Dayan Khan and Mandukhai Khatun reunited the entire Mongol nation in the 15th century. However, the distribution of his empire among his sons. The last sixty years of this period are marked by intensive penetration of Tibetan Buddhism into Mongolian society, the term Northern Yuan is derived from the corresponding term in the Chinese language. However, in the English language the term Northern Yuan is still used to cover the period for historiography reasons. Apart from the name Great Yuan in the period, the Mongols called their nation Ikh Mongol Uls. In Mongolian chronicles this period is known as The Forty. Furthermore, Mongolian historiography also use the term Period of political disunion, the Mongol Yuan dynasty ruled all of China for about a century. However, the Mongols dominated North China for more than 140 years, in 1351, the Red Turban Rebellion started and grew into a nationwide turmoil. Eventually, Zhu Yuanzhang, a Chinese peasant established the Ming dynasty in South China, toghon Temür, the last ruler of the Yuan, fled north to Shangdu from Dadu in 1368 after the approach of the forces of the Míng dynasty. He had tried to regain Dadu, but eventually failed, he died in Yingchang two years later, Yingchang was seized by the Ming shortly after his death. The Ming army pursued the Mongol forces of the Northern Yuan into Mongolia in 1372, in 1375, Naghachu, a Mongol official of Biligtu Khan in Liaoyang province invaded Liaodong with aims of restoring the Mongols to power. Although he continued to hold southern Manchuria, Naghachu finally surrendered to the Ming dynasty in 1387–88 after a successful diplomacy of the latter, the Yuan loyalists under Kublaid prince Basalawarmi in Yunnan and Guizhou were also destroyed by the Ming in 1381-82. The Ming tried again towards the Northern Yuan in 1380, ultimately winning a victory over Mongol forces around the Buir Lake region in 1388. About 70,000 Mongols were taken prisoner and the Mongol capital Karakorum was sacked and destroyed and it effectively destroyed the power of the Khaans Mongols for a long time, and allowed the Western Mongols to become supreme. Field guns and hand cannons were used by the Northern Yuan army, in 1388, the Northern Yuan throne was taken over by Yesüder, a descendant of Arik Böke, instead of the descendants of Kublai Khan. After the death of his master Togus Temur, Gunashiri, a descendant of Chagatai Khan, the following century saw a succession of Chinggisid rulers, many of whom were mere figureheads put on the throne by those warlords who happened to be the most powerful. From the end of the 14th century there appear designations such as period of kings for this period in modern historiography. On one side stood the Oirats in the west against the Eastern Mongols, while the Oirats drew their side to the descendants of Arik Boke and other princes, Arugtai of the Asud supported the old Yuan khans
Ming Empire and the Northern Yuan Khaganate in the early 15th century. The Mongols lost some lands to China proper after its defeat of the Khagan Toghus Temur in 1388.
Temple at Erdene Zuu monastery established by Abtai Khan in the Khalkha heartland in the 16th century.