Northern Illinois University
Northern Illinois University is a public research university in DeKalb, Illinois. It was founded as Northern Illinois State Normal School on May 22, 1895, by Illinois Governor John P. Altgeld as part of an expansion of the state's system for producing college-educated teachers. In addition to the main campus in DeKalb, it has satellite centers in Chicago, Hoffman Estates, Naperville and Oregon The university is composed of seven degree-granting colleges and has a student body of 25,000 with over 240,000 alumni. Many of NIU's programs are nationally accredited for meeting high standards of academic quality, including business, nursing and performing arts, all teacher certification programs. NIU is one of only two public universities in Illinois that compete in the National Collegiate Athletic Association at the highest levels of all sports, Division I; the university's athletic teams compete in the Mid-American Conference. Northern Illinois University was founded as part of the expansion of the normal school program established in 1857 in Normal, Illinois.
In 1895, the state legislature created a Board of Trustees for the governance of the Northern Illinois State Normal School, which would grow into what is today known as NIU. In July 1917, the Illinois Senate consolidated the boards of trustees for the five state normal schools into one state Normal School Board. Over the next fifty-eight years, the school and the governing board changed their names several times. In 1921, the legislature gave the institution the name Northern Illinois State Teachers College and empowered it to award the four-year Bachelor of Education degree. In 1941, the Normal School Board changed its name to the Teachers College Board. In 1951 the Teachers College Board authorized the college to grant the degree Master of Science in Education, the institution's Graduate School was established. On July 1, 1955, the state legislature renamed the college Northern Illinois State College and authorized the college to broaden its educational services by offering academic work in areas other than teacher education.
The Teachers College Board granted permission for the college to add curricula leading to the degrees Bachelor of Arts and Bachelor of Science. On July 1, 1957, the Seventieth General Assembly renamed Northern Illinois State College as Northern Illinois University in recognition of its expanded status as a liberal arts university. In 1965, the Illinois State Teachers College Board became the Board of Governors of State Colleges and Universities and was reorganized to include Northeastern University, Governor's State, Chicago State Universities. In 1967 authority for Northern Illinois University, Illinois State University, Sangamon State University were passed on to a newly formed Board of Regents. In 1984, the Board of Regents created the position of Chancellor for the three regent universities, to act as a chief executive for all three schools; the Board of Regents and the Chancellor governed the three Regency universities until the end of 1995. On January 1, 1996, authority for each of the three regency universities was transferred to three independent Boards of Trustees, each concerned with one university.
On February 14, 2008, the university drew international attention when a gunman opened fire in a crowd of students on campus, killing five students and injuring 17 more people, before fatally shooting himself. 13 presidents have served at the university. NIU has seven degree-granting colleges that together offer more than 60 undergraduate majors, 70 minors, nine pre-professional programs, 79 graduate programs, including a College of Law, over 20 areas of study leading to doctoral degrees. Many of NIU's academic programs are nationally accredited for meeting the highest standards of academic quality and rigor, including business, nursing and performing arts, all teacher certification programs. New interdisciplinary academic programs in Environmental Studies and Community Leadership and Civic Engagement were established in FY 2012. Northern Illinois University was ranked the 30th top college in the United States by Payscale and CollegeNet's Social Mobility Index college rankings. NIU is classified as a "National University" by U.
S. News & World Report. In the most recent 2014 edition, NIU was ranked number 177 out of 206 ranked National Universities; the same publication ranks NIU as 41st best in the country for Public Affairs programs, within that field, NIU's program in City Management & Urban Policy is ranked 3rd in the nation and the Public Finance & Budgeting program at 12th. Carnegie categorizes Northern as: "RU/H: Research Universities. Washington Monthly ranks NIU as the 135th National University in the United States, making it the 3rd highest ranked public university in Illinois. Forbes magazine, which began publishing an annual list in 2008, prepared by the Center for College Affordability and Productivity, of "America's Best Colleges", uses the list of alumni published in Who's Who in America, student evaluations from RateMyProfessors.com, self-reported salaries of alumni from PayScale, four-year graduation rates, numbers of students and faculty receiving "nationally competitive awards," and four-year accumulated student debt to calculate the rankings, placed NIU as number 561 on its list.
NIU is a member of the Association of Land-Grant Universities. NIU is a member of the prominent Universities Research Ass
Rockford is a city in Winnebago County in the U. S. state of Illinois, in far northern Illinois. Located on the banks of the Rock River, Rockford is the county seat of Winnebago County; the largest city in Illinois outside of the Chicago metropolitan area, Rockford is the third-largest city in the state and the 171st most populous in the United States According to 2010 U. S. Census Data, the City of Rockford had a population of 152,871, with an outlying metropolitan area population of 348,360; the City of Rockford's population is 147,051 as of 2017, down 4.1% since 2010. Settled in the mid-1830s, the position of the city on the Rock River made its location strategic for industrial development. In the second half of the 19th century, Rockford was notable for its output of heavy machinery and tools. During the second half of the 20th century, Rockford struggled alongside many Rust Belt cities. Since the late 1990s, efforts in economic diversification have led to growth of automotive and healthcare industries, as well as the undertaking of various tourism and downtown revitalization efforts.
Nicknamed the Forest City, Rockford is presently known for various venues of cultural or historical significance, including Anderson Japanese Gardens, Klehm Arboretum, Tinker Swiss Cottage, the BMO Harris Bank Center, the Coronado Theatre, the Laurent House, the Burpee Museum of Natural History. Its contributions to music are noted in the Mendelssohn Club, the oldest music club in the nation, performers such as Phantom Regiment and Cheap Trick. Rockford traces its roots to 1834, as the combined settlements of Midway were founded on both banks of the Rock River. On the west bank, Germanicus Kent and Thatcher Blake founded Kentville. With the location of the Rock River equidistant between Lake Michigan and the Mississippi River, the combined settlement derived the name "Midway". In 1836, Winnebago County was created, with Midway named as its county seat. In 1837, the village of Midway was renamed Rockford, highlighting a rocky river ford across the Rock River in the village; the same year, Rockford established its first post office.
In 1840, the first weekly newspaper began circulation. In 1847, Rockford Female Seminary was founded. In 1852, Rockford was chartered as a city. In 1852, the Galena and Chicago Union Railroad connected Rockford to Chicago by railroad. At the time of its founding, many of the village's residents were transplants from the Northeastern United States and upstate New York. Descended from English Puritans, the Midway/Rockford population was similar to much of the rest of northern Illinois and nearly all of Wisconsin during the mid-19th century. After the Black Hawk War, additional immigrants moved to northern Illinois. During the antebellum period, Rockford shared abolitionist leanings, lending considerable support to the Free Soil Party and the Republican Party. In 1848, 42 percent of voters in Winnebago County voted for Martin Van Buren. In 1852, Free Soil candidate John P. Hale became the first presidential candidate to visit Rockford, although he would only receive 28 percent of the vote. In 1860, Abraham Lincoln won 3,985 votes in Winnebago County to the 817 votes of Stephen A. Douglas.
The 1850s brought industry. In 1853, inventor John Henry Manny moved to Rockford to produce horse-drawn mechanical reapers for farmers and transport the finished products by rail. Chicago implement manufacturer Cyrus McCormick took Manny to court after he produced nearly 6,000 machines. Along with production of agricultural machines, Swedish furniture cooperatives established the city as a manufacturing base; the Rockford Union Furniture Company, under John Erlander, spearheaded these cooperatives. Today, Erlander's home is a Rockford museum that shows his efforts in elevating Rockford to second in furniture manufacturing in the nation, behind Grand Rapids. During the Civil War, one of the first Illinois regiments to be mobilized, the Zouaves, were from Rockford; the city served as the site for Camp Fuller, a training site for four other infantry regiments. In 1884, Rockford established its first city-wide public school district, constructing Rockford Central High School in 1885; the Rockford Female Seminary became the alma mater of Jane Addams in 1881.
This move accompanied the Seminary's transition into a more complete curriculum, represented by its renaming to Rockford College in 1892. Culture flourished with the founding of the Mendelssohn Club in 1884, which became the oldest operating music club in the United States; this was complemented by the construction of a Carnegie library in 1902, which became the first building of Rockford's public library system. 1903 saw the dedication of the Winnebago County Veterans Memorial Hall in the presence of sitting President Theodore Roosevelt. Roosevelt returned to Rockford during his campaign in 1912 and again to address the soldiers at Camp Grant, a training site for World War I soldiers; the t
University of Illinois at Chicago
The University of Illinois at Chicago is a public research university in Chicago, Illinois. Its campus is in the Near West Side community area, adjacent to the Chicago Loop; the second campus established under the University of Illinois system, UIC is the largest university in the Chicago area, having 30,000 students enrolled in 15 colleges. UIC operates the largest medical school in the United States with research expenditures exceeding $412 million and ranks in the top 50 U. S. institutions for research expenditures. In the 2015 U. S. News & World Report's ranking of colleges and universities, UIC ranked as the 129th best in the "national universities" category; the 2015 Times Higher Education World University Rankings ranked UIC as the 18th best in the world among universities less than 50 years old. UIC competes in NCAA Division I Horizon League as the UIC Flames in sports; the UIC Pavilion is home to all UIC basketball games. It serves as a venue for concerts; the University of Illinois at Chicago traces its origins to several private health colleges founded during the late 19th century, including the Chicago College of Pharmacy, which opened in 1859, the College of Physicians and Surgeons, the Columbian College of Dentistry.
The University of Illinois was chartered in 1867 in Champaign-Urbana, as the state's land-grant university. In exchange for agreeing to the Champaign-Urbana location, Chicago-area legislators were promised that a "polytechnical" branch would open in Chicago; the Chicago-based health colleges affiliated with the University in 1896–97, becoming incorporated into the University of Illinois in 1913, as the Colleges of Medicine and Pharmacy. Medical education and research expanded in the succeeding decades, leading to the development of several other health science colleges, which were brought together as the Chicago Professional Colleges. In 1935, the first act of newly elected state representative Richard J. Daley was to introduce a resolution calling for the establishment of an undergraduate Chicago campus of the University of Illinois; as World War II was drawing to a close, Congress passed the G. I. Bill in 1944, which sought to reward veterans for their military service. Among other benefits, it provided educational funding, making college degrees far more attainable to the American public.
In 1945, a state senator, introduced four bills calling for a university in Chicago. In 1946, realizing that they would be "besieged with applications", University of Illinois officials opened what was to be a temporary branch campus called the Chicago Undergraduate Division on Navy Pier; the campus was not a junior college, but rather had a curriculum based on Urbana's courses, students who completed the first two years' requirements could go on to Urbana and finish their degree. Classes at the CUD campus began in October 1946, 4,000 students enrolled each semester. Nicknamed "Harvard on the rocks", three-quarters of its students were veterans on the G. I. Bill, many of whom were immigrants and most of whom worked other part-time jobs to support themselves, it accommodated first-generation college students from working families who commuted from home. Demand for a public university education in Chicago remained high, the University made plans to create a permanent degree-granting campus in the Chicago area.
Indeed, because it was a two-year school, students at the University of Illinois at Navy Pier needed to transfer to a higher-tuition private college in Chicago or go to the main campus in Champaign-Urbana, where there were fewer job opportunities. Daley succeeded in getting the state senate in 1951 to pass a bill calling for a Chicago campus. Daley became mayor of Chicago in 1955 and pressed the University of Illinois to upgrade the Chicago Undergraduate Center to a full-fledged four-year institution. After a long and controversial site decision process, in 1961, Mayor Daley offered the Harrison and Halsted Streets site for the new campus. In December 1961, the final decision to establish a four-year university in Chicago was made. In that same year, the Chicago Professional Colleges became the University of Illinois at the Medical Center. In 1963, construction began on the University's new Chicago campus at Halsted Streets. In February 1965, the new Chicago campus opened and was named the University of Illinois at Congress Circle referencing the Circle Interchange of I-290 and I-90/I-94).
Shortly before opening, the Congress expressway was renamed the Eisenhower Expressway and the campus was renamed to University of Illinois at Chicago Circle. UICC was designed in the brutalist style by Walter Netsch of Skidmore and Merrill, a Chicago-based architectural firm responsible for many of today's tallest skyscrapers. Unlike the CUD campus, Circle was a degree-granting institution. Within five years of the campus' opening, in addition to undergraduate degrees every department offered graduate degrees. In September 1982, the University of Illinois system consolidated UICC and UIMC to form the University of Illinois at Chicago. In 2000, UIC began developing the South Campus; the expansion of UIC south of Roosevelt Road increased on-campus living space and research facilities. One in ten Chicagoans with a college degree is a UIC alumnus. One in eight Illinois doctors is a graduate of the UIC College of Medicine. One in three Illinois pharmacists is a graduate of the College of Pharmacy. Half of all the dentists in Illinois are graduates of UIC's College of Dentistry.
The University of Illi
The Golden Corridor is the area around the Jane Addams Memorial Tollway known as the Northwest Tollway, in the Chicago metropolitan area. Its name refers to the "gold" mine of economic profit for communities in the area. Several Fortune 500 company headquarters, office parks, industrial parks and entertainment centers, medical facilities, shopping centers, restaurants are in the Golden Corridor. With the exception of the O'Hare area of Chicago, all the communities in this region are part of a larger region known as the "Northwest Suburbs". Cities and villages in the Golden Corridor include: Several important companies are headquartered in or have a significant presence in the corridor, they include: Sears Holdings, a major department store chain headquartered in Hoffman Estates Motorola Solutions, a telecommunications company which used to have a large presence in Schaumburg. United Airlines, a major airline houses its data center in Elk Grove Township. Claire's, a retailer of accessories and jewelry to young women, headquartered in Hoffman Estates Affiliated Computer Services, an information technology outsourcing company with offices in Schaumburg The Nielsen Company, a marketing research firm headquartered in Schaumburg Automatic Data Processing, a technology and services company whose Dealer Services Division is headquartered in Hoffman Estates U.
S. Robotics, a manufacturer of modems headquartered in Schaumburg United Stationers, an office products distributor headquartered in Des Plaines Big Ten Conference, a collegiate athletics conference headquartered in Rosemont Popular, Inc. regional offices in Rosemont Sprint Nextel, a telecommunications company with regional offices in Rosemont and Itasca Nexicore, a Nationwide onsite computer contractor with offices in Des Plaines Zurich Insurance Group, North America headquarters in Schaumburg Fifth Third Bank branch offices in the Continental Towers in Arlington Heights Chase Bank branch offices in Elgin AT&T, telecommunications company with a large regional office in Hoffman Estates Evangelical Covenant Church, a Protestant religious denomination headquartered in Chicago Evangelical Lutheran Church in America, a Protestant religious denomination headquartered in Chicago IGA, a supermarket chain headquartered in Chicago True Value, a hardware store chain headquartered in Chicago U. S. Cellular, a mobile communications service provider headquartered in Chicago uBid, an online auction platform company headquartered in Chicago XL Capital, A Corporate Insurance Company headquartered in Bermuda, Has Regional offices in Schaumburg Siemens Medical Solutions, regional offices in Hoffman Estates FANUC Robotics, regional offices in Hoffman Estates Mori Seiki, U.
S. headquarters in Rolling Meadows NEC Display Solutions of America, regional offices in Itasca Omron, regional offices in Schaumburg STMicroelectronics, regional offices in Schaumburg Mazak, a Japanese machine tool builder with regional offices in Schaumburg and Elgin THK, a Japanese machinery manufacturer with its U. S. headquarters in Schaumburg First Midwest Bank, a bank headquartered in Chicago, Illinois BMO Harris Bank, a Chicago-based bank with regional offices in Schaumburg Comcast, a cable and telecommunications provider with regional offices in Schaumburg Chicago Tribune, a Chicago-based newspaper with regional offices in Schaumburg The Daily Herald, a suburban Chicago newspaper with headquarters in Arlington Heights and regional offices in Elgin and a printing center in Schaumburg Verizon Wireless, a telecommunications company with regional offices in both Elgin and Schaumburg Safeco, an insurance company with regional offices in Schaumburg Experian a credit information group with regional offices in Schaumburg CareerBuilder.com, a career services company headquartered in Chicago Pace, suburban Chicago's bus transit provider headquartered in Arlington Heights PromoWorks, a marketing services company headquartered in Schaumburg Weber-Stephen Products headquarters in Palatine and factory in Huntley Regional offices for several major home developers including Taylor Morrison and Lennar Flexera Software, A software company providing software licensing and installation solutions for application producers and mid to large enterprises, with Headquarters in Itasca Expansive industrial parks in Elk Grove Village and Elgin Great American Insurance Company, an insurance company with divisions in Schaumburg BMW of North America, a German luxury auto manufacturer, with Regional offices in Schaumburg Schaumburg Boomers, a professional minor league baseball team located in Schaumburg A variety of higher educational institutions are in the Golden Corridor, ranging from branch locations to community colleges to four-year colleges.
Judson University, a 4-year college in Elgin Harper College, a large community college at Roselle Road and Algonquin Road in Palatine Elgin Community College, a community college in Elgin Roosevelt University on McConnor Parkway in Schaumburg NIU Hoffman Estates, the Hoffman Estates branch of Northern Illinois University, at Beverly Road and I-90 American InterContinental University has its online campus offices in Schaumburg Argosy University branch in Schaumburg DePaul University branch in Rolling Meadows Olivet Nazarene University branch in Rolling Meadows National Louis University branch in Elgin Illinois Institute of Art in Schaumburg Oakton Community College in Des Plaines Ranging from regional indoor malls to chic lifestyle centers, "the Golden Corridor" is a bustling center of retail activity. Major shopping cente
DeKalb is a city in DeKalb County, United States. The population was 43,862 according to the 2010 census, up from 39,018 at the 2000 census; the city is named after decorated Franconian-French war hero Johann de Kalb, who died during the American Revolutionary War. DeKalb was called Huntley's Grove, under the latter name was platted in 1853; the name is for a major general in the American Revolutionary War. A post office has been in operation at DeKalb since 1849; the development of barbed wire is key in the history of DeKalb. Joseph Glidden, who developed barbed wire, was a historic citizen of DeKalb. Glidden would be known as the “Father of Barbed Wire”. Glidden began to mass-produce his invention, sold half of the company to Isaac L. Ellwood. Together, the two formed the Barb Fence Company; the city of DeKalb is in northern Illinois, United States 55 miles west of downtown Chicago and 30 miles southeast of Rockford, IL. The Kishwaukee River flows northward through the city of DeKalb. According to the 2010 census, DeKalb has a total area of 14.812 square miles, of which 14.65 square miles is land and 0.162 square miles is water.
On August 24, 2007, the Kishwaukee River at DeKalb crested at 15.27 feet causing major flooding. This was only the second time the river has risen above 15 feet since the level of the river has been recorded. DeKalb has a humid continental climate typical of northern Illinois, with four distinct seasons. Summers can be hot, while winters are snowy. Precipitation is somewhat uniform year-round, although it can be heavier in the spring and summer when the area is prone to strong thunderstorms; as of the census of 2010, there were 43,862 people, 15,386 households, 7,508 families residing in the city. The population density was 2,993.8 people per square mile. There were 16,436 housing units at an average density of 1,121.9 per square mile. The racial makeup of the city was 74.9% white, 12.8% African American, 0.3% Native American, 4.1% Asian, 0.0% Pacific Islander, 5.5% from other races, 2.4% from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 12.5% of the population. There were 15,386 households out of which 26.6% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 33.2% were married couples living together, 11.2% had a female householder with no husband present, 51.2% were non-families.
29.7% of all households were made up of individuals and 6.6% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.44 and the average family size was 3.07. In the city, the population was spread out with 17.6% under the age of 18, 37.3% from 18 to 24, 22.6% from 25 to 44, 15.0% from 45 to 64, 7.5% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 23.6 years. For every 100 females, there were 101.2 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 100.4 males. The median income for a household in the city was $37,719, the median income for a family was $59,671. Males had a median income of $43,819 versus $36,488 for females; the per capita income for the city was $19,155. About 19.6% of families and 32.5% of the population were below the poverty line, including 31.0% of those under the age of 18 and 5.7% of those age 65 or over. DeKalb is home to the annual event Corn Fest, held in late August; the Egyptian Theatre, built in 1929, is one of a handful of such theatres still extant in the United States.
The Stage Coach Players, founded in 1947, have their own theatre on 5th Street. DeKalb is home to Northern Illinois University, the city's largest employer and the third largest campus in the state. Other large employers include Northwestern Medicine, General Electric, the local school district, a large retail district along Hwy. 23 that includes Walmart, Lowes, Best Buy, Kohl's, dozens of other chain and local stores. DeKalb is home to warehouses for several major companies, including Target, 3M, Nestlé, Panduit, in part due to Dekalb's proximity to major highways such as I-88 and I-39. 3M's complex serves as the distribution hub for three of 3M's four business units and export operations to North America, Africa, the Middle East and Latin America. In 1984, the intersection of two streets in a popular NIU housing district in Dekalb begot the name of a regional consulting firm called "Greenbrier & Russel,". In 2011, DeKalb was the broadcast base of Up and In: The Baseball Prospectus Podcast with Kevin Goldstein and Jason Parks.
The town was the filming location for the 2012 film, At Any Price The DeKalb Park District is responsible for the 44 parks and recreation facilities in DeKalb. The park district was established in 1935 through the initiative of members of the League of Women Voters, to address the need for a public swimming pool in the community; the City of DeKalb gave the first four parks to the District: Annie's Woods, Huntley Park, Liberty Park, Hopkins Park. By 1960, the district by 1970 twelve; the main services provided focused on swimming and use of the outdoor parks. But as lifestyles changed, so did the district. In the mid 1960s, the City gave the Ellwood House mansion to the district. In 1970, the park district hired its first full-time executive director and by 1980, the district had a pool, acquired Haish Gymnasium and Buena Vista, a nine-hole golf course. In 1985, the park district purchased River Heights, a second nine-hole golf course, developed into an 18-hole course. New parks were a
Illinois is a state in the Midwestern and Great Lakes region of the United States. It has the fifth largest gross domestic product, the sixth largest population, the 25th largest land area of all U. S. states. Illinois is noted as a microcosm of the entire United States. With Chicago in northeastern Illinois, small industrial cities and immense agricultural productivity in the north and center of the state, natural resources such as coal and petroleum in the south, Illinois has a diverse economic base, is a major transportation hub. Chicagoland, Chicago's metropolitan area, encompasses over 65% of the state's population; the Port of Chicago connects the state to international ports via two main routes: from the Great Lakes, via the Saint Lawrence Seaway, to the Atlantic Ocean and from the Great Lakes to the Mississippi River, via the Illinois Waterway to the Illinois River. The Mississippi River, the Ohio River, the Wabash River form parts of the boundaries of Illinois. For decades, Chicago's O'Hare International Airport has been ranked as one of the world's busiest airports.
Illinois has long had a reputation as a bellwether both in social and cultural terms and, through the 1980s, in politics. The capital of Illinois is Springfield, located in the central part of the state. Although today's Illinois' largest population center is in its northeast, the state's European population grew first in the west as the French settled the vast Mississippi of the Illinois Country of New France. Following the American Revolutionary War, American settlers began arriving from Kentucky in the 1780s via the Ohio River, the population grew from south to north. In 1818, Illinois achieved statehood. Following increased commercial activity in the Great Lakes after the construction of the Erie Canal, Chicago was founded in the 1830s on the banks of the Chicago River at one of the few natural harbors on the southern section of Lake Michigan. John Deere's invention of the self-scouring steel plow turned Illinois's rich prairie into some of the world's most productive and valuable farmland, attracting immigrant farmers from Germany and Sweden.
The Illinois and Michigan Canal made transportation between the Great Lakes and the Mississippi River valley faster and cheaper, new railroads carried immigrants to new homes in the country's west and shipped commodity crops to the nation's east. The state became a transportation hub for the nation. By 1900, the growth of industrial jobs in the northern cities and coal mining in the central and southern areas attracted immigrants from Eastern and Southern Europe. Illinois was an important manufacturing center during both world wars; the Great Migration from the South established a large community of African Americans in the state, including Chicago, who founded the city's famous jazz and blues cultures. Chicago, the center of the Chicago Metropolitan Area, is now recognized as a global alpha-level city. Three U. S. presidents have been elected while living in Illinois: Abraham Lincoln, Ulysses S. Grant, Barack Obama. Additionally, Ronald Reagan, whose political career was based in California, was born and raised in the state.
Today, Illinois honors Lincoln with its official state slogan Land of Lincoln, displayed on its license plates since 1954. The state is the site of the Abraham Lincoln Presidential Library and Museum in Springfield and the future home of the Barack Obama Presidential Center in Chicago. "Illinois" is the modern spelling for the early French Catholic missionaries and explorers' name for the Illinois Native Americans, a name, spelled in many different ways in the early records. American scholars thought the name "Illinois" meant "man" or "men" in the Miami-Illinois language, with the original iliniwek transformed via French into Illinois; this etymology is not supported by the Illinois language, as the word for "man" is ireniwa, plural of "man" is ireniwaki. The name Illiniwek has been said to mean "tribe of superior men", a false etymology; the name "Illinois" derives from the Miami-Illinois verb irenwe·wa - "he speaks the regular way". This was taken into the Ojibwe language in the Ottawa dialect, modified into ilinwe·.
The French borrowed these forms, changing the /we/ ending to spell it as -ois, a transliteration for its pronunciation in French of that time. The current spelling form, began to appear in the early 1670s, when French colonists had settled in the western area; the Illinois's name for themselves, as attested in all three of the French missionary-period dictionaries of Illinois, was Inoka, of unknown meaning and unrelated to the other terms. American Indians of successive cultures lived along the waterways of the Illinois area for thousands of years before the arrival of Europeans; the Koster Site demonstrates 7,000 years of continuous habitation. Cahokia, the largest regional chiefdom and urban center of the Pre-Columbian Mississippian culture, was located near present-day Collinsville, Illinois, they built an urban complex of more than 100 platform and burial mounds, a 50-acre plaza larger than 35 football fields, a woodhenge of sacred cedar, all in a planned design expressing the culture's cosmology.
Monks Mound, the center of the site, is the largest Pre-Columbian structure north of the Valley of Mexico. It is 100 feet high, 951 feet long, 836 feet wide, covers 13.8 acres. It contains about 814,000 cubic yards of earth, it was topped by a structure thought to have measured about 105 feet in length and 48 feet in width, covered an area 5,000 square feet, been as much as 50 feet high, making its peak 150 feet above the level of the pl
Peru is a city in LaSalle County, United States. The population was 10,295 at the 2010 census, it is part of the Ottawa -- IL Micropolitan Statistical Area. Peru and its twin city, LaSalle, make up the core of Illinois Valley; the city's first settler was John Hays, who arrived in 1830. The city was organized as a borough in 1838, was incorporated as a city on March 13, 1851; the original plat was between West Street, 4th Street, East Street. Since the first steamboat Traveler reached Peru in 1831, the city had high hopes of being the western terminus for the Illinois & Michigan Canal. LaSalle won that designation, but Peru became a busy steamboat port at the head of navigation on the Illinois River. Captain McCormick was involved in the Five Day Line, making record fast trips between Peru and St. Louis, Missouri. Senator Gilson reported to land surveyor Grenville Dodge that the town would soon outstrip Chicago due to its favorable location along the river and railroads. Water Street was a thin ribbon pressed between the bluff and the river, leading to the growth eastward of a large industrial district.
Developed along the river and the canal, it was served by the Rock Island Railroad and Chicago Burlington and Quincy. These important transportation routes, along with coal mining in at least four mines lasting from 1857 until 1949, were the basis for Peru's rise to an industrial center. Many entrepreneurs grew into prominent businessmen and advanced the interests of Peru and the region. Prominent companies from that time included Maze Lumber, Maze Nails, Peru Plow and Wheel Works and Loomis Ice Co, Brunner Foundry, Star Union Brewery, Hebel Brewery, Illinois Zinc and many others. Peru's citizens were bent on improving their town, so far as constructing a plank road, northwest of town, a toll road meant to reach Dixon, Illinois. Peru's story became a story of two levels; the story of Water Street and the bottoms, the town growing above the bluff. Peru tried hard to link the two. For example, the Peru Horse and Dummy Railroad was driven to dissolution by the city's impossible mandate that it create a loop from Water Street to the upper bluff.
In 1884, Stahlberg started the United Clock Company in Peru. Shortly afterward, it went bankrupt and was reorganized with the help of Frederick William Matthiessen as the Western Clock Company. By 1905 it had grown into a national company. In 1909, they trademarked "Westclox". In 1917 they became a model for workers' benefits, one of the early companies to pay life insurance and have a safety committee. On, they limited the work week, constructed a company park with a tennis court and horseshoe courts, developed workers' housing, established a school for watchmakers with provision for scholarships. In 1935 it was the safest company in the nation, with 11 million hours without a lost time accident. Despite these advances, their supplier Radium Dial Company discovered that its employees developed radiation poisoning from working with radium. During World War II the company made mechanical fuses for the government and had more than 600 of its employees enter the armed forces. At its height it manufactured nearly 2 million clocks and watches annually and employed over 4,000 persons.
It closed the Peru factory in 1980. According to the 2010 census, Peru has a total area of 9.068 square miles, of which 8.96 square miles is land and 0.108 square miles is water. Located on the Illinois River, Peru lies 3 miles west of the intersection of two major interstate highways: Interstate 39 and Interstate 80; the city is the western terminus of the historic Illinois and Michigan Canal. Before the Illinois Waterway was constructed, the Illinois River was navigable only up to Peru. Starved Rock State Park, a regional tourist attraction, is located 5 miles south-east of the community. Peru has a twin city on LaSalle; as of the census of 2000, there were 9,835 people, 4,143 households, 2,672 families residing in the city. The population density was 1,655.5 people per square mile. There were 4,413 housing units at an average density of 742.8 per square mile. The racial makeup of the city was 96.47% White, 0.32% African American, 0.18% Native American, 1.11% Asian, 0.01% Pacific Islander, 1.16% from other races, 0.75% from two or more races.
Hispanic or Latino of any race were 4.08% of the population. There were 4,143 households out of which 27.3% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 53.7% were married couples living together, 7.9% had a female householder with no husband present, 35.5% were non-families. 31.5% of all households were made up of individuals and 15.5% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.33 and the average family size was 2.93. In the city the population was spread out with 22.0% under the age of 18, 7.5% from 18 to 24, 27.3% from 25 to 44, 21.9% from 45 to 64, 21.4% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 41 years. For every 100 females, there were 89.8 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 87.9 males. The median income for a household in the city was $37,060, the median income for a family was $48,180. Males had a median income of $39,722 versus $21,961 for females; the per capita income for the city was $20,658. About 4.8% of families and 7.5% of the population were below the poverty line, including 12.8% of those under age 18 and 4.7% of those age 65 or over.
There are a number of business districts in Peru. The largest is at the intersection of I-80 and IL-251. T