Imperial Japanese Army
The Imperial Japanese Army was the official ground-based armed force of the Empire of Japan from 1868 to 1945. It was controlled by the Imperial Japanese Army General Staff Office and the Ministry of the Army, both of which were nominally subordinate to the Emperor of Japan as supreme commander of the army and the navy. An Inspectorate General of Aviation became the third agency with oversight of the army. During wartime or national emergencies, the nominal command functions of the emperor would be centralized in an Imperial General Headquarters, an ad-hoc body consisting of the chief and vice chief of the Army General Staff, the Minister of the Army, the chief and vice chief of the Naval General Staff, the Inspector General of Aviation, the Inspector General of Military Training. In the mid-19th century, Japan had no unified national army and the country was made up of feudal domains with the Tokugawa shogunate in overall control, which had ruled Japan since 1603; the bakufu army, although large force, was only one among others, bakufu efforts to control the nation depended upon the cooperation of its vassals' armies.
The opening of the country after two centuries of seclusion subsequently led to the Meiji Restoration and the Boshin War in 1868. The domains of Satsuma and Chōshū came to dominate the coalition against the shogunate. On 27 January 1868, tensions between the shogunate and imperial sides came to a head when Tokugawa Yoshinobu marched on Kyoto, accompanied by a 15,000-strong force consisting of troops, trained by French military advisers, they were opposed by 5,000 troops from the Satsuma, Chōshū, Tosa domains. At the two road junctions of Toba and Fushimi just south of Kyoto, the two forces clashed. On the second day, an Imperial banner was given to the defending troops and a relative of the Emperor, Ninnajinomiya Yoshiaki, was named nominal commander in chief, in effect making the pro-imperial forces an Imperial army; the bafuku forces retreated to Osaka, with the remaining forces ordered to retreat to Edo. Yoshinobu and his closest advisors left for Edo by ship; the encounter at Toba–Fushimi between the imperial and shogunate forces marked the beginning of the conflict.
With the court in Kyoto behind the Satsuma-Chōshū-Tosa coalition, other domains that were sympathetic to the cause—such as Tottori and Hizen —emerged to take a more active role in military operations. Western domains that had either supported the shogunate or remained neutral quickly announced their support of the restoration movement; the nascent Meiji state required a new military command for its operations against the shogunate. In 1868, the "Imperial Army" being just a loose amalgam of domain armies, the government created four military divisions: the Tōkaidō, Tōsandō, San'indō, Hokurikudō, each of, named for a major highway. Overseeing these four armies was a new high command, the Eastern Expeditionary High Command, whose nominal head was prince Arisugawa-no-miya, with two court nobles as senior staff officers; this connected the loose assembly of domain forces with the imperial court, the only national institution in a still unformed nation-state. The army continually emphasized its link with the imperial court: firstly.
To supply food and other supplies for the campaign, the imperial government established logistical relay stations along three major highways. These small depots held stockpiled material supplied by local pro-government domains, or confiscated from the bafuku and others opposing the imperial government. Local villagers were impressed as porters to move and deliver supplies between the depots and frontline units; the new army fought under makeshift arrangements, with unclear channels of command and control and no reliable recruiting base. Although fighting for the imperial cause, many of the units were loyal to their domains rather than the imperial court. In March 1869, the imperial government created various administrative offices, including a military branch; the imperial court told the domains to restrict the size of their local armies and to contribute to funding a national officers' training school in Kyoto. However, within a few months the government disbanded both the military branch and the imperial bodyguard: the former was ineffective while the latter lacked modern weaponry and equipment.
To replace them, two new organizations were created. One was the military affairs directorate, composed of two bureaus, one for the army and one for the navy; the directorate drafted an army from troop contributions from each domain proportional to each domain's annual rice production. This conscript army integrated samurai and commoners from various domains into its ranks; as the war continued, the military affairs directorate expected to raise troops from the wealthier domains and, in June, the organization of the army was fixed, where each domain was required to send ten men for each 10,000 koku of rice produced. However, this policy put the imperial government in direct competition with the domains for military recruitment, not rectified until April 1868, when the government banned the domains from enlisting troops; the quota system never worked as intended an
Sapporo is the fifth largest city of Japan by population, the largest city on the northern Japanese island of Hokkaido. It is the capital city of Ishikari Subprefecture, it is an ordinance-designated city. Sapporo hosted the 1972 Winter Olympics, its annual Sapporo Snow Festival draws more than 2 million tourists from abroad. Before its establishment, the area occupied by Sapporo was home to a number of indigenous Ainu settlements. In 1866, at the end of the Edo period, construction began on a canal through the area, encouraging a number of early settlers to establish Sapporo village; the settlement's name was taken from the Ainu language sat poro pet, can be translated as "dry, great river", which denotes Toyohira River. In 1868, the recognized year celebrated as the "birth" of Sapporo, the new Meiji government concluded that the existing administrative center of Hokkaido, which at the time was the port of Hakodate, was in an unsuitable location for defense and further development of the island.
As a result, it was determined. The plain itself provided an unusually large expanse of flat, well drained land, uncommon in the otherwise mountainous geography of Hokkaido. During 1870–1871, Kuroda Kiyotaka, vice-chairman of the Hokkaido Development Commission, approached the American government for assistance in developing the land; as a result, Horace Capron, Secretary of Agriculture under President Ulysses S. Grant, became an oyatoi gaikokujin and was appointed as a special advisor to the commission. Construction began around Odori Park, which still remains as a green ribbon of recreational land bisecting the central area of the city; the city followed a grid plan with streets at right-angles to form city blocks. The continuing expansion of the Japanese into Hokkaido continued due to migration from the main island of Honshu to the south, the prosperity of Hokkaido and its capital grew to the point that the Development Commission was deemed unnecessary and was abolished in 1882. Edwin Dun came to Sapporo to establish sheep and cattle ranches in 1876.
He demonstrated pig raising and the making of butter, cheese and sausage. He was married twice, to Japanese women, he once returned to Japan as a secretary of government. William S. Clark, the president of the Massachusetts Agricultural College, came to be the founding vice-president of the Sapporo Agricultural College for only eight months from 1876 to 1877, he taught academic subjects in science and lectured on the Bible as an "ethics" course, introducing Christian principles to the first entering class of the College. In 1880, the entire area of Sapporo was renamed as "Sapporo-ku", a railroad between Sapporo and Temiya, Otaru was laid; that year the Hōheikan, a hotel and reception facility for visiting officials and dignitaries, was erected adjacent to the Odori Park. It was moved to Nakajima Park where it remains today. Two years with the abolition of the Kaitaku-shi, Hokkaidō was divided into three prefectures: Hakodate and Nemuro; the name of the urban district in Sapporo remained Sapporo-ku, while the rest of the area in Sapporo-ku was changed to Sapporo-gun.
The office building of Sapporo-ku was located in the urban district. Sapporo and Nemuro Prefectures were abolished in 1886, Hokkaidō government office building, an American-neo-baroque-style structure with red bricks, constructed in 1888; the last squad of the Tondenhei, the soldiers pioneering Hokkaido, settled in the place where the area of Tonden in Kita-ku, Sapporo is located. Sapporo-ku administered surrounding Sapporo-gun until 1899, when the new district system was announced. After that year, Sapporo-ku was away from the control of Sapporo-gun; the "ku" enforced from 1899 was an autonomy, a little bigger than towns, smaller than cities. In Hokkaido at that time, Hakodate-ku and Otaru-ku existed. In 1907, the Tohoku Imperial University was established in Sendai Miyagi Prefecture, Sapporo Agricultural College was controlled by the University. Parts of neighbouring villages including Sapporo Village, Naebo Village, Kami Shiroishi Village, districts where the Tonden-hei had settled, were integrated into Sapporo-ku in 1910.
The Sapporo Streetcar was opened in 1918, Hokkaido Imperial University was established in Sapporo-ku, as the fifth Imperial University in Japan. Another railroad operated in Sapporo, the Jōzankei Railroad, abolished in 1969. In 1922, the new city system was announced by the Tokyo government, Sapporo-ku was changed to Sapporo City; the Sapporo Municipal Bus System was started in 1930. In 1937, Sapporo was chosen as the site of the 1940 Winter Olympics, but due to the outbreak of the Second Sino-Japanese War, this was cancelled the next year. Maruyama Town was integrated as a part of Chūō-ku in 1940, the Okadama Airport was constructed in 1942; the first Sapporo Snow Festival was held in 1950. In the same year, adjacent Shiroishi Village was integrated into Sapporo City, rendered as a part of Shiroishi-ku, Atsubetsu-ku. In 1955, Kotoni Town, the entire Sapporo Village, Shinoro Village were merged into Sapporo, becoming a part of the current Chūō-ku, Kita-ku, Higashi-ku, Nishi-ku, Teine-ku; the expansion of Sapporo continued, with the merger of Toyohira Town in 1961, Teine Town in 1967, each becoming a part of Toyohira-ku, Kiyota-ku, Teine-ku.
The ceremony commemorating the 100th anniversary of the foundation o
The Japanese archipelago is a group of 6,852 islands that form the country of Japan. It extends over 3,000 km from the Sea of Okhotsk northeast to the Philippine Sea south along the northeastern coast of the Eurasia continent, it consists of islands from the Sakhalin island arc, the Northeastern Japan arc to the Ryukyu islands and the Nanpō Islands. The term Home Islands was used at the end of World War II to define the area of Japan to which its sovereignty and the constitutional rule of the Emperor would be restricted; the term is commonly used today to distinguish the archipelago from Japan's colonies and other territories in the first half of the 20th century. The archipelago consists of 6,852 islands; the four main islands, from north to south, are Hokkaido, Honshu and Kyushu. The current Japanese archipelago topography is: Sakhalin, Honshu, Japan island arc composed of Shikoku and its surrounding islands. Hokkaido – The second largest island of Japan, the largest and northernmost prefecture, which consists of 14 subprefectures.
Hokkaido Hidaka Subprefecture Hiyama Subprefecture Iburi Subprefecture Ishikari Subprefecture Kamikawa Subprefecture Kushiro Subprefecture Nemuro Subprefecture Okhotsk Subprefecture Oshima Subprefecture Rumoi Subprefecture Shiribeshi Subprefecture Sorachi Subprefecture Sōya Subprefecture Tokachi SubprefectureHonshu – The largest and the most populated island of Japan, which consists of five regions. Tōhoku region consists of six prefectures. Akita Prefecture Aomori Prefecture Fukushima Prefecture Iwate Prefecture Miyagi Prefecture Yamagata Prefecture Kantō region consists of seven prefectures, including the capital of Japan, the Tokyo Metropolis. Chiba Prefecture Gunma Prefecture Ibaraki Prefecture Kanagawa Prefecture Saitama Prefecture Tochigi Prefecture Tokyo Chūbu region consists of nine prefectures. Aichi Prefecture Fukui Prefecture Gifu Prefecture Ishikawa Prefecture Nagano Prefecture Niigata Prefecture Shizuoka Prefecture Toyama Prefecture Yamanashi Prefecture Kansai region consists of seven prefectures.
Hyōgo Prefecture Kyoto Prefecture Mie Prefecture Nara Prefecture Osaka Prefecture Shiga Prefecture Wakayama Prefecture Chūgoku region consists of five prefectures. Hiroshima Prefecture Okayama Prefecture Shimane Prefecture Tottori Prefecture Yamaguchi PrefectureShikoku – The smallest and the least populated island of the archipelago, which consists of four prefectures. Ehime Prefecture Kagawa Prefecture Kōchi Prefecture Tokushima PrefectureKyushu – The third largest island of the archipelago, which consists of eight prefectures, including the Okinawa Islands in the Ryukyu island arc. Fukuoka Prefecture Kagoshima Prefecture Kumamoto Prefecture Miyazaki Prefecture Nagasaki Prefecture Ōita Prefecture Saga Prefecture Okinawa PrefectureSakhalin – Previously known and administered by the Empire of Japan as Karafuto Prefecture and a part of the Russian Federation, is sometimes considered to be geographically part of the Japanese archipelago, although Japan renounced its claim to the island in the 20th century.
Sakhalin Oblast Mainland Japan Japan in the Paleolithic List of islands of Japan Extreme points of Japan
Infantry is the branch of an army that engages in military combat on foot, distinguished from cavalry and tank forces. Known as foot soldiers, infantry traditionally relies on moving by foot between combats as well, but may use mounts, military vehicles, or other transport. Infantry make up a large portion of all armed forces in most nations, bear the largest brunt in warfare, as measured by casualties, deprivation, or physical and psychological stress; the first military forces in history were infantry. In antiquity, infantry were armed with an early melee weapon such as a spear, axe or sword, or an early ranged weapon like a javelin, sling, or bow, with a few infantrymen having both a melee and a ranged weapon. With the development of gunpowder, infantry began converting to firearms. By the time of Napoleonic warfare, infantry and artillery formed a basic triad of ground forces, though infantry remained the most numerous. With armoured warfare, armoured fighting vehicles have replaced the horses of cavalry, airpower has added a new dimension to ground combat, but infantry remains pivotal to all modern combined arms operations.
Infantry have much greater local situational awareness than other military forces, due to their inherent intimate contact with the battlefield. Infantry can more recognise and respond to local conditions and changing enemy weapons or tactics, they can operate in a wide range of terrain inaccessible to military vehicles, can operate with a lower logistical burden. Infantry are the most delivered forces to ground combat areas, by simple and reliable marching, or by trucks, sea or air transport, they can be augmented with a variety of crew-served weapons, armoured personnel carriers, infantry fighting vehicles. In English, use of the term infantry began about the 1570s, describing soldiers who march and fight on foot; the word derives from Middle French infanterie, from older Italian infanteria, from Latin īnfāns, from which English gets infant. The individual-soldier term infantryman was not coined until 1837. In modern usage, foot soldiers of any era are now considered infantrymen. From the mid-18th century until 1881 the British Army named its infantry as numbered regiments "of Foot" to distinguish them from cavalry and dragoon regiments.
Infantry equipped with special weapons were named after that weapon, such as grenadiers for their grenades, or fusiliers for their fusils. These names can persist long after the weapon speciality. More in modern times, infantry with special tactics are named for their roles, such as commandos, snipers and militia. Dragoons were created. However, if light cavalry was lacking in an army, any available dragoons might be assigned their duties. Conversely, starting about the mid-19th century, regular cavalry have been forced to spend more of their time dismounted in combat due to the ever-increasing effectiveness of enemy infantry firearms, thus most cavalry transitioned to mounted infantry. As with grenadiers, the dragoon and cavalry designations can be retained long after their horses, such as in the Royal Dragoon Guards, Royal Lancers, King's Royal Hussars. Motorised infantry have trucks and other unarmed vehicles for non-combat movement, but are still infantry since they leave their vehicles for any combat.
Most modern infantry have vehicle transport, to the point where infantry being motorised is assumed, the few exceptions might be identified as modern light infantry, or "leg infantry" colloquially. Mechanised infantry go beyond motorised, having transport vehicles with combat abilities, armoured personnel carriers, providing at least some options for combat without leaving their vehicles. In modern infantry, some APCs have evolved to be infantry fighting vehicles, which are transport vehicles with more substantial combat abilities, approaching those of light tanks; some well-equipped mechanised infantry can be designated as armoured infantry. Given that infantry forces also have some tanks, given that most armoured forces have more mechanised infantry units than tank units in their organisation, the distinction between mechanised infantry and armour forces has blurred; the terms "infantry", "armour", "cavalry" used in the official names for military units like divisions, brigades, or regiments might be better understood as a description of their expected balance of defensive and mobility roles, rather than just use of vehicles.
Some modern mechanised infantry units are termed cavalry or armoured cavalry though they never had horses, to e
Imperial General Headquarters
The Imperial General Headquarters was part of the Supreme War Council and was established in 1893 to coordinate efforts between the Imperial Japanese Army and Imperial Japanese Navy during wartime. In terms of function, it was equivalent to the United States Joint Chiefs of Staff and the British Chiefs of Staff Committee; the Imperial General Headquarters was established by Imperial Decree 52 on 22 May 1893 under the auspices of creating a central command for both the Imperial Japanese Army General Staff Office and the Imperial Japanese Navy General Staff. The Emperor of Japan, defined as both Head of State and the Generalissimo of the Imperial Japanese Armed Forces according to the Meiji Constitution of 1889 to 1945, was the head of the Imperial General Headquarters, was assisted by staff appointed from the Imperial Japanese Army and Imperial Japanese Navy; the Imperial General Staff Headquarters was independent of the civilian government of the Empire of Japan, including the Cabinet and the Prime Minister of Japan.
Prime Minister Itō Hirobumi was allowed to attend meetings by the express order of Emperor Meiji during the First Sino-Japanese War. However, Prime Minister Katsura Taro, despite his military background, was denied entry to meetings during the subsequent Russo-Japanese War. After the Lugouqiao Incident in July 1937, Imperial Decree 658 of 18 November 1937 abolished the original Imperial General Headquarters, immediately re-constituted under Military Decree 1, which gave the new Imperial General Headquarters command authority over all military operations during peacetime situations as well as wartime situations. In November 1937, to bring the chiefs of Army and Navy into closer consultation with his government, Emperor Hirohito established a body known as the Imperial General Headquarters-Government Liaison Conference within Imperial General Headquarters; the Liaison Conferences were intended to assist in integrating the decisions and needs of the two military sections of Imperial General Headquarters with the resources and policies of the rest of the government.
Reaching agreement between the Army and Navy on strategic planning was difficult. When agreement was reached on an important strategic issue, the agreement was reduced to writing in a document called a Central Agreement and signed by both Chiefs of Army and Navy General Staffs; the final decisions of Liaison Conferences were formally disclosed and approved at Imperial Conferences over which Emperor Hirohito presided in person at the Tokyo Imperial Palace. During the Pacific War, after the firebombing of Tokyo, the Imperial General Headquarters relocated to an underground facility in the mountains outside Nagano. With the surrender of Japan, the Supreme Commander of the Allied Powers ordered the Imperial General Headquarters abolished on 13 September 1945. Imperial General Headquarters Navy Sections; the Army Section comprised the Chief of Army General Staff and his chief of Army Operations, the Army Minister. The Navy Section comprised Chief of Navy General Staff, his chief of Navy Operations, the Navy Minister.
In addition, the Inspector-General of Military Training, whose rank was on-par with that of the Chiefs of the General Staff, the Aide-de-camp to the Emperor of Japan were members. Middle-ranking officers of Army and Navy General Staff, Army and Navy Ministry, met from time to time at middle-level liaison or study conferences to discuss Japan's strategic war plans, plans requiring cooperation between the two armed services, outside of the formal meeting in the presence of the Emperor. Relations between the Japanese Army and Navy were never cordial, marked by deep hostility; the Army saw the Soviet Union as Japan's greatest threat and for the most part supported the Hokushin-ron concept that Japan's strategic interests were on the Asian continent. The Navy looked across the Pacific Ocean and saw the United States as the greatest threat, for the most part supported the Nanshin-ron concept that Japan's strategic interests were in Southeast Asia and the Pacific islands. Hirohito, the Emperor of Japan, was defined as the Head of State and the Generalissimo of the Imperial Japanese Armed Forces according to the constitution of 1889.
During World War II, the leadership of the Imperial General Headquarters consisting of the following: Chief of the Army General Staff Kotohito Kan'in Hajime Sugiyama Hideki Tōjō Yoshijirō Umezu Chief of the Navy General Staff Hiroyasu Fushimi Osami Nagano Shigetarō Shimada Koshirō Oikawa Soemu Toyoda Minister of War Hajime Sugiyama Seishirō Itagaki Shunroku Hata Hideki Tōjō Korechika Anami Minister of the Navy Mitsumasa Yonai Zengo Yoshida Koshirō Oikawa Shigetarō Shimada The majority of these troops were stationed in China, Japan and Korea. This includes some 61 divisions, 59 brigades, 51 air squadrons. Only a fraction of Japan's military, 11 to 14 divisions and the South Seas Detachment, were available for the December 1941 operations in South-East Asia and the Pacific. Imperial General Headquarters IJA General Staff General Affairs Bureau Organization and Mobilization Department Training Department 1st Bureau Operations Department Defence Department 2nd Bureau Europe and the Americas Department China Department Russia/Soviet Union Department Intelligence Department 3rd Bureau Transport Department Communications Department 4th Bureau Military History Department Strategy and Tactics Department General Staff College Land Survey D
Soviet invasion of Manchuria
The Soviet invasion of Manchuria, formally known as the Manchurian Strategic Offensive Operation or the Manchurian Operation, began on 9 August 1945 with the Soviet invasion of the Japanese puppet state of Manchukuo. It was the last campaign of the Second World War, the largest of the 1945 Soviet–Japanese War, which resumed hostilities between the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics and the Empire of Japan after six years of peace. Soviet gains on the continent were Manchukuo and northern Korea; the Soviet entry into the war and the defeat of the Kwantung Army was a significant factor in the Japanese government's decision to surrender unconditionally, as it made apparent the Soviet Union had no intention of acting as a third party in negotiating an end to hostilities on conditional terms. Since 1983, the operation has sometimes been called Operation August Storm after U. S. Army historian David Glantz used this title for a paper on the subject; as agreed with the Allies at the Tehran Conference in November 1943 and the Yalta Conference in February 1945, the Soviet Union entered World War II's Pacific Theater within three months of the end of the war in Europe.
The invasion began on 9 August 1945 three months after the German surrender on May 8. Although the commencement of the invasion fell between the American atomic bombing of Hiroshima, on 6 August, only hours before the Nagasaki bombing on 9 August, the timing of the invasion had been planned well in advance and was determined by the timing of the agreements at Tehran and Yalta, the long-term buildup of Soviet forces in the Far East since Tehran, the date of the German surrender some three months earlier. At 11pm Trans-Baikal time on 8 August 1945, Soviet foreign minister Vyacheslav Molotov informed Japanese ambassador Naotake Satō that the Soviet Union had declared war on Japan, that from 9 August the Soviet government would consider itself to be at war with Japan. At one minute past midnight Trans-Baikal time on 9 August 1945, the Soviets commenced their invasion on three fronts to the east and north of Manchuria: the Khingan–Mukden Offensive Operation. Though the battle extended beyond the borders traditionally known as Manchuria—that is, the traditional lands of the Manchus—the coordinated and integrated invasions of Japan's northern territories has been called the Battle of Manchuria.
It has been referred to as the Manchurian Strategic Offensive Operation. The Far East Command, under Marshal of the Soviet Union Aleksandr Vasilevsky, had a plan to conquer Manchuria, simple but huge in scale, calling for a massive pincer movement over all of Manchuria; this was to be performed by the Transbaikal Front from the west and by the 1st Far Eastern Front from the east. The only Soviet equivalent of a theater command that operated during the war, Far East Command, consisted of three Red Army fronts; the Transbaikal Front, under Marshal Rodion Malinovsky, included: 17th Army 36th Army 39th Army 53rd Army 6th Guards Tank Army Soviet Mongolian Cavalry Mechanized Group under Issa Pliyev 12th Air Army. The Transbaikal Front was to form the western half of the Soviet pincer movement, attacking across the Inner Mongolian desert and over the Greater Khingan mountains; these forces had as their objectives firstly to secure Mukden to meet troops of the 1st Far Eastern Front at the Changchun area in south central Manchuria, in doing so finish the double envelopment.
Amassing over one thousand tanks and self-propelled guns, the 6th Guards Tank Army was to serve as an armored spearhead, leading the Front's advance and capturing objectives 350 km inside Manchuria by the fifth day of the invasion. The 36th Army was attacking from the west, but with the objective of meeting forces of the 2nd Far Eastern Front at Harbin and Tsitsihar; the 1st Far Eastern Front, under Marshal Kirill Meretskov, included: 1st Red Banner Army 5th Army 25th Army 35th Army 10th Mechanized Corps 9th Air Army. The 1st Far Eastern Front was to form the eastern half of the pincer movement; this attack involved the 1st Red Banner Army, the 5th Army and the 10th Mechanized Corps striking towards Mudanjiang. Once that city was captured, this force was to advance towards the cities of Jilin and Harbin, its final objective was to link up with the forces of the Transbaikal Front at Changchun and Jilin thus closing the double envelopment movement. As a secondary objective, the 1st Far Eastern Front was to prevent Japanese forces from escaping to Korea, invade the Korean Peninsula up to the 38th parallel, establishing in the process what became North Korea.
This secondary objective was to be carried out by the 25th Army. Meanwhile, the 35th Army was tasked with capturing the cities of Boli and Mishan; the 2nd Far Eastern Front, under General Maksim Purkayev, included: 2nd Red Banner Army 15th Army 16th Army 5th Separate Rifle Corps Chuguevsk Operational Group Amur Military Flotilla 10th Air Army. The 2nd Far Eastern Front was deployed