Copenhagen Business School
Copenhagen Business School often abbreviated and referred to as CBS, is a public university situated in Copenhagen, the capital of Denmark. CBS was established in 1917 by the Danish Society for the Advancement of Business Education and Research, however, it wasnt until 1920 that accounting became the first full study programme at CBS. Today CBS has more than 20,000 students,2,000 employees and offers a range of undergraduate and graduate programmes within business, typically with an interdisciplinary. Since the Danish Universities Act of 2003, CBS has had a Board of Directors with an external majority, the Board of Directors appoints the President of CBS, who is currently Per Holten-Andersen. Most of the programs are taught in English and more than 50% of the faculty is recruited from abroad, CBS was established in 1917 by the Danish Society for the Advancement of Business Education, which is a private educational institution. In 1965 the business became integrated as an institution of higher education in the Danish education system.
Today it is regulated by the Danish Universities Act of 2003, CBS offers a range of university degrees in business economics and modern languages for international business communication in Denmark. The BSc in International Business covers three areas of study, Business Economics/Management, and Methodology. The BSc IB is the program in Denmark that offers students the opportunity to join the GLOBE program or the EngAGE program. European Business, abbreviated as EB, is a program offering students a wide knowledge about Europe, including social, economic. The students will gain an understanding of the EU, Europe. English Organizational Communication, abbreviated as EOK, is a program offering students an understanding of how English is. The students will gain an understanding of how the communication can be used to English markets, intercultural Market Communication, known as IMK, is a bachelor program that will teach students how to communicate from market to market, when cultural aspects are involved.
The main complex, Solbjerg Plads, was opened in 2000 and includes 34,000 m2 of student and office space surrounded by gardens, dalgas Have, opened in 1989 and designed by Henning Larsen Architects, is the oldest building currently in use. Owned by the Danish Pension Fund for Engineers and leased by CBS, at the midpoint of the arcade a two-story semi-circular cafeteria sits below a semi-circular library. Kilen was opened in 2006 and includes 10,000 m2 of student classrooms, study spaces, designed by Lundgaard & Tranberg Architects, the four-story wedge-shaped building features a large oval-shaped atrium that extends the height of the building. The exterior is covered with screens made of wood, matte glass or copper. Kilen has been the recipient of numerous architecture and design awards such as a RIBA European Award in 2006, porcelænshaven, the fourth main building that comprises the CBS campus, is leased by CBS from the Danish Society for the Advancement of Business Education
History of whaling
This article discusses the history of whaling from prehistoric times up to the commencement of the International Whaling Commission moratorium on commercial whaling in 1986. Humans have engaged in whaling since prehistoric times, archaeological evidence acquired by the University of Alaska Fairbanks demonstrates whaling began at least circa 1000 BCE. This was — and still is — used for species such as pilot whales, beluga whales, porpoises. This technique is described in A Pattern of Islands, a memoir published by British administrator Arthur Grimble in 1952, the next step was to employ a drogue such as a wooden drum or an inflated sealskin which was tied to an arrow or a harpoon. Once the missile had been shot into a body, the buoyancy and drag from the drogue would eventually cause the whale to fatigue. Several cultures around the world practiced whaling with drogues, including the Ainu, other Native Americans, the Bangudae petroglyphs, an archaeological site in South Korea, suggests that drogues and lines were being used to kill small whales as early as 6000 BC.
Petroglyphs unearthed by researchers from Kyungpook National University show sperm whales, humpback whales, similarly-aged cetacean bones were found in the area, reflecting the importance of whales in the prehistoric diet of coastal people. Jewitt mentions the importance of meat and oil to the diet. Whaling was integral to the cultures and economies of other people as well, notably the Makah. For other groups, especially the Haida, whales appear prominently as totems, the first mention of Basque whaling was made in 1059, when it was said to have been practiced at the Basque town of Bayonne. The fishery spread to what is now the Spanish Basque Country in 1150, at first, they only hunted the whale they called sarda, or the North Atlantic right whale, using watchtowers to look for their distinctive twin vapour spouts. By the 14th century they were making trips to the English Channel. The fishery spread to Terranova in the quarter of the 16th century. They established whaling stations at the former, mainly in Red Bay, in Terranova they hunted bowheads and right whales, while in Iceland they appear to have only hunted the latter.
The fishery in Terranova declined for a variety of reasons, the first voyages to Spitsbergen by the English and Danish relied on Basque specialists, with the Basque provinces sending out their own whaler in 1612. The following season San Sebastián and Saint-Jean-de-Luz sent out a combined eleven or twelve whalers to the Spitsbergen fishery, two more ships were sent by a merchant in San Sebastián in 1615, but both were driven away by the Dutch. They continued whale fishing in Iceland and Spitsbergen at least into the 18th century, encouraged by reports of whales off the coast of Spitsbergen in 1610, the English Muscovy Company sent a whaling expedition there the following year. The expedition was a disaster, with ships sent being lost
Climate change in the Arctic
The effects of global warming in the Arctic include rising temperatures, loss of sea ice, and melting of the Greenland ice sheet. Potential methane release from the region, especially through the thawing of permafrost, because of the amplified response of the Arctic to global warming, it is often seen as a leading indicator of global warming. The melting of Greenlands ice sheet is linked to polar amplification, according to the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change, warming in the Arctic, as indicated by daily maximum and minimum temperatures, has been as great as in any other part of the world. The period of 1995-2005 was the warmest decade in the Arctic since at least the 17th century, some regions within the Arctic have warmed even more rapidly, with Alaska and western Canadas temperature rising by 3 to 4 °C. This warming has caused not only by the rise in greenhouse gas concentration. The authors conclude that anthropogenic increases in greenhouse gases have led to unprecedented regional warmth, the poles of the Earth are more sensitive to any change in the planets climate than the rest of the planet.
In the face of ongoing global warming, the poles are warming faster than lower latitudes, the primary cause of this phenomenon is ice-albedo feedback, whereby melting ice uncovers darker land or ocean beneath, which absorbs more sunlight, causing more heating. The loss of the Arctic sea ice may represent a point in global warming, when runaway climate change starts. Sea ice is currently in decline in area and volume and may cease to exist sometime during the 21st century. Sea ice area refers to the area covered by ice, whereas sea ice extent is the area of ocean with at least 15% sea ice. Reliable measurement of sea ice edges began with the era in the late 1970s. Before this time, sea ice area and extent were monitored less precisely by a combination of ships, the data show a long-term negative trend in recent years, attributed to global warming, although there is a considerable amount of variation from year to year. Some of this variation may be related to such as the arctic oscillation. The Arctic sea ice September minimum extent reached new lows in 2002,2005,2007.
The 2007 melt season let to a minimum 39% below the 1979-2000 average, and for the first time in human memory, the dramatic 2007 melting surprised and concerned scientists. From 2008 to 2011, Arctic sea ice minimum extent was higher than 2007, in 2012 however, the 2007 record low was broken in late August with 3 weeks still left in the melt season. The rate of the decline in entire ice coverage is accelerating. From 1979–1996, the average per decade decline in entire ice coverage was a 2. 2% decline in ice extent, for the decade ending 2008, these values have risen to 10. 1% and 10. 7%, respectively
The Barents Sea is a marginal sea of the Arctic Ocean, located off the northern coasts of Norway and Russia divided between Norwegian and Russian territorial waters. Known among Russians in the Middle Ages as the Murman Sea and it is a rather shallow shelf sea, with an average depth of 230 metres, and is an important site for both fishing and hydrocarbon exploration. Novaya Zemlya, an extension of the part of the Ural Mountains. The southern half of the Barents Sea, including the ports of Murmansk, in September, the entire Barents Sea is more or less completely ice-free. Until the Winter War, Finlands territory reached to the Barents Sea, with the harbor at Petsamo being Finlands only ice-free winter harbor. There are three types of water masses in the Barents Sea, salty Atlantic water from the North Atlantic drift, cold Arctic water from the north, and warm. Between the Atlantic and Polar waters, a front called the Polar Front is formed, the lands of Novaya Zemlya attained most of their early Holocene coastal deglaciation approximately 10,000 years before present.
The International Hydrographic Organization defines the limits of the Barentsz Sea as follows, On the west, on the northwest, The eastern shore of West Spitzbergen, Hinlopen Strait up to 80° latitude north and east coasts of North-East Land to Cape Leigh Smith. On the north, Cape Leigh Smith across the Islands Bolshoy Ostrov and Victoria, on the east, Cape Kohlsaat to Cape Zhelaniya and southwest coast of Novaya Zemlya to Cape Kussov Noss and thence to western entrance Cape, Dolgaya Bay on Vaigach Island. Through Vaigach Island to Cape Greben, thence to Cape Belyi Noss on the mainland, on the south, The northern limit of the White Sea. Other islands in the Barents Sea include Chaichy and Timanets, most of its geological history is dominated by extensional tectonics, caused by the collapse of the Caledonian and Uralian orogenic belts and the break-up of Pangaea. These events created the rift basins that dominate the Barents Shelf, along with various platforms. Due to the North Atlantic drift, the Barents Sea has a high biological production compared to other oceans of similar latitude.
The spring bloom of phytoplankton can start quite early close to the ice edge, the phytoplankton bloom feeds zooplankton such as Calanus finmarchicus, Calanus glacialis, Calanus hyperboreus, Oithona spp. and krill. The zooplankton feeders include young cod, polar cod, the capelin is a key food for top predators such as the north-east Arctic cod, harp seals, and seabirds such as common guillemot and Brunnichs guillemot. The fisheries of the Barents Sea, in particular the cod fisheries, are of importance for both Norway and Russia. There is a genetically distinct polar bear population associated with the Barents Sea and its eastern corner, in the region of the Pechora Rivers estuary, has been known as Pechorskoye Morye, that is, Pechora Sea. This sea was given its present name in honor of Willem Barentsz, Barentsz was the leader of early expeditions to the far north, at the end of the sixteenth century
International Standard Serial Number
An International Standard Serial Number is an eight-digit serial number used to uniquely identify a serial publication. The ISSN is especially helpful in distinguishing between serials with the same title, ISSN are used in ordering, interlibrary loans, and other practices in connection with serial literature. The ISSN system was first drafted as an International Organization for Standardization international standard in 1971, ISO subcommittee TC 46/SC9 is responsible for maintaining the standard. When a serial with the content is published in more than one media type. For example, many serials are published both in print and electronic media, the ISSN system refers to these types as print ISSN and electronic ISSN, respectively. The format of the ISSN is an eight digit code, divided by a hyphen into two four-digit numbers, as an integer number, it can be represented by the first seven digits. The last code digit, which may be 0-9 or an X, is a check digit. Formally, the form of the ISSN code can be expressed as follows, NNNN-NNNC where N is in the set, a digit character.
The ISSN of the journal Hearing Research, for example, is 0378-5955, where the final 5 is the check digit, for calculations, an upper case X in the check digit position indicates a check digit of 10. To confirm the check digit, calculate the sum of all eight digits of the ISSN multiplied by its position in the number, the modulus 11 of the sum must be 0. There is an online ISSN checker that can validate an ISSN, ISSN codes are assigned by a network of ISSN National Centres, usually located at national libraries and coordinated by the ISSN International Centre based in Paris. The International Centre is an organization created in 1974 through an agreement between UNESCO and the French government. The International Centre maintains a database of all ISSNs assigned worldwide, at the end of 2016, the ISSN Register contained records for 1,943,572 items. ISSN and ISBN codes are similar in concept, where ISBNs are assigned to individual books, an ISBN might be assigned for particular issues of a serial, in addition to the ISSN code for the serial as a whole.
An ISSN, unlike the ISBN code, is an identifier associated with a serial title. For this reason a new ISSN is assigned to a serial each time it undergoes a major title change, separate ISSNs are needed for serials in different media. Thus, the print and electronic versions of a serial need separate ISSNs. Also, a CD-ROM version and a web version of a serial require different ISSNs since two different media are involved, the same ISSN can be used for different file formats of the same online serial
The Northeast Passage is an Arctic ocean shipping route connecting the Atlantic and Pacific oceans, traversing the Arctic following Russias and Norways coasts. The NEP traverses the Barents Sea, Kara Sea, Laptev Sea, East Siberian Sea, and Chukchi Sea, and it includes the Northern Sea Route. The Northern Sea Route is a portion of the NEP, it is defined in Russian law and does not include the Barents sea and therefore does not reach the Atlantic Ocean. However, since the NSR has a significant overlap over the majority of the NEP, the Northeast Passage is one of several Arctic maritime routes, the others being the Northwest Passage and the Transpolar Route. The Portuguese navigator David Melgueiro – according to some sources – would have made the first Northeast Passage complete crossing, from east to west, the first confirmed complete passage, from west to east, was made by the Finnish-Swedish explorer Adolf Erik Nordenskiöld, in 1878. The motivation to navigate the Northeast passage was initially economic, in Russia, the idea of a possible seaway connecting the Atlantic and the Pacific Oceans was first proposed by the diplomat Gerasimov in 1525.
However, Russian settlers and traders on the coast of the White Sea, by the 17th century, traders had established a continuous sea route from Arkhangelsk to the Yamal Peninsula, where they portaged to the Gulf of Ob. This route, known as the Mangazeya seaway, after its eastern terminus, East of the Yamal, the route north of the Taimyr Peninsula proved impossible or impractical. East of the Taimyr, from the 1630s, Russians began to sail the Arctic coast from the mouth of the Lena River to a point beyond the mouth of the Kolyma River. The western parts of the passage were explored by northern European countries such as England, the Netherlands, although these expeditions failed, new coasts and islands were discovered. The most notable was the 1596 expedition led by Dutch navigator Willem Barentsz, who discovered Spitsbergen and Bear Island, fearing English and Dutch penetration into Siberia, Russia closed the Mangazeya seaway in 1619. Pomor activity in Northern Asia declined and most Arctic in the 17th century was carried out by Siberian Cossacks, sailing from one river mouth to another in their Arctic-worthy kochs.
Melgueiro would have taken advantage of the fact that the year 1660 and this was apparently the first complete crossing of the Northeast Passage. It was Bering who named the Diomede Islands, which Dezhnev had vaguely mentioned, Berings explorations of 1725–30 were part of a larger scheme of Peter the Great, known as the Great Northern Expedition. The Second Kamchatka Expedition took place in 1735–42, with two ships, Svyatoy Pyotr and Svyatoy Pavel, the commanded by Berings deputy in the first expedition. During the Second Expedition Bering became the first Westerner to sight the coast of northwestern North America, on his return leg, Bering discovered the Aleutian Islands but fell ill, and Svyatoy Pyotr had to take shelter on an island off Kamchatka, where Bering died. Independent of Bering and Chirikov, other Russian Imperial Navy parties took part in the Second Great Northern Expedition, one of these, led by Semyon Chelyuskin, in May 1742 reached Cape Chelyuskin, the northernmost point of both the Northeast Passage and the Eurasian continent.
Later expeditions to explore the North East Passage took place in the 1760s, 1785–95, the possibility of navigating the length of the passage was proved by the mid-19th century
The Bering Strait is a strait of the Pacific, which borders with the Arctic to north. It is located between Russia and the United States, named after Vitus Bering, a Danish-born explorer in the service of the Russian Empire, it lies slightly south of the Arctic Circle being at about 65°40 N latitude. The present Russia-US east-west boundary is at 168°5837 W and this view of how Paleo-Indians entered America has been the dominant one for several decades and continues to be the most accepted one. Numerous successful crossings without the use of a boat have recorded since at least the early 20th century. As of 2012, the Russian coast of the Bering Strait has been a military zone. Through organized trips and the use of permits, it is possible for foreigners to visit. All arrivals must be through an airport or a cruise port, unauthorized travelers who arrive on shore after crossing the strait, even those with visas, may be arrested, imprisoned briefly, fined and banned from future visas. Its depth varies between 30 metres and 50 metres and it borders with the Chukchi Sea to north and with the Bering Sea to south.
The eastern coast belongs to the U. S. state of Alaska, notable towns that straddle the Strait include Nome and the small settlement of Teller. The western coast belongs to the Chukotka Autonomous Okrug, a Federal subject of Russia, major towns that lie along the Strait include Lorino and Lavrentiya. The Diomede Islands lie midway in the Strait, the village in Little Diomede has a school which belongs to Alaskas Bering Strait School District. The earliest reference of the strait were from maps from the Polo family, from at least 1562, European geographers thought that there was a Strait of Anián between Asia and North America. In 1648, Semyon Dezhnyov probably passed through the strait, Danish-born Russian navigator Vitus Bering entered it in 1728. In 1732, Mikhail Gvozdev crossed it for the first time, adolf Erik Nordenskiöld in 1878–79 sailed along the northern coast of Siberia, thereby proving that there was no northern land bridge from Asia to North America. In March 1913, Captain Max Gottschalk crossed from the east cape of Siberia to Shishmaref, Alaska, on dogsled via Little and he was the first documented modern voyager to cross from Russia to North America without the use of a boat.
In 1987, swimmer Lynne Cox swam a 4. 3-kilometre course between the Diomede Islands from Alaska to the Soviet Union in 3.3 °C water during the last years of the Cold War. In June and July 1989, a British expedition, Kayaks Across the Bering Strait, completed the first sea kayak crossing of the Bering Strait from Wales, Alaska, to Cape Dezhnev, Siberia. The team of Robert Egelstaff, Trevor Potts, Greg Barton and Pete Clark landed on Little Diomede Island, rested a few days and they were escorted to Moscow from where they flew back to London at the end of July
Administratively, it is incorporated as Novaya Zemlya District, one of the twenty-one in Arkhangelsk Oblast, Russia. Municipally, it is incorporated as Novaya Zemlya Urban Okrug and its population as of the 2010 Census was 2,429, of which 1,972 resided in Belushya Guba, an urban-type settlement that is the administrative center of Novaya Zemlya District. The population in 2002 was 2, 716 , the indigenous population consisted of about 50–300 Nenetses who subsisted mainly on fishing, reindeer herding, polar bear hunting and seal hunting. Natural resources include copper and zinc, Novaya Zemlya was a sensitive military area during the Cold War years and it is still used today. The Soviet Air Force maintained a presence at Rogachevo on the part of the island. It was used primarily for aircraft operations but provided logistical support for the nearby nuclear test area. Novaya Zemlya is an extension of the Northern part of the Ural Mountains, and it is separated from the mainland by the Kara Strait.
Novaya Zemlya consists of two islands, separated by the narrow Matochkin Strait, as well as a number of smaller islands. The two main islands are, Severny —which has an ice cap, the Severny Island ice cap. Yuzhny, which is largely unglaciated and has a tundra landscape, the coast of Novaya Zemlya is very indented, and it is the area with the largest number of fjords in the Russian Federation. Novaya Zemlya separates the Barents Sea from the Kara Sea, the total area is about 90,650 square kilometers. The highest mountain is located on the Northern island and is 1,547 meters high, the ecology of Novaya Zemlya is influenced by its severe climate, but the region nevertheless supports a diversity of biota. One of the most notable species present is the polar bear, the Russians knew of Novaya Zemlya from the 11th century, when hunters from Novgorod visited the area. For western Europeans, the search for the Northern Sea Route in the 16th century led to its exploration, the first visit from a west European was by Hugh Willoughby in 1553, and he met Russian ships from the already established hunting trade.
Dutch explorer Willem Barentsz reached the west coast of Novaya Zemlya in 1594, during a voyage by Fyodor Litke in 1821–1824, the west coast was mapped. Henry Hudson was another explorer who passed through Novaya Zemlya while searching for the Northeast Passage, the island was systematically surveyed by Pyotr Pakhtusov and Avgust Tsivolko in the early 1830s. The first permanent settlement was established in 1870 at Malye Karmakuly, the administrative center was transferred to Belushya Guba, in 1935 to Lagernoe, but returned to Belushya Guba. Small numbers of Nenets were resettled to Novaya Zemlya in the 1870s in a bid by Russia to keep out the Norwegians and this population, numbering 298, was removed to the mainland in 1957 before nuclear testing began
Arctic cooperation and politics
NGOs and Academia play a large part in Arctic policy. Also important are intergovernmental bodies such as the United Nations and NATO, though Arctic policy priorities differ, every Arctic nation is concerned about sovereignty and defense, resource development, shipping routes, and environmental protection. The Arctic Council membership includes the eight Arctic nations and organizations representing six indigenous populations and it operates on consensus basis, mostly dealing with environmental treaties and not addressing boundary or resource disputes. A more robust Arctic Council with decision-making power on pan-Arctic resource, members include the eight Arctic Nations, Denmark, Iceland, Russia and United States. In Nuuk, Greenland on May 12,2011, ministers signed a Search & Rescue agreement, at the Arctic Council Ministerial Meeting on April 24,2015 a Task Force on Arctic Marine Cooperation was created to consider future needs for cooperation on Arctic marine issues. CPAR is a body comprising delegations appointed by the national parliaments of the Arctic states.
The conference includes Indigenous peoples groups as Permanent Participants, the conference meets every two years, last in Oslo June 7,2010. Between conferences the Arctic parliamentary cooperation is carried on by a Standing Committee of Parliamentarians of the Arctic Region, Foreign ministers of the five Arctic Ocean coastal states met, May 27 –29,2008 in Greenland, Ilulissat Declaration. March 29,2010 in Quebec, Chair Summary The International Maritime Organization was established in 1948 to develop, the IMO spent years negotiating an Arctic Code for shipping, but ultimately downgraded the Code to a set of voluntary Guidelines for Ships Operating in Arctic Ice-Covered Waters. The Guidelines provide uniform safety, pollution prevention, and security standards for ocean carriers, the Association, formerly known as the Northern Intercity Conference of Mayors, was founded in 1981 by the city of Sapporo, Japan. As of April 2012,19 cities from 9 countries participate as members, the seventeenth conference is scheduled for Sapporo in 2016.
The Nordic Council is the Nordic inter-parliamentary body, while the Nordic Council of Ministers is the inter-governmental body, members include, Finland, Norway and the autonomous territories of Åland Islands, Faroe Islands and Greenland. The Pacific Northwest Economic Region Arctic Caucus formed informally in November 2010 as an alliance between Alaska and the Canadian Territories of Northwest Territories and the Yukon. Members include legislators, government officials and nonprofit leaders, the Caucus met in December 2010 in Barrow, Alaska, in Portland, Oregon in July 2011, and in Yellowknife, Northwest Territories in August 2011. The Northern Forum is a non-profit, international organization composed of sub-national or regional governments from eight northern countries, the Youth Arctic Coalition is a non-profit, youth organization that was created to bridge the gap between youth living in all parts of the Arctic. The YAC has membership in the eight Arctic states, and is supported by youth, organizations, in 2014, the YAC hosted its inaugural conference in Ottawa, which brought together over 200 youth from across the Arctic.
On January 9,2009, President Bush signed National Security Presidential Directive -66 on Arctic Region Policy, nSPD-66 is currently the active Arctic policy playbook being pursued by the Obama Administration and its Departments. State Department’s Office of Ocean and Polar Affairs is a part of the State Department’s Bureau of Oceans and International Environmental, OPA is responsible for formulating and implementing U. S. policy on international issues concerning the oceans, the Arctic, and Antarctica
Maersk Line is the global container division and the largest operating unit of the A. P. Moller – Maersk Group, a Danish business conglomerate. It is the worlds largest container shipping company having customers through 374 offices in 116 countries and it employs approximately 7,000 sea farers and approximately 25,000 land-based people. Maersk Line operates over 600 vessels and has a capacity of 2.6 million TEU, at the beginning of the 1920s, A. P. Moller considered possibilities of going into liner trade business. The tramp trade, where vessels sailed from port to port depending on the demand, was expected to lose ground to liners in time. On 12 July 1928, the vessel LEISE MÆRSK left Baltimore on its first voyage from the American East Coast via the Panama Canal to the Far East, the cargo consisted of Ford car parts and other general cargo. This heralded the start of Maersks shipping services, Maersk Line began to grow in 1946 after the Second World War by transporting goods between America and Europe before expanding services in 1950.
On 26 April 1956, ocean-borne container transport was introduced with the shipment of a Sea-Land container aboard the SS Ideal X from Port Newark, New Jersey, to Houston, Texas. In 1967, Anglo carrier P&O was part of the first European initiative, both Sea-land and P&O would be taken over by Maersk Line as it expanded operations between 1999 and 2005. In 1999, Maersk entered into an agreement on acquisition of Safmarine Container Lines, at the time of acquisition, Safmarine Container Lines operated approximately 50 liner vessels and a fleet of about 80,000 containers. It covered a total of ten trades and fully complemented Maersk Line’s existing network, Safmarine Container Lines joined the A. P. Moller – Maersk Group as an independent unit with its own liner activities. On 10 December 1999, the A. P. Moller Group acquired the container business of SeaLand Service Inc. The business was integrated with the A. P. Moller Group companies and as part of the integration, the acquisition comprised 70 vessels, almost 200,000 containers as well as terminals and agencies around the world.
In May 2005 Maersk announced plans to purchase P&O Nedlloyd for 2.3 billion euros, at the time of the acquisition, P&O Nedlloyd had 6% of the global industry market share, and Maersk-Sealand had 12%. The combined company would be about 18% of world market share, Maersk completed the buyout of the company on 13 August 2005, Royal P&O Nedlloyd shares terminated trading on 5 September. In February 2006, the new combined entity adopted the name Mærsk Line At the time the company was folded into A. P. Moller and its container fleet, consisting of owned and leased vessels, had a capacity of 635,000 twenty-foot equivalent units. Royal P&O Nedlloyd N. V. had 13,000 employees in 146 countries, in January 2008, Maersk Line announced drastic reorganisational measures. In November 2015, after lower than expected results, Maersk Line announced its decision to lay off 4000 employees by 2017. As of October 2015, Maersk Line along with its subsidiaries of Seago, MCC, Safmarine and Sea-Land controls a combined 18% share of the total container shipping market
For centuries explorers sought a navigable passage as a possible trade route. Until 2009, the Arctic pack ice prevented regular marine shipping throughout most of the year, Arctic sea ice decline has rendered the waterways more navigable. If, as has been claimed, parts of the end of the Passage are barely 15 metres deep. Fully loaded, Nordic Orion was too large to sail through the Panama Canal, between the end of the 15th century and the 20th century, colonial powers from Europe dispatched explorers in an attempt to discover a commercial sea route north and west around North America. The Northwest Passage represented a new route to the trading nations of Asia. England called the northern route the Northwest Passage. The desire to establish such a route motivated much of the European exploration of both coasts of North America, when it became apparent that there was no route through the heart of the continent, attention turned to the possibility of a passage through northern waters. There was a lack of knowledge about conditions, for instance.
Explorers thought that a water route close to the North Pole must exist. The belief that a route lay to the far north persisted for several centuries, many ended in disaster, including that by Sir John Franklin in 1845. While searching for him the McClure Arctic Expedition discovered the Northwest Passage in 1850, in 1906, the Norwegian explorer Roald Amundsen first successfully completed a passage from Greenland to Alaska in the sloop Gjøa. Since that date, several fortified ships have made the journey, from east to west, the direction of most early exploration attempts, expeditions entered the passage from the Atlantic Ocean via the Davis Strait and through Baffin Bay. Five to seven routes have taken through the Canadian Arctic Archipelago, via the McClure Strait, Dease Strait, and the Prince of Wales Strait. From there ships passed through waterways through the Beaufort Sea, Chukchi Sea, on August 21,2007, the Northwest Passage became open to ships without the need of an icebreaker. According to Nalan Koc of the Norwegian Polar Institute, this was the first time the Passage has been clear since they began keeping records in 1972, the Northwest Passage opened again on August 25,2008.
Thawing ocean or melting ice simultaneously opened up the Northwest Passage, awaited by shipping companies, this historic event will cut thousands of miles off their routes. We are going to see more and more as the years go by. Due to Arctic shrinkage, the Beluga group of Bremen, however, Canadas Prime Minister Stephen Harper announced that ships entering the North-West passage should first report to his government
Arctic policy of Russia
The Arctic policy of Russia is the domestic and foreign policy of the Russian Federation with respect to the Russian region of the Arctic. The Russian region of the Arctic is defined in the Russian Arctic Policy as all Russian possessions located north of the Arctic Circle, Russia is one of five countries bordering the Arctic Ocean. In 2011, out of 4 million inhabitants of the Arctic, roughly 2 million lived in arctic Russia, however, in recent years Russias Arctic population has been declining. Russia currently maintains a presence in the Arctic and has plans to improve it. Using the Arctic for economic gain has been done by Russia for centuries for shipping and fishing, Russia has plans to exploit the large offshore resource deposits in the Arctic. The Northern Sea Route is of importance to Russia for transportation. The Security Council stated a need for increasing investment in Arctic infrastructure, Russia conducts extensive research in the Arctic region, notably the manned drifting ice stations and the Arktika 2007 expedition, which was the first to reach the seabed at the North Pole.
The research is aimed to back up Russias territorial claims. The eight zones are Kola, Nenets, Yamal-Nenets, Taimyr-Turukhan, North Yakutia, in the North Yakutia area, the project includes reconstruction of the Tiksi sea port and the port of Zelenomysky. In the Arkhangelsk zone, this include the construction of the Belkomur Railway. The first recorded voyage to the Russian Arctic was by the Novgorodian Uleb in 1032, continuing the search of furs and walrus and mammoth ivory, the Siberian Cossacks under Mikhail Stadukhin reached the Kolyma River by 1644. After Peter I took the throne, Russia began to develop a navy, vitus Bering explored Kamchatka in 1728, while Berings aides Ivan Fyodorov and Mikhail Gvozdev discovered Alaska in 1732. The expedition resulted in 62 large maps and charts of the Arctic region, modern Russian territorial claims to the Arctic officially date back to April 15,1926, when the Soviet Union claimed land between 32°0435E and 168°4930W. However, this claim specifically only applied to islands and lands within this region, the first maritime boundary between Russia and Norway, from the Varangerfjord, was signed in 1957.
However, tensions resurfaced after both countries made continental shelf claims in the 1960s, the two countries had already been co-managing fisheries in the Barents since the 1978 Grey Zone Agreement, which has been renewed annually since it was signed. On March 12,1997, Russia ratified the United Nations Convention on the Law of the Sea, the UN CLCS neither validated nor invalidated the claim but requested Russia to submit additional data to substantiate its claim. Russia will submit additional data to the CLCS in 2012, in August 2007, a Russian expedition named Arktika 2007, led by Artur Chilingarov, planted a Russian flag on the seabed at the North Pole. This was done in the course of research to substantiate Russias 2001 extended continental shelf claim submission