean, due to intense salt spray and wind. Coalescence of coastal fog accounts for a considerable part of the trees' water needs; the northern boundary of its range is marked by groves on the Chetco River on the western fringe of the Klamath Mountains, near the California-Oregon border. The largest populations are in Redwood National and State Parks (Del Norte and Humbo
Alnus rubra, the red alder, is a deciduous broadleaf tree native to western North America. Red alder is the largest species of alder in North America and one of the largest in the world, reaching heights of 20 to 30 m; the official tallest red alder stands 32 m tall in Oregon. The name derives from the bright rusty red color that develops in scraped bark; the bark is mottled, ashy-gray and smooth colonized by white lichen and moss. The leaves are ovate, 7 to 15 centimetres long, with bluntly serrated edges and a distinct point at the end; the leaves turn yellow in the autumn before falling. The male flowers are dangling reddish catkins 10 to 15 cm long in early spring. Female flowers occur in clusters of 4–6. Female catkins are otherwise pendant, they develop into small, superficially cone-like oval dry fruit 2 to 3 cm long. The seeds are shed in late autumn and winter. Red alder seeds have a membranous winged margin. Alnus rubra grows from southeast Alaska south to central coastal California, nearly always within about 200 km of the Pacific coast, except for an extension 600 km inland across Washington and Oregon into northernmost Montana.
In southern Alaska, western British Columbia and the northwestern Coast Ranges of the United States, red alder grows on cool and moist slopes. Red alder is associated with coast Douglas-fir Pseudotsuga menziesii subsp. Menziesii, western hemlock Tsuga heterophylla, grand fir Abies grandis, western redcedar Thuja plicata, Sitka spruce Picea sitchensis forests. Along streambanks it is associated with willows Salix spp. red osier dogwood Cornus stolonifera, Oregon ash Fraxinus latifolia and bigleaf maple Acer macrophyllum. To the southeast of its range it is replaced by white alder, a tree of similar stature, but which differs in the leaf margins not being rolled under, lack of distinct lobes, lack of membranous wings on seed margins. In the high mountains it is replaced by the smaller and more shrub-like Sitka alder, east of the Cascade Mountains by thinleaf alder. In moist forest areas Alnus rubra will cover a former burn or clearcut preventing the establishment of conifers, it is a prolific seed producer, but the small, wind-dispersed seeds require an open area of mineral soil to germinate, so skid trails and other areas disturbed by logging or fire are ideal seedbeds.
Such areas may host several hundred thousand to several million seedlings per hectare in the first year after landscape disturbance. Twigs and buds of alder are only fair browse for wildlife, though deer and elk do browse the twigs in fall and twigs and buds in the winter and spring. Beaver eat the bark, though it is not a preferred species. Several finches eat alder seeds, notably common redpoll and pine siskin, as do deer mice. Alnus rubra hosts the nitrogen fixing actinomycete Frankia in nodules on roots; this association allows alder to grow in nitrogen-poor soils. A russet dye can be made from a decoction of the bark and was used by Native Americans to dye fishing nets so as to make them less visible underwater. Native Americans used red alder bark to treat poison oak, insect bites, skin irritations. Blackfeet Indians used an infusion made from the bark of red alder to treat lymphatic disorders and tuberculosis. Recent clinical studies have verified that red alder contains betulin and lupeol, compounds shown to be effective against a variety of tumors.
Alnus rubra is an important early colonizer of disturbed forests and riparian areas because of its ability to fix nitrogen in the soil. This self-fertilizing trait allows red alder to grow and makes it effective in covering disturbed and/or degraded land, such as mine spoils. Alder leaves, shed in the fall, decay to form a nitrogen-enriched humus. Red alder is used as a rotation crop to discourage the conifer root pathogen Phellinus weirii. Alnus rubra are planted as ornamental trees and will do well in Swales, riparian areas, or on stream banks, in light-textured soils that drain well. Red alder does not thrive in wet clay soils. If planted domestically, alders should be planted well away from drainpipes, sewage pipes, water lines, as the roots may invade and clog the lines. Alder lumber is not considered to be a durable option for outdoor applications, but due to its workability and ease of finishing it is used for furniture and cabinetry; because it is softer than other popular hardwoods such as maple and ash alder has not been considered of high value for timber.
However it is now becoming one of the more popular hardwood alternatives as it is economically priced compared to many other hardwoods. In the world of musical instrument construction, red alder is valued by some electric guitar / electric bass builders for its balanced tonality. Alder is used by Native Americans for making masks, tool handles, other small goods; the appearance of alder lumber ranges from white through pinkish to light brown, has a soft texture, minimal grain, has medium luster. It is worked, glues well
Redwood National and State Parks
The Redwood National and State Parks are a complex of several state and national parks located in the United States, along the coast of northern California. Comprising Redwood National Park and California's Del Norte Coast, Jedediah Smith, Prairie Creek Redwoods State Parks, the combined RNSP contain 139,000 acres, feature old-growth temperate rainforests. Located within Del Norte and Humboldt Counties, the four parks, protect 45% of all remaining coast redwood old-growth forests, totaling at least 38,982 acres; these trees are one of the most massive tree species on Earth. In addition to the redwood forests, the parks preserve other indigenous flora, grassland prairie, cultural resources, portions of rivers and other streams, 37 miles of pristine coastline. In 1850, old-growth redwood forest covered more than 2,000,000 acres of the California coast; the northern portion of that area inhabited by Native Americans, attracted many lumbermen and others turned gold miners when a minor gold rush brought them to the region.
Failing in efforts to strike it rich in gold, these men turned toward harvesting the giant trees for booming development in San Francisco and other places on the West Coast. After many decades of unrestricted clear-cut logging, serious efforts toward conservation began. By the 1920s the work of the Save the Redwoods League, founded in 1918 to preserve remaining old-growth redwoods, resulted in the establishment of Prairie Creek, Del Norte Coast, Jedediah Smith Redwoods State Parks among others. Redwood National Park was created in 1968, by which time nearly 90% of the original redwood trees had been logged; the National Park Service and the California Department of Parks and Recreation administratively combined Redwood National Park with the three abutting Redwood State Parks in 1994 for the purpose of cooperative forest management and stabilization of forests and watersheds as a single unit. The ecosystem of the RNSP preserves a number of threatened animal species such as the tidewater goby, Chinook salmon, northern spotted owl, Steller's sea lion.
In recognition of the rare ecosystem and cultural history found in the parks, the United Nations designated them a World Heritage Site on September 5, 1980 and part of the California Coast Ranges International Biosphere Reserve on June 30, 1983. Modern day native groups such as the Yurok, Karok and Wiyot all have historical ties to the region, some Native American groups still live in the park area today. Archaeological study shows. An 1852 census determined that the Yurok were the most numerous, with 55 villages and an estimated population of 2,500, they used the abundant redwood, which with its linear grain was split into planks, as a building material for boats and small villages. For buildings, the planks would be erected side by side in a narrow trench, with the upper portions bound with leather strapping and held by notches cut into the supporting roof beams. Redwood boards were used to form a shallow sloping roof. Previous to Jedediah Smith in 1828, no other explorer of European descent is known to have investigated the inland region away from the immediate coast.
The discovery of gold along the Trinity River in 1850 led to a minor secondary rush in California. This brought miners into the area and many stayed on at the coast after failing to strike it rich; this led to conflicts wherein native peoples were placed under great strain, if not forcibly removed or massacred. By 1895, only one third of the Yurok in one group of villages remained; the miners logged redwoods for building. Over 2,000,000 acres of the California and southwestern coast of Oregon were old-growth redwood forest, but by 1910, extensive logging led conservationists and concerned citizens to begin seeking ways to preserve the remaining trees, which they saw being logged at an alarming rate. In 1911, U. S. Representative John E. Raker, of California, became the first politician to introduce legislation for the creation of a redwood national park. However, no further action was taken by Congress at that time. Preservation of the redwood stands in California is considered one of the most substantial conservation contributions of the Boone and Crockett Club.
The Save the Redwoods League was founded in 1918 by Boone and Crockett Club members Madison Grant, John C. Merriam, Henry Fairfield Osborn, future member, Frederick Russell Burnham; the initial purchases of land were made by club member Stephen William Kent. In 1921, Boone and Crockett Club member John C. Phillips donated $32,000 to purchase land and create the Raynal Bolling Memorial Grove in the Humboldt Redwoods State Park; this was timely as U. S. Route 101, which would soon provide nearly unfettered access to the trees, was under construction. Using matching funds provided by the County of Humboldt and by the State of California, the Save the Redwoods League] managed to protect areas of concentrated or multiple redwood groves and a few entire forests in the 1920s; as California created a state park system, beginning in 1927, three of the preserved redwood areas became Prairie Creek Redwoods, Del Norte Coast Redwoods, Jedediah Smith Redwoods State Parks. A fourth became Humboldt Redwoods State Park, by far the largest of the individual Redwood State Parks, but not in the Redwood National and State Park system.
Because of the
Vaccinium ovatum is a North American species of flowering shrub known by the common names evergreen huckleberry, winter huckleberry and California huckleberry. Vaccinium ovatum is a small to medium-sized evergreen shrub native to the Western Pacific Coast of the United States and coastal British Columbia. Typical flora associates are such plants as the western sword fern, coastal woodfern, California snowberry, common snowberry, thimbleberry. Found sprouting from nurse logs and growing in conjunction with red huckleberry. Vaccinium ovatum is a true huckleberry plant, growing well in shade or sun and thriving in acidic soils. Not needing much sun, the plant has a wide variety of forest homes; the shiny, alternately arranged, egg-shaped leaves are 2 to 3 centimeters long and about a centimeter wide with finely serrated edges. During the summer the plant produces round, edible black berries up to a centimeter in diameter. Traditionally huckleberries were sought after and collected by many Native American tribes along the Pacific coast in the region.
Vaccinium ovatum is grown as an ornamental plant for horticultural use by specialty wholesale and botanic garden native plant nurseries. The plant is successful in natural landscape and native plant palette style, habitat gardens and public sustainable landscape and restoration projects that are similar to its habitat conditions. Vaccinium parvifolium California mixed evergreen forest Huckleberry Botanic Regional Preserve Stephen Foster and Christopher Hobbs. 2002. Western Medicinal Herbs. Houghton Miller Company, New York, NY. Calflora Database: Vaccinium ovatum Jepson eFlora treatment of Vaccinium ovatum United States Department of Agriculture Plants Profile for Vaccinium ovatum United States Department of Agriculture, National Forest Service: Vaccinium ovatum Vaccinium ovatum — Calphotos Photo gallery, University of California
Oregon is a state in the Pacific Northwest region on the West Coast of the United States. The Columbia River delineates much of Oregon's northern boundary with Washington, while the Snake River delineates much of its eastern boundary with Idaho; the parallel 42 ° north delineates the southern boundary with Nevada. Oregon is one of only four states of the continental United States to have a coastline on the Pacific Ocean. Oregon was inhabited by many indigenous tribes before Western traders and settlers arrived. An autonomous government was formed in the Oregon Country in 1843 before the Oregon Territory was created in 1848. Oregon became the 33rd state on February 14, 1859. Today, at 98,000 square miles, Oregon is the ninth largest and, with a population of 4 million, 27th most populous U. S. state. The capital, Salem, is the second most populous city in Oregon, with 169,798 residents. Portland, with 647,805, ranks as the 26th among U. S. cities. The Portland metropolitan area, which includes the city of Vancouver, Washington, to the north, ranks the 25th largest metro area in the nation, with a population of 2,453,168.
Oregon is one of the most geographically diverse states in the U. S. marked by volcanoes, abundant bodies of water, dense evergreen and mixed forests, as well as high deserts and semi-arid shrublands. At 11,249 feet, Mount Hood, a stratovolcano, is the state's highest point. Oregon's only national park, Crater Lake National Park, comprises the caldera surrounding Crater Lake, the deepest lake in the United States; the state is home to the single largest organism in the world, Armillaria ostoyae, a fungus that runs beneath 2,200 acres of the Malheur National Forest. Because of its diverse landscapes and waterways, Oregon's economy is powered by various forms of agriculture and hydroelectric power. Oregon is the top timber producer of the contiguous United States, the timber industry dominated the state's economy in the 20th century. Technology is another one of Oregon's major economic forces, beginning in the 1970s with the establishment of the Silicon Forest and the expansion of Tektronix and Intel.
Sportswear company Nike, Inc. headquartered in Beaverton, is the state's largest public corporation with an annual revenue of $30.6 billion. The earliest evidence of the name Oregon has Spanish origins; the term "orejón" comes from the historical chronicle Relación de la Alta y Baja California written by the new Spaniard Rodrigo Montezuma and made reference to the Columbia River when the Spanish explorers penetrated into the actual North American territory that became part of the Viceroyalty of New Spain. This chronicle is the first topographical and linguistic source with respect to the place name Oregon. There are two other sources with Spanish origins, such as the name Oregano, which grows in the southern part of the region, it is most probable that the American territory was named by the Spaniards, as there are some populations in Spain such as "Arroyo del Oregón" considering that the individualization in Spanish language "El Orejón" with the mutation of the letter "g" instead of "j". Another early use of the name, spelled Ouragon, was in a 1765 petition by Major Robert Rogers to the Kingdom of Great Britain.
The term referred to the then-mythical River of the West. By 1778, the spelling had shifted to Oregon. In his 1765 petition, Rogers wrote: The rout...is from the Great Lakes towards the Head of the Mississippi, from thence to the River called by the Indians Ouragon... One theory is that the name comes from the French word ouragan, applied to the River of the West based on Native American tales of powerful Chinook winds on the lower Columbia River, or from firsthand French experience with the Chinook winds of the Great Plains. At the time, the River of the West was thought to rise in western Minnesota and flow west through the Great Plains. Joaquin Miller explained in Sunset magazine, in 1904, how Oregon's name was derived: The name, Oregon, is rounded down phonetically, from Ouve água—Oragua, Or-a-gon, Oregon—given by the same Portuguese navigator that named the Farallones after his first officer, it in a large way, means cascades:'Hear the waters.' You should steam up the Columbia and hear and feel the waters falling out of the clouds of Mount Hood to understand the full meaning of the name Ouve a água, Oregon.
Another account, endorsed as the "most plausible explanation" in the book Oregon Geographic Names, was advanced by George R. Stewart in a 1944 article in American Speech. According to Stewart, the name came from an engraver's error in a French map published in the early 18th century, on which the Ouisiconsink River was spelled "Ouaricon-sint", broken on two lines with the -sint below, so there appeared to be a river flowing to the west named "Ouaricon". According to the Oregon Tourism Commission, present-day Oregonians pronounce the state's name as "or-uh-gun, never or-ee-gone". After being drafted by the Detroit Lions in 2002, former Oregon Ducks quarterback Joey Harrington distributed "Orygun" stickers to members of the media as a reminder of how to pronounce the name of his home state; the stickers are sold by the University of Oregon Bookstore. Oregon is 295 miles north to south at longest distance, 395 miles east to west. With an area of 98,381 square miles, Oregon is larger than the United Kingdom.
It is the ninth largest state in the United States. Oregon's highest point is the summit of Mount Hood, at 11,249 feet, its lowest point is the sea level of the Pacific Ocean along the Oregon Coas