Balobedu is a southern African tribe and an ethnic group of the Northern Sotho group. They were known as BaKwebo; the name "bolobedu" means place of tribute. Hence BaLobedu are people, they have their own kingdom, the Balobedu Kingdom, within the Limpopo Province of South Africa with a female ruler, the Rain Queen Modjadji. The population of BaLobedu numbers around 2 million, it is estimated. Their population is distributed in around Vhembe regions of Limpopo; some are found in Gauteng as labour migrants in Tembisa and Alexandra townships. The majority of Northern Sotho people living in Tembisa are BaLobedu, their language is known as Lobedu, KheLobedu or Khelovedu, a "non-Pedi" dialect of Northern Sotho. Khelovedu is grammatically similar to other Sotho -- Tshivenda. Khelovedu is similar to the TshiGuvhu and TshiIlafuri dialects of TshiVenda. Mutual intelligibility between these Venda dialects and Khelovedu is so high that speakers of this Venda dialects can communicate with Khelovedu speakers without difficulty.
A TshiGuvhu speaker can understand a Khelovedu speaker so or vice versa, Khelovedu could have been classified as a Venda dialect or an independent language. For example, Northern Sotho and its parent dialect Sepedi have a higher mutual intelligibility with Southern Sotho and Setswana than with Khelovedu. Most Khelovedu speakers only learn to speak Northern Sotho at school, as such Northern Sotho is only a second or third language and foreign to them like English and Afrikaans; until Khelovedu existed only in an unwritten form, the standard Northern Sotho language and orthography was used for teaching and writing. As of 2018, a Khelovedu dictionary is being compiled and a specific Khilovedu orthography is in the process of being developed. There are three sub-groups of the Lobedu: BaLobedu Ba Ga Modjadji, the main group of BaLobedu and is led by the Royal House of Modjadji BaLobedu Ba Ga Sekgopo, which are located at Ga-Sekgopo Village, they separated from the main group of BaLobedu in the late 1700s when the first female ruler of BaLobedu was crowned.
BaLobedu Ba Ga Mamaila, founded by Prince Mmamaila elder brother of Modjadji I, who objected to being ruled by women. He was one of the eldest sons of the last male rulers of BaLobedu, King Mokodo Mohale of the Royal House of Mohale of BaKwebo as BaLobedu where known; this tribe is located at around Ga-Mamaila and Sekhosese township an area known as Boroka which means north in Khelovedu. The Balobedu migrated south from present day Zimbabwe and Egypt to their present location in South Africa; the central tribal village is Khethakoni in the district of Balobedu. This Kalanga migrants consisted of the Mokwebo, who are the ancestors of all wild pig clans like Mamabolo Ramafalo and Modjadji, the Nengwekhulu, who are ancestors of all elephant clans and the Ramabulana, ancestors of the other elephant clans, are uncles of the Nengwekhulus. All BaLobedu are descended from these three groups BaKwebo and Ramabulana; the rest of the people are descendants of East Sotho or BaLaudi refugees and indigenous South Venda groups like BaNgona.
As a results the most common animal totems among BaLobedu are the elephant. The wild pig clans are the Modjadji, Mohale, Mokwebo, Mampeule and Ramafalo all this are descendants of the ancient Mokwebo royal house. All Chiefs in Bolobedu are of the wild pig clans with the exception of the chiefs of Ga-Wally; the elephant clan are Rabothata, Shai, Matlou and Maenetja, these are the descendants of the ancient royal house of Nengwekhulu. The BaLobedu/BaLotswi are more related to the Rozwi Kingdom started by Changamire Dombo, rather than Mwene Mutapa as has been believed; as they were migrating southward, another splinter went South-East. The Northeran Rozvi/Lozei are found in the present day Zambia in Livingston, they settled alongside the Zambezi River Banks day establish it as Musioa-thunya, present day Victoria falls. They have the praise lines Sai/Shai and Dewa, call themselves the people of Thobela, the same as the Rozvi/Kalanga; the rainmaking powers of Queen Modjadji are synonymous with the Njelele Shrine in BuLozvi/SiLozvi and it is therefore accepted that there is an intertwining of their history with the rest of the Rozvi.
Linguists have listed Lobedu together with Kalanga, Venda, Shankwe and Karanga, as a language of the Rozvi, connects them to their history. Their rainmaking history is tied by some to the claimed Jewish and Egyptian connections of the Rozvi. Balobedu have their own traditional dances called khekhapa for women and dinaka for men. Dinaka is a traditional dance of all the Northern Sotho speaking people covering such areas as gaSekhukhune, gaDikgale and Bolobedu. Balobedu have a male initiation ceremony called Moroto; the female initiation ceremony is called Dikhopa. Balobedu have their own way of talking to their God through Dithugula, they sit next to a traditionally designed circle in their homes and start calling the names of their ancestors. The Lobedu have female rulers known as "Rain Queens"; the queen is believed to have powers to make rain. The Balobedu Kingdom consists of a number of small group
A writing system is any conventional method of visually representing verbal communication. While both writing and speech are useful in conveying messages, writing differs in being a reliable form of information storage and transfer; the processes of encoding and decoding writing systems involve shared understanding between writers and readers of the meaning behind the sets of characters that make up a script. Writing is recorded onto a durable medium, such as paper or electronic storage, although non-durable methods may be used, such as writing on a computer display, on a blackboard, in sand, or by skywriting; the general attributes of writing systems can be placed into broad categories such as alphabets, syllabaries, or logographies. Any particular system can have attributes of more than one category. In the alphabetic category, there is a standard set of letters of consonants and vowels that encode based on the general principle that the letters represent speech sounds. In a syllabary, each symbol correlates to a syllable or mora.
In a logography, each character represents morpheme, or other semantic units. Other categories include abjads, which differ from alphabets in that vowels are not indicated, abugidas or alphasyllabaries, with each character representing a consonant–vowel pairing. Alphabets use a set of 20-to-35 symbols to express a language, whereas syllabaries can have 80-to-100, logographies can have several hundreds of symbols. Most systems will have an ordering of its symbol elements so that groups of them can be coded into larger clusters like words or acronyms, giving rise to many more possibilities in meanings than the symbols can convey by themselves. Systems will enable the stringing together of these smaller groupings in order to enable a full expression of the language; the reading step expressed orally. A special set of symbols known as punctuation is used to aid in structure and organization of many writing systems and can be used to help capture nuances and variations in the message's meaning that are communicated verbally by cues in timing, accent, inflection or intonation.
A writing system will typically have a method for formatting recorded messages that follows the spoken version's rules like its grammar and syntax so that the reader will have the meaning of the intended message preserved. Writing systems were preceded by proto-writing, which used pictograms and other mnemonic symbols. Proto-writing lacked the ability to express a full range of thoughts and ideas; the invention of writing systems, which dates back to the beginning of the Bronze Age in the late Neolithic Era of the late 4th millennium BC, enabled the accurate durable recording of human history in a manner, not prone to the same types of error to which oral history is vulnerable. Soon after, writing provided a reliable form of long distance communication. With the advent of publishing, it provided the medium for an early form of mass communication; the creation of a new alphabetic writing system for a language with an existing logographic writing system is called alphabetization, as when the People's Republic of China studied the prospect of alphabetizing the Chinese languages with Latin script, Cyrillic script, Arabic script, numbers, although the most common instance of it, converting to Latin script, is called romanization.
Writing systems are distinguished from other possible symbolic communication systems in that a writing system is always associated with at least one spoken language. In contrast, visual representations such as drawings and non-verbal items on maps, such as contour lines, are not language-related; some symbols on information signs, such as the symbols for male and female, are not language related, but can grow to become part of language if they are used in conjunction with other language elements. Some other symbols, such as numerals and the ampersand, are not directly linked to any specific language, but are used in writing and thus must be considered part of writing systems; every human community possesses language, which many regard as an innate and defining condition of humanity. However, the development of writing systems, the process by which they have supplanted traditional oral systems of communication, have been sporadic and slow. Once established, writing systems change more than their spoken counterparts.
Thus they preserve features and expressions which are no longer current in the spoken language. One of the great benefits of writing systems is that they can preserve a permanent record of information expressed in a language. All writing systems require: at least one set of defined base elements or symbols, individually termed signs and collectively called a script. In the examination of individual scripts, the study of writing systems has developed along independent lines. Thus, the terminology employed differs somewhat from field to field; the generic term text refers to an instance of writte
The Modjadji or Rain Queen is the hereditary queen of Balobedu, a people of the Limpopo Province of South Africa. The succession to the position of Rain Queen is matrilineal so her eldest daughter is the heir, males are not entitled to inherit the throne at all; the Rain Queen is believed to have special powers, including the ability to control the clouds and rainfall. There is no ruling Rain Queen as the previous Rain Queen died on 12 June 2005. However, a new Rain Queen is expected to be crowned when she turns 18. There are several different stories relating to the creation and history of the Rain Queens of Balobedu. One story states that an old chief in 16th century Monomotapa, was told by his ancestors that by impregnating his daughter, she would gain rain-making skills. Another story involves a scandal in the same chief's house, where the chief's son impregnated Dzugundini. Dzugundini was forced to flee the village. Dzugundini ended up in Molototsi Valley, in the present day Balobedu Kingdom.
The village she established with her loyal followers was ruled by a Mugudo, a male leader, but the peace and harmony of the village was disrupted by rivalries between different families, therefore to pacify the land, the Mugudo impregnated his own daughter to restore the tribe's matrilineal tradition. She gave birth to the first Rain Queen known as Modjadji. According to custom, the Rain Queen must shun public functions, can only communicate with her people through her male councillors; every November she presides over the annual Rainmaking ceremony at her royal compound in Khetlhakone Village. She is not supposed to marry but has many "wives", as they are referred to in the Balobedu language, sent from many villages all over the Balobedu Kingdom; these wives were selected by The Queen's Royal Council and in general are from the households of the subject chiefs. This ritual of "bride giving" is a form of diplomacy to ensure loyalty to the Queen; the Rain Queen's mystical rain making powers are believed to be reflected in the lush garden which surrounds her royal compound.
Surrounded by parched land, her garden contains the world's largest cycad trees which are in abundance under a spectacular rain belt. One species of cycad, is named after the Rain Queen; the Rain Queen is a prominent figure in South Africa, many communities respecting her position and attempting to avoid conflict in deference thereto. Shaka Zulu of Zululand sent his top emissaries to ask her for her blessings; the fifth Rain Queen, Mokope Modjadji maintained cordial relations with Nelson Mandela. The Rain Queen has become a figure of interest and the royal institution becoming a significant tourist attraction contributing to the South African economy; the Rain Queen was offered an annual government civil list. The stipend was expected to help defray the costs of preserving the cycad trees found in the Rain Queen's gardens. Rain Queen Makobo Constance Modjadji VI was the 6th in a line of the Balobedu people's rain queens. Makobo was crowned on 16 April 2003 at the age of 25 after the death of her predecessor and grandmother, Queen Mokope Modjadji.
This made her the youngest queen in the history of the Balobedu. Makobo was admitted into the Limpopo Medi-Clinic for an undisclosed illness on 10 June 2005 and died two days at the age of 27. Official cause of death was listed as chronic meningitis, she is survived by a son, Prince Lekukena, a daughter, Princess Masalanabo. The Rain Queen's official mates are chosen by the Royal Council so that all of her children will be of dynastic status, from which future Rain Queens may descend; however the Rain Queens are not expected to remain in exclusive relations with these partners. In the past, the Rain Queen was allowed to have children only by her close relatives. Uniquely, the Balobedu crown descends according to female primogeniture: her eldest daughter is always her successor so the title of Rain Queen is passed from mother to daughter, it is said that she ingests poison when she is near death so that her daughter will assume the crown more quickly. However, many traditions have been abandoned, influenced by Christian missionaries.
Because Makobo's daughter, Princess Masalanabo, was fathered by a commoner, traditionalists are not to accept her as the rightful successor to the throne. Therefore, there are worries. No new Rain Queen has been enthroned. Makobo's brother Prince Mpapatla has been designated Regent for Masalanabo. However, Mpapatla has a daughter by his cousin, a woman from the royal Modjadji line, a group of members of the Royal Council has indicated a preference for Mpapatla's daughter to succeed as Rain Queen. Mpapatla, has insisted that his late sister's child Princess Masalanabo will be enthroned as the queen when she turns 18. A male branch of the extended royal clan has petitioned the South African president to restore the male line of the Balobedu royal house, which reigned before 1800; this entreaty is considered unlikely to be granted, inasmuch as the Rain Queen heritage is recognised as a national cultural legacy and interest in it has stimulated significant tourist trade. Rain Queen I Maselekwane Modjadji Rain Queen II Masalanabo Modjadji Rain Queen III Khesetoane Modjadji Rain Queen IV Makoma Modjadji Rain Queen V Mokope Modjadji Rain Queen VI Makobo Modjadji Th
International Phonetic Alphabet
The International Phonetic Alphabet is an alphabetic system of phonetic notation based on the Latin alphabet. It was devised by the International Phonetic Association in the late 19th century as a standardized representation of the sounds of spoken language; the IPA is used by lexicographers, foreign language students and teachers, speech-language pathologists, actors, constructed language creators and translators. The IPA is designed to represent only those qualities of speech that are part of oral language: phones, phonemes and the separation of words and syllables. To represent additional qualities of speech, such as tooth gnashing and sounds made with a cleft lip and cleft palate, an extended set of symbols, the extensions to the International Phonetic Alphabet, may be used. IPA symbols are composed of one or more elements of two basic types and diacritics. For example, the sound of the English letter ⟨t⟩ may be transcribed in IPA with a single letter, or with a letter plus diacritics, depending on how precise one wishes to be.
Slashes are used to signal broad or phonemic transcription. Letters or diacritics are added, removed or modified by the International Phonetic Association; as of the most recent change in 2005, there are 107 letters, 52 diacritics and four prosodic marks in the IPA. These are shown in the current IPA chart, posted below in this article and at the website of the IPA. In 1886, a group of French and British language teachers, led by the French linguist Paul Passy, formed what would come to be known from 1897 onwards as the International Phonetic Association, their original alphabet was based on a spelling reform for English known as the Romic alphabet, but in order to make it usable for other languages, the values of the symbols were allowed to vary from language to language. For example, the sound was represented with the letter ⟨c⟩ in English, but with the digraph ⟨ch⟩ in French. However, in 1888, the alphabet was revised so as to be uniform across languages, thus providing the base for all future revisions.
The idea of making the IPA was first suggested by Otto Jespersen in a letter to Paul Passy. It was developed by Alexander John Ellis, Henry Sweet, Daniel Jones, Passy. Since its creation, the IPA has undergone a number of revisions. After revisions and expansions from the 1890s to the 1940s, the IPA remained unchanged until the Kiel Convention in 1989. A minor revision took place in 1993 with the addition of four letters for mid central vowels and the removal of letters for voiceless implosives; the alphabet was last revised in May 2005 with the addition of a letter for a labiodental flap. Apart from the addition and removal of symbols, changes to the IPA have consisted of renaming symbols and categories and in modifying typefaces. Extensions to the International Phonetic Alphabet for speech pathology were created in 1990 and adopted by the International Clinical Phonetics and Linguistics Association in 1994; the general principle of the IPA is to provide one letter for each distinctive sound, although this practice is not followed if the sound itself is complex.
This means that: It does not use combinations of letters to represent single sounds, the way English does with ⟨sh⟩, ⟨th⟩ and ⟨ng⟩, or single letters to represent multiple sounds the way ⟨x⟩ represents /ks/ or /ɡz/ in English. There are no letters that have context-dependent sound values, as do "hard" and "soft" ⟨c⟩ or ⟨g⟩ in several European languages; the IPA does not have separate letters for two sounds if no known language makes a distinction between them, a property known as "selectiveness". Among the symbols of the IPA, 107 letters represent consonants and vowels, 31 diacritics are used to modify these, 19 additional signs indicate suprasegmental qualities such as length, tone and intonation; these are organized into a chart. The letters chosen for the IPA are meant to harmonize with the Latin alphabet. For this reason, most letters modifications thereof; some letters are neither: for example, the letter denoting the glottal stop, ⟨ʔ⟩, has the form of a dotless question mark, derives from an apostrophe.
A few letters, such as that of the voiced pharyngeal fricative, ⟨ʕ⟩, were inspired by other writing systems. Despite its preference for harmonizing with the Latin script, the International Phonetic Association has admitted other letters. For example, before 1989, the IPA letters for click consonants were ⟨ʘ⟩, ⟨ʇ⟩, ⟨ʗ⟩, ⟨ʖ⟩, all of which were derived either from existing IPA letters, or from Latin and Greek letters. However, except for ⟨ʘ⟩, none of these letters were used among Khoisanists or Bantuists, as a result they were replaced by the more widespread symbols ⟨ʘ⟩, ⟨ǀ⟩, ⟨ǃ⟩, ⟨ǂ⟩, ⟨ǁ⟩ at the IPA Kiel Convention in 1989. Although the IPA diacritics are featural, there is little systemicity in the letter forms. A retroflex articulation is indicated with a right-swinging tail, as in ⟨ɖ ʂ ɳ⟩, implosion by a top hook, ⟨ɓ ɗ ɠ⟩, but other pseudo-featural elements are due to haphazard derivation and coincidence. For example, all nasal consonants but uvular ⟨ɴ⟩ are based on the form ⟨n⟩: ⟨m ɱ n ɳ ɲ ŋ⟩.
However, the similarity between ⟨m⟩ and ⟨n⟩ is a historical accident. Some of the new letters were ordinary Latin letters tu
Bushbuckridge is the main town in Bushbuckridge Local Municipality, Ehlanzeni District, South Africa. The name Bushbuck Ridge was given because of the large herds of bushbuck found here in the 1880s, the prominent WNW-ESE ridge in the southeastern part of the municipality; the town of Bushbuckridge grew around a trading store that opened in 1884. The suburbs and rural areas to the south of Bushbuckridge constitute a "sub place", called Bushbuckridge NU with a 2011 population of 1070, covering 1,587.56 square kilometres
A front vowel is any in a class of vowel sound used in some spoken languages, its defining characteristic being that the highest point of the tongue is positioned in front in the mouth without creating a constriction that would make it a consonant. Front vowels are sometimes called bright vowels because they are perceived as sounding brighter than the back vowels. Near-front vowels are a type of front vowel. Rounded front vowels are centralized, that is, near-front in their articulation; this is one reason. The front vowels that have dedicated symbols in the International Phonetic Alphabet are: close front unrounded vowel close front compressed vowel near-close front unrounded vowel near-close front compressed vowel close-mid front unrounded vowel close-mid front compressed vowel open-mid front unrounded vowel open-mid front compressed vowel near-open front unrounded vowel open front unrounded vowel open front rounded vowel There are front vowels without dedicated symbols in the IPA: close front protruded vowel near-close front protruded vowel close-mid front protruded vowel mid front unrounded vowel or mid front compressed vowel or mid front protruded vowel or open-mid front protruded vowel As above, other front vowels can be indicated with diacritics of relative articulation applied to letters for neighboring vowels, such as ⟨i̞⟩, ⟨e̝⟩ or ⟨ɪ̟⟩ for a near-close front unrounded vowel.
In articulation, front retracted vowels. In this conception, front vowels are a broader category than those listed in the IPA chart, and, mid-central vowels. Raised or retracted vowels may be fronted by certain consonants, such as palatals and in some languages pharyngeals. For example, /a/ may be fronted to next to /j/ or /ħ/. In the history of many languages, for example French and Japanese, front vowels have altered preceding velar or alveolar consonants, bringing their place of articulation towards palatal or postalveolar; this change can be allophonic variation. This historical palatalization is reflected in the orthographies of several European languages, including the ⟨c⟩ and ⟨g⟩ of all Romance languages, the ⟨k⟩ and ⟨g⟩ in Norwegian, Swedish and Icelandic, the ⟨κ⟩, ⟨γ⟩ and ⟨χ⟩ in Greek. English without as much regularity. However, for native or early borrowed words affected by palatalization, English has altered the spelling after the pronunciation Back vowel List of phonetics topics
The circumflex is a diacritic in the Latin and Greek scripts, used in the written forms of many languages and in various romanization and transcription schemes. It received its English name from Latin circumflexus "bent around"—a translation of the Greek περισπωμένη; the circumflex in the Latin script is chevron-shaped, while the Greek circumflex may be displayed either like a tilde or like an inverted breve. In English the circumflex, like other diacritics, is sometimes retained on loanwords that used it in the original language; the diacritic is used in mathematics, where it is called a hat or roof or house. The circumflex has its origins in the polytonic orthography of Ancient Greek, where it marked long vowels that were pronounced with high and falling pitch. In a similar vein, the circumflex is today used to mark tone contour in the International Phonetic Alphabet; the shape of the circumflex was a combination of the acute and grave accents, as it marked a syllable contracted from two vowels: an acute-accented vowel and a non-accented vowel.
A variant similar to the tilde was used. The term "circumflex" is used to describe similar tonal accents that result from combining two vowels in related languages such as Sanskrit and Latin. Since Modern Greek has a stress accent instead of a pitch accent, the circumflex has been replaced with an acute accent in the modern monotonic orthography; the circumflex accent marks a long vowel in the transliteration of several languages. In Afrikaans, the circumflex marks a vowel with a lengthened pronunciation arising from compensatory lengthening due to the loss of ⟨g⟩ from the original Dutch form. Examples of circumflex use in Afrikaans are sê "to say", wêreld "world", môre "tomorrow", brûe "bridges". Akkadian. In the transliteration of this language, the circumflex indicates a long vowel resulting from an aleph contraction; the PDA orthography for Domari uses circumflex-bearing vowels for length. In Emilian, â î û are used to represent French. In some varieties, such as in Belgian French, Swiss French and Acadian French, vowels with a circumflex are long: fête is longer than faite.
This length compensates for a deleted consonant s. Standard Friulian. Japanese. In the Kunrei-shiki and Nihon-shiki systems of romanization, sometimes the Hepburn system, the circumflex is used as a replacement for the macron. Jèrriais. In Kurmanji Kurdish, ⟨ê î û⟩ are used to represent /eː iː uː/. Ligurian language. In Luxembourgish m̂ n̂ can be used to indicate nasalisation of a vowel; the circumflex can be over the vowel to indicate nasalisation. In either case, the circumflex is rare. Classical Malay In Serbo-Croatian the circumflex can be used to distinguish homographs, it is called the "genitive sign" or "length sign". Examples include sam "am" versus sâm "alone". For example, the phrase "I am alone" may be written Ja sam sâm to improve clarity. Another example: da "yes", dâ "gives". Turkish. According to Turkish Language Association orthography, düzeltme işareti "correction mark" over a, i and u marks a long vowel to disambiguate similar words. For example, compare ama "but" and âmâ "blind", şura'that place, there' and şûra "council".
In general, circumflexes occur only in Arabic and Persian loanwords as vowel length in early Turkish was not phonemic. However, this standard was never applied consistently and by the early 21st century many publications had stopped using circumflexes entirely. Welsh; the circumflex is known as hirnod "long sign" or acen grom "crooked accent", but more and colloquially as to bach "little roof". It lengthens a stressed vowel, is used to differentiate between homographs. In Adûnaic, the Black Speech, Khuzdul, constructed languages of J. R. R. Tolkien, all long vowels are transcribed with the circumflex. In Sindarin, another of Tolkien's languages, long vowels in polysyllabic words take the acute, but a circumflex in monosyllables, to mark a non-phonemic extra lengthening; the circumflex accent marks the stressed vowel of a word in some languages: Portuguese â, ê, ô are stressed “closed” vowels, opposed to their open counterparts á, é, ó. Welsh: the circumflex, due to its function as a disambiguating lengthening sign, is used in polysyllabic words with word-final long vowels.
The circumflex thus indicates the stressed syllable, since in Welsh, non-stressed vowels may not be long. This happens notably where the singular ends in an a, to, e.g. singular camera, opera, sinema → plural camerâu, dramâu, operâu, sinemâu. In Bamanankan, it marks a falling tone, as opposed to a háček which signifies that on this syllable, the tone is rising. In Breton, it is used on an e to show. In Bulgarian, the sound represented in Bulgarian by the Cyrillic letter ъ is transliterated as â in systems used prior to 1989. Although called a schwa, it is more described as a mid back unrounded vowel /ɤ/. Unlike English or French, but similar to Romanian and Afrikaans, it can be stressed. In Pinyin romanized Mandarin Chinese, ê is used to represent the sound /ɛ/ in isolation, which occurs sometimes as an exclamation. In French, the letter ê is pronounced open, like è. In the usual pronunci