Kandalaksha is a town in Kandalakshsky District of Murmansk Oblast, located at the head of Kandalaksha Gulf on the White Sea, north of the Arctic Circle. Population: 35,654 ; the settlement has existed since the 11th century. In the 13th century, it became a part of the Novgorod Republic along with the southern part of the Kola Peninsula, in 1478 was annexed by the Grand Duchy of Moscow. In 1915, the construction of a seaport started, in 1918 a railroad connecting Moscow to Murmansk running through Kandalaksha was opened. On August 29, 1927, Kandalaksha was made the administrative center of the newly established Kandalakshsky District, on June 1, 1932, it was granted work settlement status. Status of a town of district significance was granted to it on April 20, 1938. On February 9, 1940, Kandalaksha was administratively separated from the district and granted the status of a town of oblast significance. In July 1941, during World War II, the town was the primary target of an unsuccessful German-Finnish offensive which attempted to cut the strategic Murman Railway.
By the Decree of the Presidium of the Supreme Soviet of the RSFSR of March 19, 1959, the Councils of Deputies of Kandalaksha and of Kandalakshsky District were merged into one Kandalaksha Town Council of Deputies. While the district was nominally retained as a separate administrative division, all its subdivisions were administratively subordinated to the town's Council of Deputies. Since 1995, Vitino oil port operates near Beloye More a few kilometers south of Kandalaksha. Kandalaksha Mayor Nina Varlamova was murdered in an attack in December 2008. Kandalaksha is twinned with: Kemijärvi, Finland Piteå, Sweden Lake Lupche Архивный отдел Администрации Мурманской области. Государственный Архив Мурманской области.. Административно-территориальное деление Мурманской области. Справочник. Мурманск: Мурманское издательско-полиграфическое предприятие "Север". Media related to Kandalaksha at Wikimedia Commons Kandalaksha Nature Reserve Information about Kandalaksha for tourists
Gulf of Finland
The Gulf of Finland is the easternmost arm of the Baltic Sea. It extends between Finland and Estonia all the way to Saint Petersburg in Russia, where the river Neva drains into it. Other major cities around the gulf include Tallinn; the eastern parts of the Gulf of Finland belong to Russia, some of Russia's most important oil harbours are located farthest in, near Saint Petersburg. As the seaway to Saint Petersburg, the Gulf of Finland has been and continues to be of considerable strategic importance to Russia; some of the environmental problems affecting the Baltic Sea are at their most pronounced in the shallow gulf. The gulf has an area of 30,000 km2; the length is 400 km and the width varies from 70 km near the entrance to 130 km on the meridian of Moshchny Island. The gulf is shallow, with the depth decreasing from the entrance to the gulf to the continent; the sharpest change occurs near Narva-Jõesuu, why this place is called the Narva wall. The average depth is 38 m with the maximum of 100 m.
The depth of the Neva Bay is less than 6 metres. Because of the large influx of fresh water from rivers from the Neva River, the gulf water has low salinity – between 0.2 and 5.8 ‰ at the surface and 0.3–8.5 ‰ near the bottom. The average water temperature is close to 0 °C in winter. Parts of the gulf can freeze from late November to late April. Complete freezing occurs by late January, it may not occur in mild winters. Frequent strong western winds surges of water and floods; the northern coast of the gulf is high and winding, with abundant small bays and skerries, but only a few large bays and peninsulas. The coast is sloping; the southern shores are smooth and shallow, but along the entire coast runs a limestone escarpment, the Baltic Klint, with a height up to 55 m. In the east, the gulf ends with Neva Bay; the gulf contains numerous banks and islands. The largest include Kotlin Island with the city of Kronstadt, Beryozovye Islands, Lisiy Island, Maly Vysotsky Island with the nearby city of Vysotsk, Moshtchny, Bolshoy Tyuters, Naissaar, Kimitoön, Kökar, Pakri Islands and others.
Starting in 1700, Russia constructed nineteen artificial islands with fortresses in the gulf. They aimed to defend Russia from maritime attacks in the context of the Great Northern War of 1700–1721; such fortresses include Fort Alexander, Krasnaya Gorka, Ino and Kronshlot. The largest rivers flowing into the gulf are the Neva, the Narva, the Kymi. Keila, Pirita, Jägala, Luga and Kovashi flow into the gulf from the south. From the north flow the Sestra River, Porvoo and several other small rivers; the Saimaa Canal connects the gulf with the Saimaa lake. The International Hydrographic Organization defines the western limit of the Gulf of Finland as a line running from Spithami, in Estonia, through the Estonian island of Osmussaar from SE to NW and on to the SW extremity of Hanko Peninsula in Finland; the modern depression can be traced to the incision of large rivers during the Cenozoic prior to the Quaternary glaciation. These rivers eroded the sedimentary strata above the Fennoscandian Shield. In particular the eroded material was made up of Cambrian-aged claystone and sandtone.
As erosion processes the rivers encountered harder layers of Ordovician-aged limestone leading to the formation of the cliffs of Baltic Klint in northern Estonia and Ingria. Subsequently the depression was somewhat reshaped by glacier's activities, its retreat formed the Littorina Sea, whose water level was some 7–9 metres higher than the present level of the Baltic Sea. Some 4,000 years ago the sea receded and shoals in the gulf have become its islands. Uplifting of the Baltic Shield skewed the surface of the gulf; the climate in the area is humid continental climate, characterized by temperate to hot summers and cold severe winters with regular precipitation. The vegetation is dominated by a mixture of coniferous and deciduous forests and treeless coastal meadows and cliffs; the major forest trees are pine, birch, rowan, aspen and gray alder. In the far eastern part of the gulf vegetation of the marshy areas consists of bulrush and reeds, as well as aquatic plants, such as white and yellow waterlilies and acute sedge.
Aquatic plants in the shallow waters of the gulf include Ruppia and spiny naiad. Fish species of the gulf include Atlantic salmon, viviparous eelpout, belica, European chub, common minnow, silver bream, common dace, Crucian carp, European smelt, common rudd, brown trout, pipefish, perch, lumpsucker, lamprey, garfish, common whitefish, common bream, orfe, northern pike, spined loach, Baltic herring
Naval aviation is the application of military air power by navies, whether from warships that embark aircraft, or land bases. Naval aviation is projected to a position nearer the target by way of an aircraft carrier. Carrier-based aircraft must be sturdy enough to withstand demanding carrier operations, they must be able to launch in a short distance and be sturdy and flexible enough to come to a sudden stop on a pitching flight deck. These aircraft are designed for many purposes, including air-to-air combat, surface attack, submarine attack and rescue, matériel transport, weather observation and wide area command and control duties. Early experiments on the use of kites for naval reconnaissance took place in 1903 at Woolwich Common for the Admiralty. Samuel Franklin Cody demonstrated the capabilities of his 8 foot long black kite and it was proposed for use as either a mechanism to hold up wires for wireless communications or as a manned reconnaissance device that would give the viewer the advantage of considerable height.
In 1908 Prime Minister H. H. Asquith approved the formation of an "Aerial Sub-Committee of the Committee of Imperial Defence" to investigate the potential for naval aviation. In 1909 this body accepted the proposal of Captain Reginald Bacon made to the First Sea Lord Sir John Fisher that rigid airships should be constructed for the Royal Navy to be used for reconnaissance; this resulted in the construction of Mayfly in 1909, the first air component of the navy to become operational, the genesis of modern naval aviation. The first pilots for the Royal Navy were transferred from the Royal Aero Club in June 1910 along with two aircraft with which to train new pilots, an airfield at Eastchurch became the Naval Flying School, the first such facility in the world. Two hundred applications were received, four were accepted: Lieutenant C R Samson, Lieutenant A M Longmore, Lieutenant A Gregory and Captain E L Gerrard, RMLI; the French established a naval aviation capability in 1910 with the establishment of the Service Aeronautique and the first flight training schools.
U. S. naval aviation began with pioneer aviator Glenn Curtiss who contracted with the United States Navy to demonstrate that airplanes could take off from and land aboard ships at sea. One of his pilots, Eugene Ely, took off from the cruiser USS Birmingham anchored off the Virginia coast in November 1910. Two months Ely landed aboard another cruiser, USS Pennsylvania, in San Francisco Bay, proving the concept of shipboard operations. However, the platforms erected on; the U. S. Navy and Glenn Curtiss experienced two firsts during January 1911. On 27 January, Curtiss flew the first seaplane from the water at San Diego Bay and the next day U. S. Navy Lt. Theodore G. Ellyson, a student at the nearby Curtiss School, took off in a Curtiss "grass cutter" plane to become the first naval aviator. $25,000 was appropriated for the Bureau of Navigation to purchase three airplanes and in the spring of 1911 four additional officers were trained as pilots by the Wright brothers and Curtiss. A camp with a primitive landing field was established on the Severn River at Greenbury Point, near Annapolis, Maryland.
The group expanded with the addition of six aviators in 1912 and five in 1913, from both the Navy and Marine Corps, conducted maneuvers with the Fleet from the battleship USS Mississippi, designated as the Navy's aviation ship. Meanwhile, Captain Henry C. Mustin tested the concept of the catapult launch in August 1912, in 1915 made the first catapult launching from a ship underway; the first permanent naval air station was established at Pensacola, Florida, in January 1914 with Mustin as its commanding officer. On April 24 of that year, for a period of 45 days afterward, five floatplanes and flying boats flown by ten aviators operated from Mississippi and the cruiser Birmingham off Veracruz and Tampico, Mexico conducting reconnaissance for troops ashore in the wake of the Tampico Affair. In January 1912, the British battleship HMS Africa took part in aircraft experiments at Sheerness, she was fitted for flying off aircraft with a 100-foot downward-sloping runway, installed on her foredeck, running over her forward 12-inch gun turret from her forebridge to her bow and equipped with rails to guide the aircraft.
The Gnome-engined Short Improved S.27 "S.38", pusher seaplane piloted by Lieutenant Charles Samson become the first British aircraft to take-off from a ship while at anchor in the River Medway, on 10 January 1912. Africa transferred her flight equipment to her sister ship Hibernia. In May 1912, with Commander Samson again flying the "S.38", the first instance of an aircraft to take off from a ship, under way occurred. Hibernia steamed at 10.5 knots at the Royal Fleet Review in England. Hibernia transferred her aviation equipment to battleship London. Based on these experiments, the Royal Navy concluded that aircraft were useful aboard ship for spotting and other purposes, but that interference with the firing of guns caused by the runway built over the foredeck and the danger and impracticality of recovering seaplanes that alighted in the water in anything but calm weather more than offset the desirability of having airplanes aboard. In 1912, the nascent naval air detachment in the United Kingdom was amalgamated to form the Royal Flying Corps and in 1913 a seaplane base on the Isle of Grain, an airship base at Kingsnorth and eight new airfields were approved for construction.
The first aircraft participation in naval manoeu
14th Rifle Division (Soviet Union)
The 14th Rifle Division was an infantry division of the Red Army, formed twice. Formed in Moscow in 1922, the division spent most of the interwar period at Vladimir. After moving to the Kola Peninsula during the Winter War, the division fought on that front during the Continuation War. After the end of the Continuation War it became the 101st Guards Rifle Division; the division reformed in 1955 from the 180th Rifle Division but became the 88th Motor Rifle Division in 1957. It was formed in Moscow on 1 July 1922; the division headquarters and the 40th Rifle Regiment were stationed at Vladimir. The 41st Rifle Regiment was in the 42nd Rifle Regiment at Kovrov; the division transferred to the Leningrad Military District in Vologda during the late 1930s. Its regiments were deployed in Vologda and Cherepovets. In September 1939, the regiments were each expanded to division strength, resulting in the formation of the 88th Rifle Division and 168th Rifle Division. On 11 September 1939, its headquarters moved to Murmansk.
During the Winter War, it covered the Soviet border on the northern and northeastern coast of the Kola Peninsula as part of the Murmansk Group. It saw World War II operational service from 22 June 1941 to 14 Nov 1944. On 22 Jun 1941, the division was stationed on the part of the front length of 300 kilometers along the coast of the Kola Peninsula from Cape Saint Nose to the island Kildin, it appears to have been part of the 14th Army. On the night of 22 Jun 1941, the two regiments of the division and a reconnaissance battalion were deployed to the border with Finland, occupied the area from the Barents Sea to Ukhta. On 25 June 1941 the division was reinforced by two regiments of the 52nd Rifle Division. On 29 Jun 1941, parts of Mountain Corps Norway after an artillery preparation and with bomber support launched an attack on the division; the main forces struck at the 95th Rifle Regiment, unable to hold strike, more - in retreat, if not escape to the village Tytivka, dragging approached the position of 325th Rifle Regiment of the same division.
The enemy was stopped by the divisional together with parts of the 23rd Fortified Region and supported by the Northern Fleet and the approaching 52nd Rifle Division at the Turn of River West Face. On 14 Jul 1941, the 325th Rifle Regiment landed from Northern Fleet ships in the amphibious landing on the north - west coast of the Great Western People Bay, where it fought heroically until 2 August 1941. On this day, the regiment was evacuated from the beachhead and moved by ship to the main forces of division in the southern part of the Great Western People Bay; the 135th Rifle Regiment, separated from the main force of the division, was converted to the 254th Separate Marine Rifle Brigade. The German troops were unable to penetrate the border in their positions. On 8 Sep 1941, the division was forced to retreat further, releasing a small bridgehead on the eastern bank of the River. By October 1941 the front line was stabilized at the bend of the Zapadnaya Litsa River. On 22 Oct 1941 Wehrmacht on the orders passed on the defensive.
Enemy at the division site has moved only about 30-60 kilometers, a record minimum advancement and satellites of Germany for all time the Second World War. Until October 1944 the front line remained unchanged; the division fought in small-scale battles. During late April and May 1942, the division participated in the unsuccessful Murmansk Offensive with other units. On 7 Oct 1944 the division took part in the Petsamo-Kirkenes Operation, advanced on the main line of attack, taking part in the liberation of the cities Pechenga Tarnet, Kirkenes, it was awarded the honorific "Pechenga". After the operation the division was put in reserve. On 1 November 1944 it was part of 131st Rifle Corps as part of Karelian Front. On 30 December 1944 it was transformed into the 101st Guards Rifle Division. In 1955, the 180th Rifle Division was renamed the 14th Rifle Division in Belgorod-Dnestrovskiy, part of the 10th Guards Rifle Corps. On 17 May 1957, the 88th Motor Rifle Division was formed in Belgorod-Dnestrovskiy, Odessa Oblast, from the 14th Rifle Division.
It became the 180th Motor Rifle Division in 1965. The division's first formation included the following units. 95th Rifle Regiment 325th Rifle Regiment 135th Rifle Regiment 155th Rifle Regiment 143rd Light Artillery Regiment 241st Howitzer Artillery Regiment 149th Separate Anti-Tank Battalion 364th Separate Mortar Battalion 35th Reconnaissance Company 14th Engineer Battalion 112th Separate Communications Battalion 75th Medical Battalion 139th Motor Company 285th Field Bakery 203rd Divisional Veterinary Hospital 669th Field Post Office 185th Field Cash Office of the State Bank Feskov, V. I.. I.. A.. A.. Вооруженные силы СССР после Второй Мировой войны: от Красной Армии к Советской. Tomsk: Scientific and Technical Literature Publishing. ISBN 9785895035306
7th Army (Soviet Union)
The Soviet Red Army's 7th Army first saw action in the 1939–40 Winter War against Finland. In November 1939, just before the initial Soviet attack, it consisted of the 19th Rifle Corps, 50th Rifle Corps, 10th Tank Corps, 138th Rifle Division, an independent tank brigade; the Army was first under Commander Yakovlev, but he was removed from command of his army and returned to Leningrad. Command of the war operation Kirill Meretskov was called-off due to extensive failures and heavy casualties, he replaced Yakovlev as the commander of the Seventh Army.7th Army was reformed in Autumn 1940 in the Leningrad Military District. Before the German Operation Barbarossa began it covered the Soviet frontier to the north of Lake Ladoga. Since 24 June 1941 the army included the 54th, 71st, 168th and 237th Rifle Divisions, the 26th Fortified Region, the 55th Composite Aviation Division, some artillery and engineering formations, it became part of the Northern Front the Karelian Front, conducted defensive operations in Karelia, however losing Ladoga Karelia to the Finns in July–August 1941.
On 25 September 1941 it was renamed the 7th Separate Army, directly subordinate to Stavka, it remained in that status until February 1944. In the middle of October 1941 – June 1944 it defended the Svir River line between Lakes Onega and Ladoga. From June to August 1944 the army, comprising now the 37th Guards, 4th, 94th, 99th Rifle Corps, 150th and 162nd Fortified Regions, a number of artillery, tank and other units, as part of the Karelian Front, participated in the Svir–Petrozavodsk Operation, it was disbanded in the beginning of January 1945. On the basis of its headquarters the 9th Guards Army of the Airborne Forces was created on 18 December 1944; the army's second formation was commanded by the following officers. Lieutenant-General Filip D. Garelenko. White Death: Russia's War on Finland 1939–40. London: Weidenfeld & Nicolson. ISBN 978-0-297-84630-7. Http://samsv.narod.ru/Arm/a07/arm.html
Coastal artillery is the branch of the armed forces concerned with operating anti-ship artillery or fixed gun batteries in coastal fortifications. From the Middle Ages until World War II, coastal artillery and naval artillery in the form of cannon were important to military affairs and represented the areas of highest technology and capital cost among materiel; the advent of 20th-century technologies military aviation, naval aviation, jet aircraft, guided missiles, reduced the primacy of cannon and coastal artillery. In countries where coastal artillery has not been disbanded, these forces have acquired amphibious capabilities. In littoral warfare, mobile coastal artillery armed with surface-to-surface missiles still can be used to deny the use of sea lanes, it was long held as a rule of thumb that one shore-based gun equaled three naval guns of the same caliber, due to the steadiness of the coastal gun which allowed for higher accuracy than their sea-mounted counterparts. Land-based guns benefited in most cases from the additional protection of walls or earth mounds.
The range of gun powder based coastal artillery has a derivative role in international law and diplomacy, wherein a country's three mile limit of'coastal waters' is recognized as under the nation or state's laws. One of the first recorded uses of coastal artillery was in 1381—during the war between Ferdinand I of Portugal and Henry II of Castile—when the troops of the King of Portugal used cannons to defend Lisbon against an attack from the Castilian naval fleet; the use of coastal artillery expanded in the 16th century. The Martello tower is an excellent example of a used coastal fort which mounted defensive artillery, in this case muzzle-loading cannon. During the 19th century China built hundreds of coastal fortresses in an attempt to counter Western naval threats. Coastal artillery fortifications followed the development of land fortifications. Through the middle 19th century, coastal forts could be bastion forts, star forts, polygonal forts, or sea forts, the first three types with detached gun batteries called "water batteries".
Coastal defence weapons throughout history were heavy naval guns or weapons based on them supplemented by lighter weapons. In the late 19th century separate batteries of coastal artillery replaced forts in some countries; the amount of landward defence provided began to vary by country from the late 19th century. Booms were usually part of a protected harbor's defences. In the middle 19th century underwater minefields and controlled mines were used, or stored in peacetime to be available in wartime. With the rise of the submarine threat at the beginning of the 20th century, anti-submarine nets were used extensively added to boom defences, with major warships being equipped with them through early World War I. In World War I railway artillery emerged and soon became part of coastal artillery in some countries. Coastal artillery could be part of the Army. In English-speaking countries, certain coastal artillery positions were sometimes referred to as'Land Batteries', distinguishing this form of artillery battery from for example floating batteries.
In the United Kingdom, in the 19th and earlier 20th Centuries, the land batteries of the coastal artillery were the responsibility of the Royal Garrison Artillery. In the United States, coastal artillery was established in 1794 as a branch of the Army and a series of construction programs of coastal defenses began: the "First System" in 1794, the "Second System" in 1804, the "Third System" or "Permanent System" in 1816. Masonry forts were determined to be obsolete following the American Civil War, a postwar program of earthwork defenses was poorly funded. In 1885 the Endicott Board recommended an extensive program of new U. S. harbor defenses, featuring new rifled minefield defenses. Construction on these was slow, as new weapons and systems were developed from scratch, but was hastened following the Spanish–American War of 1898. Shortly thereafter, in 1907, Congress split the field artillery and coast artillery into separate branches, creating a separate Coast Artillery Corps. In the first decade of the 20th Century, the United States Marine Corps established the Advanced Base Force.
The force was used for setting up and defending advanced overseas bases, its close ties to the Navy allowed it to man coast artillery around these bases. During the Siege of Port Arthur, Japanese forces had captured the vantage point on 203 Meter Hill overlooking Port Arthur harbor. After relocating heavy 11-inch howitzers with 500 pound armor-piercing shells to the summit of the Hill, the Japanese bombarded the Russian fleet in the harbor, systematically sinking the Russian ships within range. On December 5, 1904, the battleship Poltava was destroyed, followed by the battleship Retvizan on December 7, 1904, the battleships Pobeda and Peresvet
The Barents Sea is a marginal sea of the Arctic Ocean, located off the northern coasts of Norway and Russia and is divided between Norwegian and Russian territorial waters. Known among Russians in the Middle Ages as the Murman Sea, the sea takes its current name from the Dutch navigator Willem Barentsz, it is a rather shallow shelf sea, with an average depth of 230 metres, is an important site for both fishing and hydrocarbon exploration. The Barents Sea is bordered by the Kola Peninsula to the south, the shelf edge towards the Norwegian Sea to the west, the archipelagos of Svalbard to the northwest, Franz Josef Land to the northeast and Novaya Zemlya to the east; the islands of Novaya Zemlya, an extension of the northern end of the Ural Mountains, separate the Barents Sea from the Kara Sea. Despite being part of the Arctic Ocean, the Barents Sea has been characterized as "turning into the Atlantic" because of its status as "the Arctic warming hot spot." Hydrologic changes due to global warming have led to a reduction in sea ice and in stratification of the water column, which could lead to major changes in weather in Eurasia.
The southern half of the Barents Sea, including the ports of Murmansk and Vardø remain ice-free year round due to the warm North Atlantic drift. In September, the entire Barents Sea is more or less ice-free; until the Winter War, Finland's territory reached to the Barents Sea, with the harbor at Petsamo being Finland's only ice-free winter harbor. There are three main types of water masses in the Barents Sea: Warm, salty Atlantic water from the North Atlantic drift, cold Arctic water from the north, warm, but not salty coastal water. Between the Atlantic and Polar waters, a front called. In the western parts of the sea, this front is determined by the bottom topography and is therefore sharp and stable from year to year, while in the east, it can be quite diffuse and its position can vary a lot between years; the lands of Novaya Zemlya attained most of their early Holocene coastal deglaciation 10,000 years before present. The International Hydrographic Organization defines the limits of the "Barentsz Sea" as follows: On the west: The northeastern limit of the Norwegian Sea.
On the northwest: The eastern shore of West Spitzbergen, Hinlopen Strait up to 80° latitude north. On the north: Cape Leigh Smith across the Islands Bolshoy Ostrov and Victoria. On the east: Cape Kohlsaat to Cape Zhelaniya. Through Vaigach Island to Cape Greben. On the south: The northern limit of the White Sea. Other islands in the Barents Sea include Timanets; the Barents Sea was formed from two major continental collisions: the Caledonian orogeny, in which the Baltica and Laurentia collided to form Laurasia, a subsequent collision between Laurasia and Western Siberia. Most of its geological history is dominated by extensional tectonics, caused by the collapse of the Caledonian and Uralian orogenic belts and the break-up of Pangaea; these events created the major rift basins that dominate the Barents Shelf, along with various platforms and structural highs. The geological history of the Barents Sea is dominated by Late Cenozoic uplift that caused by Quaternary glaciation, which has resulted in erosion and deposition of significant sediment.
Due to the North Atlantic drift, the Barents Sea has a high biological production compared to other oceans of similar latitude. The spring bloom of phytoplankton can start quite early close to the ice edge, because the fresh water from the melting ice makes up a stable water layer on top of the sea water; the phytoplankton bloom feeds zooplankton such as Calanus finmarchicus, Calanus glacialis, Calanus hyperboreus, Oithona spp. and krill. The zooplankton feeders include young cod, polar cod and little auk; the capelin is a key food for top predators such as the north-east Arctic cod, harp seals, seabirds such as common guillemot and Brunnich's guillemot. The fisheries of the Barents Sea, in particular the cod fisheries, are of great importance for both Norway and Russia. SIZEX-89 was an international winter experiment where the main objectives were to perform sensor signature studies of different ice types in order to develop SAR algorithms for ice variables such as ice types, ice concentrations and ice kinematics.
Although previous research suggested that predation by whales may be the cause of depleting fish stocks, more recent research suggests that marine mammal consumption has only a trivial influence on fisheries and a model examining the impact of fisheries and climate was far more accurate at describing trends in fish abundance. There is a genetically distinct polar bear population associated with the Barents Sea; the Barents Sea was known to Russians as Murmanskoye M