The European Union is a political and economic union of 28 member states that are located in Europe. It has an area of an estimated population of about 513 million; the EU has developed an internal single market through a standardised system of laws that apply in all member states in those matters, only those matters, where members have agreed to act as one. EU policies aim to ensure the free movement of people, goods and capital within the internal market, enact legislation in justice and home affairs and maintain common policies on trade, agriculture and regional development. For travel within the Schengen Area, passport controls have been abolished. A monetary union was established in 1999 and came into full force in 2002 and is composed of 19 EU member states which use the euro currency; the EU and European citizenship were established when the Maastricht Treaty came into force in 1993. The EU traces its origins to the European Coal and Steel Community and the European Economic Community, established by the 1951 Treaty of Paris and 1957 Treaty of Rome.
The original members of what came to be known as the European Communities were the Inner Six: Belgium, Italy, the Netherlands, West Germany. The Communities and its successors have grown in size by the accession of new member states and in power by the addition of policy areas to its remit; the latest major amendment to the constitutional basis of the EU, the Treaty of Lisbon, came into force in 2009. While no member state has left the EU or its antecedent organisations, the United Kingdom signified the intention to leave after a membership referendum in June 2016 and is negotiating its withdrawal. Covering 7.3% of the world population, the EU in 2017 generated a nominal gross domestic product of 19.670 trillion US dollars, constituting 24.6% of global nominal GDP. Additionally, all 28 EU countries have a high Human Development Index, according to the United Nations Development Programme. In 2012, the EU was awarded the Nobel Peace Prize. Through the Common Foreign and Security Policy, the EU has developed a role in external relations and defence.
The union maintains permanent diplomatic missions throughout the world and represents itself at the United Nations, the World Trade Organization, the G7 and the G20. Because of its global influence, the European Union has been described as an emerging superpower. During the centuries following the fall of Rome in 476, several European States viewed themselves as translatio imperii of the defunct Roman Empire: the Frankish Empire and the Holy Roman Empire were thereby attempts to resurrect Rome in the West; this political philosophy of a supra-national rule over the continent, similar to the example of the ancient Roman Empire, resulted in the early Middle Ages in the concept of a renovatio imperii, either in the forms of the Reichsidee or the religiously inspired Imperium Christianum. Medieval Christendom and the political power of the Papacy are cited as conducive to European integration and unity. In the oriental parts of the continent, the Russian Tsardom, the Empire, declared Moscow to be Third Rome and inheritor of the Eastern tradition after the fall of Constantinople in 1453.
The gap between Greek East and Latin West had been widened by the political scission of the Roman Empire in the 4th century and the Great Schism of 1054. Pan-European political thought emerged during the 19th century, inspired by the liberal ideas of the French and American Revolutions after the demise of Napoléon's Empire. In the decades following the outcomes of the Congress of Vienna, ideals of European unity flourished across the continent in the writings of Wojciech Jastrzębowski, Giuseppe Mazzini or Theodore de Korwin Szymanowski; the term United States of Europe was used at that time by Victor Hugo during a speech at the International Peace Congress held in Paris in 1849: A day will come when all nations on our continent will form a European brotherhood... A day will come when we shall see... the United States of America and the United States of Europe face to face, reaching out for each other across the seas. During the interwar period, the consciousness that national markets in Europe were interdependent though confrontational, along with the observation of a larger and growing US market on the other side of the ocean, nourished the urge for the economic integration of the continent.
In 1920, advocating the creation of a European economic union, British economist John Maynard Keynes wrote that "a Free Trade Union should be established... to impose no protectionist tariffs whatever against the produce of other members of the Union." During the same decade, Richard von Coudenhove-Kalergi, one of the first to imagine of a modern political union of Europe, founded the Pan-Europa Movement. His ideas influenced his contemporaries, among which Prime Minister of France Aristide Briand. In 1929, the latter gave a speech in favour of a European Union before the assembly of the League of Nations, precursor of the United Nations. In a radio address in March 1943, with war still raging, Britain's leader Sir Winston Churchill spoke warmly of "restoring the true greatness of Europe" once victory had been achieved, mused on the post-war creation of a "Council of Europe" which would bring the European nations together to build peace. After World War II, European integration was seen as an antidote to the extreme nationalism which had devastated the continent.
In a speech delivered on 19
Nomenclature of Territorial Units for Statistics
The Nomenclature of Territorial Units for Statistics is a geocode standard for referencing the subdivisions of countries for statistical purposes. The standard is developed and regulated by the European Union, thus only covers the member states of the EU in detail; the Nomenclature of Territorial Units for Statistics is instrumental in the European Union's Structural Fund delivery mechanisms and for locating the area where goods and services subject to European public procurement legislation are to be delivered. For each EU member country, a hierarchy of three NUTS levels is established by Eurostat in agreement with each member state. A NUTS code begins with a two-letter code referencing the country, identical to the ISO 3166-1 alpha-2 code; the subdivision of the country is referred to with one number. A second or third subdivision level is referred to with another number each; each numbering starts with 1. Where the subdivision has more than nine entities, capital letters are used to continue the numbering.
A similar statistical system is defined for the candidate countries and members of the European Free Trade Association, but they are not technically part of NUTS governed by the regulations. The current NUTS classification, valid from 1 January 2015, lists 98 regions at NUTS 1, 276 regions at NUTS 2 and 1342 regions at NUTS 3 level. Commission Regulation 2016/2066, dated 21 November 2016, provides for a further amendment following territorial reorganisations in several member states, which will become effective for submission of statistical data to the European Commission from 1 January 2018. There are three levels of NUTS defined, with two levels of local administrative units below; these were called NUTS levels 4 and 5 until July 2003, but were abolished by regulation, although they are sometimes still described as such. Note that not all countries have every level of division, depending on their size. One of the most extreme cases is Luxembourg. NUTS regions are based on existing national administrative subdivisions.
In countries where only one or two regional subdivisions exist, or where the size of existing subdivisions is too small or too large, a second and/or third level is created. This may be on the second and/or third level. In smaller countries, where the entire country would be placed on the NUTS 2 or NUTS 3 level, the regions at levels 1, 2 and 3 are identical to each other, but are coded with the appropriate length codes levels 1, 2 and 3; the NUTS system favors existing administrative units, with one or more assigned to each NUTS level. From the NUTS Regulation, the average population size of the regions in the respective level shall lie within the following thresholds: For non-administrative units, deviations exist for particular geographical, socio-economic, cultural or environmental circumstances for islands and outermost regions. DE: Germany DE7: Hessen – The Bundesland as the top level subdivision of Germany DE71: Darmstadt region – Regierungsbezirk as second level DE71E: Wetteraukreis – Kreis as the third level ISO 3166 ISO 3166-1 ISO 3166-2 List of FIPS region codes List of metropolitan areas in Europe by population List of metropolitan areas in the European Union List of the largest urban areas of the European Union List of European regions by GDP Local administrative unit Regions of the European Union Eurostat portal – NUTS – Nomenclature of territorial units for statistics – Overview History of NUTS – Changes between versions NUTS maps Statistical regions outside the EU Correspondence between the NUTS levels and the national structures Correspondence between the NUTS levels and the national structures List of current NUTS codes at SIMAP NUTS regions for web maps in JSON format NUTS classification as Linked Data Administrative Divisions of Countries
Anatolia known as Asia Minor, Asian Turkey, the Anatolian peninsula or the Anatolian plateau, is the westernmost protrusion of Asia, which makes up the majority of modern-day Turkey. The region is bounded by the Black Sea to the north, the Mediterranean Sea to the south, the Armenian Highlands to the east and the Aegean Sea to the west; the Sea of Marmara forms a connection between the Black and Aegean Seas through the Bosphorus and Dardanelles straits and separates Anatolia from Thrace on the European mainland. The eastern border of Anatolia is traditionally held to be a line between the Gulf of Alexandretta and the Black Sea, bounded by the Armenian Highland to the east and Mesopotamia to the southeast. Thus, traditionally Anatolia is the territory that comprises the western two-thirds of the Asian part of Turkey. Nowadays, Anatolia is often considered to be synonymous with Asian Turkey, which comprises the entire country. By some definitions, the area called the Armenian highlands lies beyond the boundary of the Anatolian plateau.
The official name of this inland region is the Eastern Anatolia Region. The ancient inhabitants of Anatolia spoke the now-extinct Anatolian languages, which were replaced by the Greek language starting from classical antiquity and during the Hellenistic and Byzantine periods. Major Anatolian languages included Hittite and Lydian among other more poorly attested relatives; the Turkification of Anatolia began under the Seljuk Empire in the late 11th century and continued under the Ottoman Empire between the late 13th and early 20th centuries. However, various non-Turkic languages continue to be spoken by minorities in Anatolia today, including Kurdish, Neo-Aramaic, Arabic, Laz and Greek. Other ancient peoples in the region included Galatians, Assyrians, Cimmerians, as well as Ionian and Aeolian Greeks. Traditionally, Anatolia is considered to extend in the east to an indefinite line running from the Gulf of Alexandretta to the Black Sea, coterminous with the Anatolian Plateau; this traditional geographical definition is used, for example, in the latest edition of Merriam-Webster's Geographical Dictionary, Under this definition, Anatolia is bounded to the east by the Armenian Highlands, the Euphrates before that river bends to the southeast to enter Mesopotamia.
To the southeast, it is bounded by the ranges that separate it from the Orontes valley in Syria and the Mesopotamian plain. Following the Armenian genocide, Ottoman Armenia was renamed "Eastern Anatolia" by the newly established Turkish government. Vazken Davidian terms the expanded use of "Anatolia" to apply to territory referred to as Armenia an "ahistorical imposition", notes that a growing body of literature is uncomfortable with referring to the Ottoman East as "Eastern Anatolia". Most archeological sources consider the boundary of Anatolia to be Turkey's eastern border; the highest mountains in "Eastern Anatolia" are Mount Ararat. The Euphrates, Araxes and Murat rivers connect the Armenian plateau to the South Caucasus and the Upper Euphrates Valley. Along with the Çoruh, these rivers are the longest in "Eastern Anatolia"; the oldest known reference to Anatolia – as “Land of the Hatti” – appears on Mesopotamian cuneiform tablets from the period of the Akkadian Empire. The first recorded name the Greeks used for the Anatolian peninsula, Ἀσία echoed the name of the Assuwa league in western Anatolia.
As the name "Asia" broadened its scope to apply to other areas east of the Mediterranean, Greeks in Late Antiquity came to use the name Μικρὰ Ἀσία or Asia Minor, meaning "Lesser Asia" to refer to present-day Anatolia. The English-language name Anatolia itself derives from the Greek ἀνατολή meaning “the East” or more “sunrise”; the precise reference of this term has varied over time originally referring to the Aeolian and Dorian colonies on the west coast of Asia Minor. In the Byzantine Empire, the Anatolic Theme was a theme covering the western and central parts of Turkey's present-day Central Anatolia Region; the term "Anatolia" is Medieval Latin. The modern Turkish form of Anatolia, derives from the Greek name Aνατολή; the Russian male name Anatoly and the French Anatole share the same linguistic origin. The term "Anatolia" referred to a northwestern Byzantine province. By the 12th century Europeans had started referring to Anatolia as Turchia, it has also been called "Asia Minor". In earlier times, it was called" Rûm" by the Seljuqs.
During the era of the Ottoman Empire mapmakers outside the Empire referred to the mountainous plateau in eastern Anatolia as Armenia. Other contemporary sources called the same area Kurdistan. Geographers have variously used the terms east Anatolian plateau and Armenian plateau to refer to the region, although the territory encompassed by each term overlaps with the other. According to archaeologist Lori Khatchadourian this difference in terminology "primarily result from the shifting political fortunes and cultural trajectories of the region since the nineteenth century."Turkey's First Geography Congress in 1941 created two regions to the east of the Gulf of Iskenderun-Black Sea line named the Eastern Anatolia Region and the Southeastern Anatolia Region, the former corresponding to the weste
The Dodecanese are a group of 15 larger plus 150 smaller Greek islands in the southeastern Aegean Sea, off the coast of Asia Minor, of which 26 are inhabited. Τhis island group defines the eastern limit of the Sea of Crete. They belong to the wider Southern Sporades island group; the most important and well-known island, has been the area's dominant island since antiquity. Of the others and Patmos are the more important. Other islands in the chain include Alimia, Chalki, Gyali, Levitha, Nimos, Saria, Strongyli and Telendos; the name "Dodecanese", meaning "The Twelve Islands", denotes today an island group in the southeastern Aegean Sea, comprising fifteen major islands and 93 smaller islets. Since Antiquity, these islands formed part of the group known as the "Southern Sporades"; the name Dōdekanēsos first appears in Byzantine sources in the 8th century, as a naval command under a droungarios, encompassing the southern Aegean Sea, which evolved into the Theme of Samos. However it was not applied to the current island group, but to the twelve Cyclades islands clustered around Delos.
The name may indeed be of far earlier date, modern historians suggest that a list of 12 islands given by Strabo was the origin of the term. The term remained in use throughout the medieval period and was still used for the Cyclades in both colloquial usage and scholarly Greek-language literature until the 18th century; the transfer of the name to the present-day Dodecanese has its roots in the Ottoman period. Following the Ottoman conquest in 1522, the two larger islands and Kos, came under direct Ottoman rule, while the others, of which the twelve main islands were named, enjoyed extensive privileges pertaining to taxation and self-government. Concerted attempts to abolish these privileges were made after 1869, as the Ottoman Empire attempted to modernize and centralize its administrative structure, the last vestiges of the old privileges were abolished after the Young Turks took power in 1908, it was at that time that the press in the independent Kingdom of Greece began referring to the twelve privileged islands in the context of their attempts to preserve their privileges, collectively as the "Dodecanese".
Shortly after, in 1912, most of the Southern Sporades were captured by the Italians in the Italo-Turkish War, except for Ikaria, which joined Greece in 1912 during the First Balkan War, Kastellorizo, which came under Italian rule only in 1921. The place of the latter two was taken by Kos and Rhodes, bringing the number of the major islands under Italian rule back to twelve. Thus, when the Greek press began agitating for the cession of the islands to Greece in 1913, the term used was still the "Dodecanese"; the Italian occupation authorities helped to establish the term when they named the islands under their control "Rhodes and the Dodecanese", adding Leipsoi to the list of the major islands to make up for considering Rhodes separately. By 1920, the name had become established for the entire island group, a fact acknowledged by the Italian government when it appointed the islands' first civilian governor, Count Carlo Senni, as "Viceroy of the Dodecanese"; as the name was associated with Greek irredentism, from 1924 Mussolini's Fascist regime tried to abolish its use by referring to them as the "Italian Islands of the Aegean", but this name never acquired any wider currency outside Italian administrative usage.
The islands joined Greece in 1947 following as the "Governorate-General of the Dodecanese", since 1955 the "Dodecanese Prefecture". The Dodecanese have been inhabited since prehistoric times. In the Neopalatial period on Crete, the islands were Minoanized. Following the downfall of the Minoans, the islands were ruled by the Mycenaean Greeks from circa 1400 BC, until the arrival of the Dorians circa 1100 BC, it is in the Dorian period that they began to prosper as an independent entity, developing a thriving economy and culture through the following centuries. By the early Archaic period Rhodes and Kos emerged as the major islands in the group, in the 6th century BC the Dorians founded three major cities on Rhodes. Together with the island of Kos and the cities of Knidos and Halicarnassos on the mainland of Asia Minor, these made up the Dorian Hexapolis; this development was interrupted around 499 BC by the Persian Wars, during which the islands were captured by the Persians for a brief period.
Following the defeat of the Persians by the Athenians in 478 BC, the cities joined the Athenian-dominated Delian League. When the Peloponnesian War broke out in 431 BC, they remained neutral although they were still members of the League. By the time the Peloponnesian War ended in 404 BC, the Dodecanese were removed from the larger Aegean conflicts, had begun a period of relative quiet and prosperity. In 408 BC, the three cities of Rhodes had united to form one state, which built a new capital on the northern end of the island named Rhodes.
Eurostat is a Directorate-General of the European Commission located in Luxembourg. Its main responsibilities are to provide statistical information to the institutions of the European Union and to promote the harmonisation of statistical methods across its member states and candidates for accession as well as EFTA countries; the organisations in the different countries that cooperate with Eurostat are summarised under the concept of the European Statistical System. Eurostat operates pursuant to Regulation No 223/2009; as a Directorate-General of the Commission, Eurostat is allocated to the portfolio of the European Commissioner for Employment, Social Affairs and Labour Mobility, a position occupied as of April 2015 by Marianne Thyssen. The Director-General of Eurostat is Mariana Kotzeva, former Deputy Director-General of Eurostat and President of the National Statistical Institute of Bulgaria. 1953 The Statistics Division for the European Coal and Steel Community established. 1958 The European Community founded and the forerunner of Eurostat established.
1959 The present name of Eurostat as the Statistical Office of the European Communities adopted. First publication issued - on agricultural statistics. 1960 First Community Labour Force Survey. 1970 The European System of Integrated Economic Accounts published and the general Statistical Classification of Economic Activities in the European Community established. 1974 First domain in the statistical database Cronos databank installed. 1988 European Commission adopts a document defining the first policy for statistical information. 1989 The Statistical Programme Committee established and the first programme adopted by the Council as an instrument for implementing statistical information policy. 1990 The Council adopts a directive on transmission of confidential data to Eurostat an obstacle to Community statistical work. 1991 Eurostat's role extended as a result of the agreement on establishment of the European Economic Area and adoption of the Maastricht Treaty. 1993 The single market extends Eurostat's activities e.g. Intrastat established for statistics on intra-EU trade.
Eurostat starts issuing regular news releases. 1994 First European household panel held, analysing income, poverty, social exclusion, health, etc. 1997 Statistics added for the first time to the Treaty of Amsterdam and the Statistical Law approved by the Council. Harmonised Indices of Consumer Prices HICP published for the first time - designed for Economic and Monetary Union of the European Union convergence criteria. 1998 The eleven countries in at the start of EMU announced, Eurostat issues the first indicators specific to the EMU area. 1999 Start of EMU, 1 January 2001. 2001 In April, Eurostat, in collaboration with five other international organisations launched the Joint Oil Data Exercise, which in 2005 became the Joint Organisations Data Initiative. 2002 Start of the Euro on 1 January, Eurostat supplies key statistics for monetary policy. 2003 Irregularities were suspected in Eurostat, see Eurostat scandal. 2004 Start of free-of-charge dissemination of all statistical data except microdata for research purposes.
2005 Commission Recommendation on the independence and Accountability of the National and Community Statistical Authorities 2005 Start of a three-year peer review exercise across the European Statistical System to monitor compliance with the Code of Practice. 2007 The valid five-year Statistical Programme 2008-2012 was adopted. 2009 New European Regulation governing statistical cooperation in the European Union was adopted. 2010 Following strong criticism, from within the EU and otherwise, of how it had handled inaccurate data regarding Greece, Eurostat published a report to try to rectify its procedures. The European Commission proposes powers for Eurostat to audit the books of national governments in response to the Greek government-debt crisis. 2011 Revision of European Statistics Code of Practice by the European Statistical System Committee. The Regulation No 223/2009 of the European Parliament and of the Council of 11 March 2009 on European statistics establishes the legal framework for the European statistics.
Amending Regulation 759/2015 clarifies that heads of NSIs coordinate national level activities for European statistics and decide on processes, methods and procedures of their respective statistics.. Previous Eurostat regulations were a Decision on Eurostat, the earlier Decision on Eurostat; the Eurostat statistical work is structured into Sub-themes. General statistical activities related to the European Statistical system are: Coordination and governance of the European Statistical System Statistical methodological coordination and research Statistical quality and reporting Currently Eurostat data are aggregated at the EU-28 level, known as EU-28. Although Brexit is planned for 29 March 2019, it is expected that after the Brexit date data will be computed for the EU-27 only because Brexit will make the UK a third country. Nonetheless, to avoid confusion with the previous EU-27 group of 27 member states —, used in the series of statistical data before the accession of member state number 28 — another name for the future EU 27 without the UK might be defined according to Eurostat.
The concept of the EU 28 has been used since 1 January 2014 according to the Eurostat methodological manual on city statistics, 2017 edition. Eurostat is engaged in cooperation with third countries through the European Statistical System, EU Enlargement Policy, European Neighbourhood Policy.. Statistical cooperation in and
Varieties of Modern Greek
The linguistic varieties of Modern Greek can be classified along two principal dimensions. First, there is a long tradition of sociolectal variation between the natural, popular spoken language on the one hand and archaizing, learned written forms on the other. Second, there is regional variation between dialects; the competition between the popular and the learned registers, culminated in the struggle between Dimotiki and Katharevousa during the 19th and 20th centuries. As for regional dialects, variation within the bulk of dialects of present-day Greece is not strong, except for a number of outlying divergent dialects spoken by isolated communities. Since the times of Koiné Greek in Hellenistic and Roman antiquity, there was a competition between the evolving spoken forms of Greek on the one hand, the use of artificially archaic, learned registers on the other; the learned registers employed lexical forms in imitation of classical Attic Greek. This situation is known in modern linguistics as diglossia.
During the Middle Ages, Greek writing varied along a continuum between extreme forms of the high register close to Attic, moderate forms much closer to the spoken Demotic. According to Manolis Triantafyllides, the modern Greek language of the beginning of the 19th century, as used in the demotic poetry of the time, has few grammatical differences from the vernacular language of the 15th century. During the early Modern Era, a middle-ground variety of moderately archaic written standard Greek emerged in the usage of educated Greeks and the Greek church. After the Greek War of Independence and the formation of the modern Greek state, a political effort was made to "purify" this form of Greek by bringing it back to resemble classical Attic Greek more closely; the result was Katharevousa, still a compromise form with Modern Greek syntax, but re-lexified with a much larger amount of Ancient Greek words and morphology. Katharevousa was used as an official language in administration, the church, in literature.
At the same time, spoken Demotic, while not recognised as an official language developed a supra-regional, de facto standard variety. From the late 19th century onwards, written Demotic rather than Katharevousa became the primary medium of literature. During much of the 20th century, there were heated political conflicts over the use of either of the two varieties over the issue of their use in education. Schools were forced to switch from one form to the other and back several times during the 20th century; the conflict was resolved only after the overthrow of the Greek military junta of 1967-1974, whose strong ideological pro-Katharevousa stance had contributed to bringing that language form into disrepute. In 1976, shortly after the restoration of democracy, Demotic was adopted for use everywhere in education and became the language of the state for all official purposes. By that time, the form of Demotic used in practice was no longer the pure popular dialect, but had begun to assimilate elements from the Katharevousa tradition again.
In 1982 diacritics were replaced by the monotonic orthography. Modern linguistics has come to call the resulting variety "Standard Modern Greek" to distinguish it from the pure original Demotic of earlier literature and traditional vernacular speech. Greek authors sometimes use the term "Modern Greek Koiné", reviving the term koiné that otherwise refers to the "common" form of post-classical Ancient Greek. Indeed, Standard Modern Greek has incorporated a large amount of vocabulary from the learned tradition through the registers of academic discourse, politics and religion; the first systematic scholarly treatment of the modern Greek dialects took place after the middle of the 19th century thanks to the work of the prominent Greek linguist Georgios Hadjidakis. The absence of descriptive accounts of the speech of individual regions made the efforts of the researchers of the 19th century more difficult. Therefore, the dialects' forms are known to us only during their last phase. Modern linguistics is not in accord with the tendency of the 19th century scholars to regard modern Greek dialects as the direct descendants of the dialects of ancient Greek.
According to the latest findings of scholarship, modern Greek dialects are products of the dialect differentiation of Koine Greek, with the exception of Tsakonian, they have no correlation with the ancient dialects. It is difficult to monitor the evolution of Koine Greek and its splitting into the modern Greek dialects. Few paradigms of these local varieties are found in certain texts, which however used learned registers; the first texts written in modern Greek dialects appear