Health care or healthcare is the maintenance or improvement of health via the prevention and treatment of disease, illness and other physical and mental impairments in people. Health care is delivered by health professionals in allied health fields. Physicians and physician associates are a part of these health professionals. Dentistry, nursing, optometry, pharmacy, occupational therapy, physical therapy and other health professions are all part of health care, it includes work done in providing primary care, secondary care, tertiary care, as well as in public health. Access to health care may vary across countries and individuals influenced by social and economic conditions as well as health policies. Health care systems are organizations established to meet the health needs of targeted populations. According to the World Health Organization, a well-functioning health care system requires a financing mechanism, a well-trained and adequately paid workforce, reliable information on which to base decisions and policies, well maintained health facilities to deliver quality medicines and technologies.
An efficient health care system can contribute to a significant part of a country's economy and industrialization. Health care is conventionally regarded as an important determinant in promoting the general physical and mental health and well-being of people around the world. An example of this was the worldwide eradication of smallpox in 1980, declared by the WHO as the first disease in human history to be eliminated by deliberate health care interventions; the delivery of modern health care depends on groups of trained professionals and paraprofessionals coming together as interdisciplinary teams. This includes professionals in medicine, physiotherapy, dentistry and allied health, along with many others such as public health practitioners, community health workers and assistive personnel, who systematically provide personal and population-based preventive and rehabilitative care services. While the definitions of the various types of health care vary depending on the different cultural, political and disciplinary perspectives, there appears to be some consensus that primary care constitutes the first element of a continuing health care process and may include the provision of secondary and tertiary levels of care.
Health care can be defined as either private. Primary care refers to the work of health professionals who act as a first point of consultation for all patients within the health care system; such a professional would be a primary care physician, such as a general practitioner or family physician. Another professional would be a licensed independent practitioner such as a physiotherapist, or a non-physician primary care provider such as a physician assistant or nurse practitioner. Depending on the locality, health system organization the patient may see another health care professional first, such as a pharmacist or nurse. Depending on the nature of the health condition, patients may be referred for secondary or tertiary care. Primary care is used as the term for the health care services that play a role in the local community, it can be provided in different settings, such as Urgent care centers which provide same day appointments or services on a walk-in basis. Primary care involves the widest scope of health care, including all ages of patients, patients of all socioeconomic and geographic origins, patients seeking to maintain optimal health, patients with all types of acute and chronic physical and social health issues, including multiple chronic diseases.
A primary care practitioner must possess a wide breadth of knowledge in many areas. Continuity is a key characteristic of primary care, as patients prefer to consult the same practitioner for routine check-ups and preventive care, health education, every time they require an initial consultation about a new health problem; the International Classification of Primary Care is a standardized tool for understanding and analyzing information on interventions in primary care based on the reason for the patient's visit. Common chronic illnesses treated in primary care may include, for example: hypertension, asthma, COPD, depression and anxiety, back pain, arthritis or thyroid dysfunction. Primary care includes many basic maternal and child health care services, such as family planning services and vaccinations. In the United States, the 2013 National Health Interview Survey found that skin disorders and joint disorders, back problems, disorders of lipid metabolism, upper respiratory tract disease were the most common reasons for accessing a physician.
In the United States, primary care physicians have begun to deliver primary care outside of the managed care system through direct primary care, a subset of the more familiar concierge medicine. Physicians in this model bill patients directly for services, either on a pre-paid monthly, quarterly, or annual basis, or bill for each service in the office. Examples of direct primary care practices include Foundation Health in Colorado and Qliance in Washington. In context of global population aging, with increasing numbers of older adults at greater risk of chronic non-communicable diseases increasing demand for primary care services is expected in both developed and developing countries; the World Health Organization attributes the provision of essential primary care as an integral component of an inclusive primary health care strategy. Secondary care includes acute care: nec
Akershus University Hospital
The Akershus University Hospital is a Norwegian public university hospital located in the Lørenskog municipality, in the county of Akershus, east of the Norwegian capital Oslo. It is a teaching hospital and one of four university hospitals affiliated with the University of Oslo; the hospital has 9,500 employees. Akershus University Hospital has 699 beds in somatic sector, 254 beds in psychiatric sector. In November 2008 a new hospital building designed by Danish architecture practice Arkitektfirmaet C. F. Møller opened. Setting new standards for hospital architecture in Norway, at the time of its construction, it was claimed to be the most modern in Europe. Akershus University Hospital was opened on 15 May 1961 as the Akershus Central Hospital; the area on which it was built, Nordbyhagen in Lørenskog became developed with more homes and apartments, nursery schools, convenience store and several buildings with associated with hospital functions. In 1978, the hospital began its second major phase, it has since been built a series of individual buildings and minor additions to the hospital.
The Norwegian Parliament decided in 1999 that the Central Hospital of Akershus would be a teaching hospital. The first teaching programs started in 2001 and it was promptly escalated so as to give the medical students proper teaching for the entire duration of their study. Today the "faculty division" is one of the ten departments affiliated with the Faculty of Medicine at the University of Oslo. Since 2002, the university hospital figured prominently in medical education. In 2003 the Storting gave the go-ahead for a new University Hospital in Akershus to be built; the executive board at the Southern and Eastern Norway Regional Health Authority determined on 18 December 2003 that construction work would start in March 2004. It was to be designed by the Danish architects from the firm C. F Møller and was estimated to cost around $1.7bn. On 1 March 2004 the Health Minister Dagfinn Høybråten undertook the first sod; the hospital was completed 1 October 2008, boasted to be the most modern hospital in Europe.
After Akershus University Hospital became a teaching hospital in 2000 a separate Center for Research was established. Since the research center received an central place in the hospital. Both somatic and psychiatric departments have contributed to the positive development; the Hospital aims to ensure that both the research and teaching at the hospital maintains a high professional level, that the basis of the activity must be the hospitals own patient population. The research aims to provide results that are useful for both treatment, it should be progressive by adopting the opportunities that modern medicine and technology offers, be cost effective. Research takes place across organizational structure of the hospital, in all departments, it is responsible for approx. 250 scientific publications per year, in the world's leading journals. An article published in Time magazine received international attention. Like all large public construction projects in Norway, Akershus University Hospital was constructed along with a special art project.
The budget for the art project was estimated at a total of around $7 million. With a hospital building of 137,000 square meters, one of the strategic choices was to focus on getting few and building-integrated masterpieces; the art collection includes twelve major works, which are intended and designed for their specific and unique space. Eleven of them are located in key public spaces. All works is thus available to everyone. Besides the twelve building-integrated works the art collection includes some newly acquired autonomous works, such as drawings and photographs, as well as a new exhibition of a selection of photos from the old hospital building; the hospital's function is to provide treatment and care. The hospital-space is a public space where communication and interaction between function, art and the public was important; the intention and aim was that art should relate to the hospital in a meaningful way and add to the treatment process by soothing the visual experiences of patients as well as staff as research has shown that experiencing art has positive health effects and helps treat illnesses such as hypertension.
The hope was that the art would activate in different ways and open to different cognitive and sensory experiences. Another goal has been that art should have its own integrity and independence to the building's architecture and design; the artists desired for it to be read and experienced as art if it is integrated into the building's architecture. Many of the original works is of renowned artists including. Internal medicine with sub-specialties, Pediatrics, Children Habilitation, Physiotherapy. Surgery with sub-specialties Orthopedics, Otorhinolaryngology, Anesthesia and gynecology. Clinical Chemistry and Nuclear Medicine and Transfusion Medicine, Pathological anatomy, Radiology Adult and Children Psychiatry, Adult Habilitation 19??-1998: Yngve Haugstvedt 1998-2003: Øystein Dolva 2003-2005: Are Helseth 2005-2009: Erik Kreyberg Normann 2009-2010: Stein Vaaler 2010–2013 Hulda Gunnlaugsdottír 2013–2014: Stein Vaaler 2014–present: Øystein Mæland University of Oslo Lørenskog List of hospitals in Norway Ake
Helgeland Hospital Trust
Helgeland Hospital Trust is a health trust covering Helgeland in Nordland, Norway. It is part of Northern Norway Regional Health Authority and was established on 1 January 2002; the main facilities are Mosjøen Hospital and Sandnessjøen Hospital. It has a polyclinic in Brønnøysund; the director is Per Martin Knutsen. The medical director of Helgeland Hospital is Fred Mürer; the hospital buildings in Rana is located on Sjøførsgata 36 on Selfors, a village 4 km east of Mo i Rana. Rana doctors' surgery is located on the first floor of the hospital. Official website
The krone, plural kroner, is the currency of Norway and its dependent territories. It is subdivided into 100 øre, which have existed only electronically since 2012; the name translates into English as crown. The krone was the thirteenth most traded currency in the world by value in April 2010, down three positions from 2007; the krone was introduced in 1875, replacing the Norwegian speciedaler/spesidaler at a rate of 4 kroner = 1 speciedaler. In doing so, Norway joined the Scandinavian Monetary Union, established in 1873; the Union persisted until 1914. After its dissolution, Denmark and Sweden all decided to keep the names of their respective and since separate currencies. Within the Scandinavian Monetary Union, the krone was on a gold standard of 2,480 kroner = 1 kilogram of pure gold; this gold standard was restored between 1916 and 1920 and again in 1928. It was suspended permanently in 1931, when a peg to the British pound of 19.9 kroner = 1 pound was established.. In 1939, Norway pegged the krone temporarily to the U.
S. dollar at a rate of 4.4 kroner = 1 dollar. Nonetheless, Norway would continue to hold the Kingdom's gold reserves. During the German occupation in the Second World War, the krone was pegged to the Reichsmark at a rate of 1 krone = 0.6 Reichsmark reduced to 0.57. After the war, a rate of 20 kroner = 1 pound was established; the rate to the pound was maintained in 1949, when the pound devalued relative to the U. S. dollar, leading to a rate of 7.142 kroner = 1 U. S. dollar. In December 1992, the Central Bank of Norway abandoned the fixed exchange rate in favor of a floating exchange rate due to the heavy speculation against the Norwegian currency in the early 1990s, which lost the central bank around two billion kroner in defensive purchases of the NOK through usage of foreign currency reserves for a short period of time. In 1875, coins were introduced in denominations of 1 and 10 kroner; these coins bore the denomination in the previous currency, as 3, 15, 30 skillings and 2½ specidaler. Between 1875 and 1878, the new coinage was introduced in full, in denominations of 1, 2, 5, 10, 25, 50 øre and 1, 2, 10 kroner.
The 1, 2, 5 øre were struck in bronze. The last gold coins were issued in 1910. Between 1917 and 1921, iron temporarily replaced bronze. 1917 saw the last issuance of 2 kroner coins. During the German occupation of Norway in the Second World War, zinc was used in place of cupro-nickel in 10, 25, 50 øre coins, production of the 1 krone piece was suspended. In 1963, 5 kroner coins were introduced. Production of 1 and 2 øre coins ceased in 1972; the following year, the size of the 5 øre coin was reduced. Ten-kroner coins were introduced in 1983. In 1992, the last 10 øre coins were minted. Between 1994 and 1998, a new coinage was introduced, consisting of 50 øre, 1, 5, 10, 20 kroner; these are the only coins which are legal tender, with the exception of the 50-øre coin, withdrawn on 1 May 2012. It was withdrawn. However, banks in Norway will still exchange 50 øre coins for higher values until 2022; the 10- and 20-kroner coins carry the effigy of the current monarch. The 1- and 5-kroner coins carried the royal effigy, but now these denominations are decorated only with stylistic royal or national symbols.
The royal motto of the monarch is inscribed on the 10-kroner coin. Coins and banknotes of the Norwegian krone are distributed by the Central Bank of Norway. Up to 25 coins of any single denomination is considered tvungent betalingsmiddel—a recognized method of payment, in which the intended recipient can not refuse payment, according to Norwegian law; the characteristics of the 10 Syrian pound coin have been found to so resemble the 20 Norwegian kroner coin that it can fool vending machines, coins-to-cash machines, arcade machines, any other coin-operated, automated service machine in the country. Whilst they are hardly similar to the naked eye, machines are unable to tell the coins apart, owing to their identical weight and size; as of mid February 2017, 10 Syrian pounds were worth 39 øre, making the 20-kroner coin 51.5 times more valuable than the 10-pound coin. While not easy to find in Norway, the Syrian coins are still used in automated machines there with such frequency that Posten Norge, the Norwegian postal service, decided to close many of their coins-to-cash machines on 18 February 2006, with plans to develop a system able to differentiate between the two coins.
In the summer of 2005, a Norwegian man was sentenced to 30 days, for having used Syrian coins in arcade machines in the municipality of Bærum. In 1877, Norges Bank introduced notes for 10, 50, 100, 500 and 1000 kroner. In 1917, 1-krone notes were issued, 2-kroner notes were issued between 1918 and 1922; because of metal shortages, 1- and 2-kroner notes were again issued between 1940 and 1950. In 1963, 5-kroner notes were replaced by coins, with the same happening to the 10-kroner notes in 1984. 200-kroner notes were introduced in 1994. Sources: The value of Norwegian krone compared to other currencies varies from one year to another based on changes in oil prices and interest rates. In 2002 the Norwegian kro
University Hospital of North Norway
The University Hospital of North Norway or UNN is a hospital and health trust. UNN is a university hospital for the region which includes the counties of Nordland and Finnmark, it is part of the Northern Norway Regional Health Authority. Its service area has a combined population of 465,000. Patient treatment and diagnostic investigation as well as training and research takes place at eleven clinics; the hospital system provides local hospital services to the 110,000 inhabitants of the Tromsø area, as well as the inhabitants of southern Troms and northern Nordland from facilities located in Harstad and Narvik. UNN serves the regional Emergency Medical Communication Center and operates a number of ambulance stations in Nordland and Troms. UNN website Helse Nord website
Nordland is a county in Norway in the Northern Norway region, bordering Troms in the north, Trøndelag in the south, Norrbotten County in Sweden to the east, Västerbotten County to the southeast, the Atlantic Ocean to the west. The county was known as Nordlandene amt; the county administration is in Bodø. The remote Arctic island of Jan Mayen has been administered from Nordland since 1995. In the southern part is Vega, listed on the UNESCO World Heritage site list; the history of Nordland is a tale about the gifts from the sea: One of the most productive seas in the world providing food all year since ancient times, the same sea creates a climate more moderate than any other place in the arctic. The county is divided into traditional districts; these are Helgeland in the south, Salten in the centre, Ofoten in the northeast. In the northwest lie the archipelagoes of Lofoten and Vesterålen. Nordland is located along the northwestern coast of the Scandinavian peninsula in Northern Norway. Due to the large distance to the densely populated parts of Europe, this is one of the least polluted areas in Europe.
Nordland extends about 500 km from Trøndelag to Troms. The distance by road from Bindal in the far south of the county to Andenes on the northern tip is 800 km. Nordland has a rugged coastline, with many fjords. From south to north, the main fjords are Bindalsfjord, Ranfjord, Saltfjord-Skjerstadfjord, Tysfjord and Andfjord, shared with Troms county; the best-known is the Vestfjorden, not a fjord, but an open stretch of sea between the Lofoten island group and the mainland. The Raftsundet strait, with its famous branch Trollfjord, is the shortest waterway connecting Lofoten and Vesterålen; the continental shelf is narrow west of Andenes, nowhere else in Norway is the deep ocean only a few kilometres from shore. Saltstraumen whirlpool is just southeast of Bodø, Moskenstraumen is located in southern Lofoten. Steep mountains near the sea and an flat lowland area in between the mountains and the sea is typical for the long coastline in Nordland, Strandflaten continues out from the shore, the result is numerous islands, of which Helgeland have thousands.
The southern part of Norways largest island, Hinnøya is in Nordland, as is the third-largest island, Langøya. In the fjords, the coastal brim is much less developed: There might be a more gradual slope, with hills, towards the mountains, or no lowland at all. There are valleys at the head of fjords with a river at the centre of the valley. Mo i Rana, Mosjøen and Rognan are situated in such valleys. Norway's second-largest glacier, the second-largest lake, Røssvatnet, the second-deepest fjord, Tysfjord are all located in Nordland; the largest river is Vefsna. The Saltfjellet mountain range forms a natural border between Helgeland and Salten, is where the Arctic Circle cuts through the county; the western part of this mountain range is dominated by steep mountains and fjord inlets, with glaciers stretching towards the sea, while the eastern part of the mountains is more gentle and rounded, with some forested valleys, is well suited for hiking. The interior of Nordland, towards the border with Sweden, is dominated by the Kjølen Mountains.
The highest mountain in Nordland is Oksskolten in Okstindan range, the second-highest is Suliskongen in Fauske, the third is Storsteinfjellet in Narvik. Stetind in Tysfjord has been voted as Norway's national mountain. There are many glaciers in the mountains, like Blåmannsisen, the Sulitjelma Glacier, Frostisen—7 of the 15 largest glaciers in continental Norway are located in Nordland. In the geological past, a collision with Greenland pushed long slices of the seabed on top of the existing bedrock, today forming the bedrock from Dovrefjell and Trollheimen south of Trondheim stretching north in Trøndelag and through Nordland to justh north of Tromsø; this Cambrian—Silurian bedrock, much of it mica schist, is by far the largest area in Norway with soft bedrock rich in nutritions good for plant growth. It forms the bedrock in the fjord areas, while the islands off the coast and some of the easternmost areas along the border with Sweden are made up of hard bedrock. In some areas, as in Tysfjord and Sørfold, the bedrock is a mix of hard granite.
Much of the Lofoten mountains are of precambrian eruptive origin and 3.5 billion years old, among the oldest on earth. The youngest rock in Norway is on Andøya known for its fossils of dinosaurs and other life forms; as the land was depressed by the ice sheet in the ice age, substantial areas in the lowest altitudes was beneath the surface of the sea for thousands of years acquiring marine deposits. Due to post-glacial rebound, this is now dry land, reaching 120 metres above sea level today in Saltdal, 100 m in Narvik and Brønnøysund, 30–50 m in Lofoten and Vesterålen. Limestone is common in Nordland, with many caves throughout the county, such as Grønligrotta in Rana. There are more caves in Rana than any other area in northern Europe. In August 2006 the Tjoarvekrajgge cave in Sørfold was explored and verified as the longest cave in Scandinavia.
Norway the Kingdom of Norway, is a Nordic country in Northern Europe whose territory comprises the western and northernmost portion of the Scandinavian Peninsula. The Antarctic Peter I Island and the sub-Antarctic Bouvet Island are dependent territories and thus not considered part of the kingdom. Norway lays claim to a section of Antarctica known as Queen Maud Land. Norway has a total area of 385,207 square kilometres and a population of 5,312,300; the country shares a long eastern border with Sweden. Norway is bordered by Finland and Russia to the north-east, the Skagerrak strait to the south, with Denmark on the other side. Norway has an extensive coastline, facing the Barents Sea. Harald V of the House of Glücksburg is the current King of Norway. Erna Solberg has been prime minister since 2013. A unitary sovereign state with a constitutional monarchy, Norway divides state power between the parliament, the cabinet and the supreme court, as determined by the 1814 constitution; the kingdom was established in 872 as a merger of a large number of petty kingdoms and has existed continuously for 1,147 years.
From 1537 to 1814, Norway was a part of the Kingdom of Denmark-Norway, from 1814 to 1905, it was in a personal union with the Kingdom of Sweden. Norway was neutral during the First World War. Norway remained neutral until April 1940 when the country was invaded and occupied by Germany until the end of Second World War. Norway has both administrative and political subdivisions on two levels: counties and municipalities; the Sámi people have a certain amount of self-determination and influence over traditional territories through the Sámi Parliament and the Finnmark Act. Norway maintains close ties with both the United States. Norway is a founding member of the United Nations, NATO, the European Free Trade Association, the Council of Europe, the Antarctic Treaty, the Nordic Council. Norway maintains the Nordic welfare model with universal health care and a comprehensive social security system, its values are rooted in egalitarian ideals; the Norwegian state has large ownership positions in key industrial sectors, having extensive reserves of petroleum, natural gas, lumber and fresh water.
The petroleum industry accounts for around a quarter of the country's gross domestic product. On a per-capita basis, Norway is the world's largest producer of oil and natural gas outside of the Middle East; the country has the fourth-highest per capita income in the world on the World IMF lists. On the CIA's GDP per capita list which includes autonomous territories and regions, Norway ranks as number eleven, it has the world's largest sovereign wealth fund, with a value of US$1 trillion. Norway has had the highest Human Development Index ranking in the world since 2009, a position held between 2001 and 2006, it had the highest inequality-adjusted ranking until 2018 when Iceland moved to the top of the list. Norway ranked first on the World Happiness Report for 2017 and ranks first on the OECD Better Life Index, the Index of Public Integrity, the Democracy Index. Norway has one of the lowest crime rates in the world. Norway has two official names: Norge in Noreg in Nynorsk; the English name Norway comes from the Old English word Norþweg mentioned in 880, meaning "northern way" or "way leading to the north", how the Anglo-Saxons referred to the coastline of Atlantic Norway similar to scientific consensus about the origin of the Norwegian language name.
The Anglo-Saxons of Britain referred to the kingdom of Norway in 880 as Norðmanna land. There is some disagreement about whether the native name of Norway had the same etymology as the English form. According to the traditional dominant view, the first component was norðr, a cognate of English north, so the full name was Norðr vegr, "the way northwards", referring to the sailing route along the Norwegian coast, contrasting with suðrvegar "southern way" for, austrvegr "eastern way" for the Baltic. In the translation of Orosius for Alfred, the name is Norðweg, while in younger Old English sources the ð is gone. In the 10th century many Norsemen settled in Northern France, according to the sagas, in the area, called Normandy from norðmann, although not a Norwegian possession. In France normanni or northmanni referred to people of Sweden or Denmark; until around 1800 inhabitants of Western Norway where referred to as nordmenn while inhabitants of Eastern Norway where referred to as austmenn. According to another theory, the first component was a word nór, meaning "narrow" or "northern", referring to the inner-archipelago sailing route through the land.
The interpretation as "northern", as reflected in the English and Latin forms of the name, would have been due to folk etymology. This latter view originated with philologist Niels Halvorsen Trønnes in 1847; the form Nore is still used in placenames such as the village of Nore and lake Norefjorden in Buskerud county, still has the same meaning. Among other arguments in favour of the theor