Election Commission of India
The Election Commission of India is an autonomous constitutional authority responsible for administering election processes in India. The body administers elections to the Lok Sabha, Rajya Sabha, state legislatures, the Election Commission operates under the authority of Constitution per Article 324, and subsequently enacted Representation of the People Act. The Commission has the powers under the Constitution, to act in an appropriate manner when the enacted laws make insufficient provisions to deal with a situation in the conduct of an election. Originally in 1950, the commission had only a Chief Election Commissioner, two additional Commissioners were appointed to the commission for the first time on October 16,1989 but they had a very short tenure, ending on January 1,1990. The Election Commissioner Amendment Act,1989 made the Commission a multi-member body, the concept of a 3-member Commission has been in operation since then, with the decisions being made by a majority vote. Other Election Commissioners can be removed by the President of India on the recommendation of the Chief Election Commissioner, a Chief Election Commissioner has never been impeached in India.
In 2009, just before the 2009 Lok Sabha Elections, CEC N, the President opined that such a recommendation is not binding on the President, and hence rejected it. Subsequently, after Gopalaswamis retirement the next month, Chawla became the Chief Election Commissioner, one of the most important features of the democratic polity is elections at regular intervals. In every election, it issues a Model code of Conduct for political parties and candidates to elections in a free. The Commission issued the code for the first time in 1971 for the 5th Lok Sabha elections and it lays down guidelines for the conduct of political parties and candidates during an election period. It contains the rules of electoral morality. However, this lack of statutory backing does not prevent the Commission from enforcing it, a law regarding the registration process for political parties was enacted in 1989 and a number of parties got registered with the Commission. The registration helps avoid confusion ensures that the parties are brought under the purview of the commission.
To curb the influence of money during elections, the Election Commission has made many suggestions. These limits have been revised over time, the Election Commission, by appointing observers from the Indian Revenue Service, keeps an eye on the individual account of election expenditure. The campaign period has reduced by the Commission from 21 to 14 days for Lok Sabha. The Commission can issue an order for prohibition of publication and disseminating of results of opinion polls or exit polls to prevent influencing the voting trends in the electorate. In an attempt to decriminalise politics, the Election Commission has approached the Supreme Court to put a ban on convicted politicians from contesting elections. The Constitutional Act, passed in 1992 by the Narasimha Rao government, the Election Commission had tried to bring improvements in election procedures by the introduction of Electronic voting machines or EVMs
Constitution of India
The Constitution of India is the supreme law of India. It is the longest written constitution of any country in the world. The nation is governed by it, B. R. Ambedkar is regarded as its chief architect. It was adopted by the Constituent Assembly on 26 November 1949, with its adoption, the Union of India became the modern and contemporary Republic of India replacing the Government of India Act,1935 as the countrys fundamental governing document. To ensure constitutional autochthony, the framers of the repealed the prior Acts of the British Parliament via Article 395 of the constitution. India celebrates its coming into force on 26 January each year and it declares India a sovereign, secular, democratic republic, assuring its citizens of justice and liberty, and endeavours to promote fraternity among them. The major portion of the Indian subcontinent was under British rule from 1857 to 1947, when the Constitution of India came into force on 26 January 1950, it repealed the Indian Independence Act.
India ceased to be a dominion of the British Crown and became a democratic republic. The date of 26 January was chosen to commemorate the Purna Swaraj declaration of independence of 1930. Articles 5,6,7,8,9,60,324,366,367,379,380,388,391,392,393 and 394 of the Constitution came into force on 26 November 1949 and it is drawn from many sources. Keeping in mind the needs and conditions of India its framers borrowed different features freely from previous legislation viz and it was drafted by the Constituent Assembly, which was elected by elected members of the provincial assemblies. The 389 member Constituent Assembly took almost three years to complete its task of drafting the Constitution for independent India, during which. Of these,114 days were spent on the consideration of the draft Constitution, on 29 August 1947, the Constituent Assembly set up a Drafting Committee under the Chairmanship of Dr. B. R. Ambedkar to prepare a draft Constitution for India, while deliberating upon the draft Constitution, the assembly moved and disposed of as many as 2,473 amendments out of a total of 7,635 tabled.
Ambedkar, Sanjay Phakey, Jawaharlal Nehru, C, there were more than 30 members of the scheduled classes. Frank Anthony represented the Anglo-Indian community, and the Parsis were represented by H. P. Modi, the Chairman of the Minorities Committee was Harendra Coomar Mookerjee, a distinguished Christian who represented all Christians other than Anglo-Indians. Ari Bahadur Gurung represented the Gorkha Community, prominent jurists like Alladi Krishnaswamy Iyer, Benegal Narsing Rau and K. M. Munshi, Ganesh Mavlankar were members of the Assembly. Sarojini Naidu, Hansa Mehta, Durgabai Deshmukh, Rajkumari Amrit Kaur, the first temporary 2-day president of the Constituent Assembly was Dr Sachchidananda Sinha
Supreme Court of India
The Supreme Court of India is the highest judicial forum and final court of appeal under the Constitution of India, the highest constitutional court, with the power of constitutional review. Consisting of the Chief Justice of India and 30 other judges, it has extensive powers in the form of original and advisory jurisdictions. As the final court of appeal of the country, it takes up appeals primarily against verdicts of the High Courts of various states of the Union and other courts and it safeguards fundamental rights of citizens and settles disputes between various governments in the country. As an advisory court, it matters which may specifically be referred to it under the Constitution by the President of India. It may take cognisance of matters on its own, without anyone drawing its attention to them, the law declared by the Supreme Court becomes binding on all courts within India. These new High Courts had the distinction of being the highest Courts for all cases till the creation of Federal Court of India under the Government of India Act 1935.
The Federal Court had jurisdiction to solve disputes between provinces and federal states and hear appeal against judgements of the High Courts, the Supreme Court of India came into being on 28 January 1950. It replaced both the Federal Court of India and the Judicial Committee of the Privy Council which were at the apex of the Indian court system. Supreme Court initially had its seat at Chamber of Princes in the Parliament building where the previous Federal Court of India sat from 1937 to 1950, the first Chief Justice of India was Sir H J Kania. In 1958, the Supreme Court moved to its present premises, Constitution of India envisaged a Supreme Court with a Chief Justice and seven Judges, leaving it to Parliament to increase this number. In formative years, the Supreme Court met from 10 to 12 in the morning, the Right Wing of the structure has the bar - room, the offices of the Attorney General of India and other law officers and the library of the court. The Left Wing has the offices of the court, in all there are 15 court rooms in the various wings of the building.
The foundation stone of the courts building was laid on 29 October 1954 by Rajendra Prasad. The Court moved into the building in 1958, in 1979, two new wings - the East Wing and the West Wing - were added to the complex. On 20 February 1980, a bronze sculpture of 210 centimeter height was installed in lawn of the Supreme Court. On the book, a balance is shown, which represents dispensation of justice to all. The sculpture was made by the renowned artist Chintamoni Kar The design of the Courts seal is reproduced from the wheel that appears on the abacus of the Sarnath Lion capital of Asoka with 24 spokes, the inscription in Sanskrit yatodharmastato jayah means whence law, thence victory. It is referred to - as the wheel of righteousness, encompassing truth, Supreme Court Rules,2013 entitle only those advocates who are registered with the supreme court, called Advocates-on-Record to appear and plead for a party in the court
The Finance Secretary is the Permanent Secretary-level civil servant, who plays a leadership role in the bureaucracy of the Finance Ministry, Government of India. Ashok Lavasa is current Finance Secretary who replaced Ratan Watal, each of the departments is headed by a secretary. Each of the five secretaries directly reports to the finance minister, the Finance Secretary is a tag given to one of the five secretaries. It only denotes a first among equals, the other four secretaries do not report to the FS, their files do not flow through him. By default, the FS tends to be the senior most of the five, none of the five is labelled FS. Most finance secretaries have been members of the Indian Administrative Service or IAS, the last finance secretary of India was Mr. Rajiv Mehrishi, an IAS officer of the Rajasthan Cadre. Montek Singh Ahluwalia, Duvvuri Subba Rao, Bimal Jalan, Manmohan Singh, K. G. Ambegaokar, S Venkitaraman, edmund James Sinkinson BCS LLD born Kendal, UK,16 July 1849, was Financial Secretary to the Government of India.
He died at Darjeeling 1 Jan 1892, One Rs note is signed by Finance Secretary of India One Rs note is signed by Finance Secretary of India and it does not have the word i promise to pay the bearer. Also, in accordance with the RBI Act 1934, RBI can not mint coins, what are the implications of One Rupee note to be classified as a coin. One Rupee Note is an asset, just like other coins, so I promise to pay the bearer. is not written on the note. While RBI Notes are a liability, One Rupee Note and One Rupee coins are legal tenders for unlimited amounts. One rupee defines the unit of the currency and it is the base of the currency system. A1000 rupees RBI note says I promise to pay the bearer the sum on one thousand rupees, hence RBI notes which are a liability promises to pay you an asset. This asset is defined by One rupee So, the Government of India has the power to mint/print 1 Rupee coin/note which are an asset, RBI notes get the value from the asset known as Rupee
Indian Foreign Service
The Indian Foreign Service is the administrative diplomatic civil service under Group A and Group B of the Central Civil Services of the executive branch of the Government of India. It is one of the two premier Civil Services, as appointment to IFS renders a person ineligible to reappear in Civil Services Examination and it is a Central Civil service as Foreign policy is the subject matter and prerogative of Union Government. The Ambassador, High Commissioner, Consul General, Permanent Representative of India to the United Nations, the service is entrusted to conduct diplomacy and manage foreign relations of India. It is the body of career diplomats serving in more than 180 Indian Diplomatic Missions, in addition, they serve at the headquarters of the Ministry of External affairs in Delhi and the Prime Ministers Office. They head the Regional Passport Offices throughout the country and hold positions in the Presidents Secretariat, Foreign Secretary of India is the administrative head of the Indian Foreign Service.
IFS Day is celebrated on October 9 every year since 2011 to commemorate the day the Indian Cabinet created the IFS, officers of the IFS are recruited by the Government of India on the recommendation of the Union Public Service Commission. Fresh recruits to the IFS are trained at the Foreign Service Institute after a foundation course at the Lal Bahadur Shastri National Academy of Administration. Although established by the Company, the Indian Foreign Department conducted business with foreign European powers, each was headed by a secretary-level officer. The Foreign Department Secretary was entrusted with the conduct of all correspondence belonging to the external and internal diplomatic relations of the government, the External Affairs Department was set up separately under the direct charge of the Governor-General. Caroe pointed out that as India emerged as autonomous, it was imperative to build up a system of representation abroad that would be in harmony with the objectives of the future government.
On 9 October 1946, on the eve of Indian independence, with independence, there was a near-complete transition of the Foreign and Political Department into what became the new Ministry of External Affairs and Commonwealth Relations. In 1948, the first group of Indian Foreign Service officers recruited under the combined Civil Services Examination administered by the Union Public Service Commission joined the service and this exam is still used to select new foreign service officers. The Civil Services Examination is used for recruitment for the Indian Foreign Service, the entire selection process lasts for about 12 months. Only a rank among toppers guarantees an IFS selection— an acceptance rate of 0.02 percent, in recent years, the intake into the Indian Foreign Service has averaged between 25-30 persons annually. The present cadre strength of the stands at approximately 600 officers manning around 162 Indian missions and posts abroad. On acceptance to the Foreign Service, new entrants undergo significant training, the entrants undergo a probationary period.
Training begins at the Lal Bahadur Shastri National Academy of Administration in Mussoorie and they go on attachments with different government bodies and defence establishments and undertake tours both in India and abroad. The entire training programme lasts for a period of 36 months, upon the completion of the training programme at the Institute, the officer is assigned a compulsory foreign language
Elections in India
India has an asymmetric federal government, with elected officials at the federal and local levels. At the national level, the head of government, Prime Minister, is elected by members of the Lok Sabha, the elections are conducted by the Election Commission of India. The 2014 general election involved an electorate of 863,500,000 people, declared expenditure has trebled since 1989 to almost $300 million, using more than one million electronic voting machines. The size of the huge electorate mandates that elections be conducted in a number of phases and it involves a number of step-by-step processes from announcement of election dates to the announcement of results paving the way for the formation of the new government. The House of the People represents citizens of India, the 543 members are elected under the plurality electoral system. The Council of States has 250 members,238 members elected for a six-year term, the members are indirectly elected, this being achieved by the votes of legislators in the state and union territories.
The elected members are chosen under the system of representation by means of the single transferable vote. The twelve nominated members are usually a mix of eminent artists, jurists, sportspersons and journalists. Lok Sabha is composed of representatives of the chosen by direct election on the basis of the adult suffrage. In 1952 Lok Sabha Elections there were 1874 candidates, which rose to 13952 candidates in 1996, however, in 2009 Lok Sabha Elections only 8070 candidates contested. Historical share of seats and votes of major parties are ranked by the number of seats won. *,12 seats in Assam and 1 in Meghalaya did not vote, the party continued its dominance under the leadership of K Kamaraj and Lal Bahadur Shastri. The Congress party was split into two in the 1970s and Indira Gandhi led Congress to election victory, Indira Gandhi regained power soon after and her son Rajiv Gandhi led the party after her assassination. A coalition led by VP Singh swept to power in 1989 in the wake of allegations of corruption against Prime Minister.
But the coalition lost steam in 1990 necessitating new elections with the party again emerging victorious under the leadership of P V Narasimha Rao. This has been a consequence of strong regional parties which ride on the back of regional aspirations, there were multiple governments within a span of few years led by Atal Bihari Vajpayee, I K Gujral and H D Deve Gowda. In 1999, National Democratic Alliance led by the Bharatiya Janata Party came to power, for the next decade, congress led coalition United Progressive Alliance formed the government under Manmohan Singh. Narendra Modi, the BJPs Prime Ministerial candidate, is now serving his first term as the Prime Minister of India, the Election Commission of India is an autonomous, constitutionally established federal authority responsible for administering all the electoral processes in the Republic of India
Parliament of India
The Parliament of India is the supreme legislative body of the Republic of India. The Parliament is composed of the President of India and the houses and it is bicameral with two houses, the Rajya Sabha and the Lok Sabha. The President in his role as head of legislature has powers to summon. The president can exercise these powers only upon the advice of the Prime Minister and those elected or nominated to either house of Parliament are referred to as members of parliament. The Parliament meets at Sansad Bhavan in New Delhi, the Sansad Bhavan is located in New Delhi. It was designed by Edwin Lutyens and Herbert Baker, who were responsible for planning, the construction of buildings took six years and the opening ceremony was performed on 18 January 1927 by the Governor-General of India, Irwin. The construction costs for the building were ₹8.3 million, the parliament is 560 feet in diameter and covers an area of 6 acres. The Central hall consists of the chambers of Lok sabha, Rajya Sabha, surrounding these three chambers is the four storied circular structure providing accommodations for members and houses Parliamentary committees and the Ministry of Parliamentary Affairs.
A new Parliament building may replace the existing complex, the new building is being considered on account of the stability concerns regarding the current complex. A committee to suggest alternatives to the current building has been set up by the Ex, the present building, an 85-year-old structure suffers from inadequacy of space to house members and their staff and is thought to suffer from structural issues. The building needs to be protected because of its heritage tag, the Indian Parliament consists of two houses called the Lok Sabha and the Rajya Sabha with the President of India acting as their head. The President of India, the Head of state is a component of Parliament, the President of India is elected by the members of Parliament of India and the state legislatures and serves for a term of five years. Lok Sabha or the house has 545 members. It has a term of five years, Rajya Sabha or the upper house is a permanent body not subject to dissolution. One third of the members every second year, and are replaced by newly elected members.
Each member is elected for a term of six years and its members are indirectly elected by members of legislative bodies of the states. The Rajya Sabha can have a maximum of 250 members and it currently has a sanctioned strength of 245 members, of which 233 are elected from States and Union Territories and 12 are nominated by the President. The number of members from a state depends on its population, the minimum age for a person to become a member of Rajya Sabha is 30 years
The Department of Posts, trading as India Post, is a government-operated postal system in India. Generally referred to within India as the post office, it is the most widely distributed system in the world. The postal service is under the Department of Posts, which is part of the Ministry of Communications and Information Technology of the Government of India. As of 31 March 2015, the Indian Postal Service had 154,939 post offices and it had 25,560 departmental Post Offices and 129,379 Gramin Dak Sevak, Branch Post Offices. On average, a post office serves an area of 21.22 square kilometres, because of its reach and presence in remote areas, the Indian postal service is involved in other services such as small-savings banking and financial services. The country has been divided into 22 postal circles, each headed by a Chief Postmaster General. Each circle is divided into regions, headed by a Postmaster General and these divisions are further divided into subdivisions. In addition to the 22 circles, there is a circle to provide postal services to the Armed Forces of India headed by a Director General.
The highest post office in the world is in Hikkim, Himachal Pradesh operated by India Post at a height of 15,500 ft, the British Raj was instituted in 1858, when the rule of the East India Company was transferred to the Crown. By 1861, there were 889 post offices handling nearly 43 million letters, the first superintendent of the post office was appointed in 1870 and based in Allahabad and in 1876, British India became the first non-founding member of the General Postal Union. On 1 April 1882, Post Office Savings Banks opened throughout India, in Madras Presidency, it was limited, in the Bengal Presidency, no POSBs were established in Calcutta or Howrah. Telegraph Act,1885 The Indian Post Office Act 1898, passed by the legislature on 22 March 1898 and it was preceded by Act III of 1882 and Act XVI of 1896. The Indian Wireless Telegraphy Act 1933 The worlds first official flight took place in India on 18 February 1911. Henri Pequet, a French pilot, carried about 15 kilograms of mail across the Ganges from Allahabad to Naini, India Post inaugurated a floating post office in August 2011 at Dal Lake in Srinagar, Kashmir.
Telegraphy and telephony made their appearance as part of the service before becoming separate departments. The Posts and Telegraphs Departments merged in 1914, dividing on 1 January 1985, since Indian independence in 1947, the postal service continues to function on a nationwide basis, providing a variety of services. The structure of the organization has the directorate at its apex, below it are circle offices, regional offices, in April 1959, the Indian Postal Department adopted the motto Service before Self, it revised its logo in September 2008. The first adhesive stamps in Asia were issued in the Indian district of Scinde in July 1852 by Bartle Frere
Amendment of the Constitution of India
Amending the Constitution of India is the process of making changes to the nations fundamental law or supreme law. The procedure of amendment in the constitution is laid down in Part XX of the Constitution of India and this procedure ensures the sanctity of the Constitution of India and keeps a check on arbitrary power of the Parliament of India. They never wanted to have a British-style system where Parliament is supreme, the Constitution of India vests constituent power upon the Parliament subject to the special procedure laid down therein. During the discussion in the Constituent Assembly on this aspect, some members were in favour of adopting an easier mode of amending procedure for the five to ten years. There should be a certain flexibility, if you make anything rigid and permanent, you stop a nation’s growth, the growth of a living, organic people. Therefore, it has to be flexible and it is right that House elected so - under this Constitution of course it will have the right to do anything - should have an easy opportunity to make such changes as it wants to.
But in any event, we should not make a Constitution, such as other great countries have. Today especially, when the world is in turmoil and we are passing through a very swift period of transition, while we make a Constitution which is sound and as basic as we can, it should be flexible. Brajeshwar Prasad favoured a flexible Constitution so as to make it survive the test of time and he was of the opinion that rigidity tends to check progressive legislation or gradual innovation. Kamath favoured ensuring procedural safeguards to avoid the possibility of hasty amendment to the Constitution, the Constitution of India provides for a distinctive amending process when compared to the Constitutions of other nations. It can be described as flexible and partly rigid. The Constitution provides for a variety in the amending process, an amendment of the Constitution can be initiated only by the introduction of a Bill in either House of Parliament. The Bill must be passed in each House by a majority of the membership of that House and by a majority of not less than two-thirds of the members of that House present.
There is no provision for a joint sitting in case of disagreement between the two Houses, the Bill, passed by the required majority, is presented to the President who shall give his assent to the Bill. If the amendment seeks to make any change in any of the mentioned in the proviso to article 368. Although, there is no prescribed time limit for ratification, it must be completed before the amending Bill is presented to the President for his assent, every constitutional amendment is formulated as a statute. The first amendment is called the Constitution Act, the second, the Constitution Act, each usually has the long title An Act further to amend the Constitution of India. The original constitution provided for three categories of amendments
President of India
The President of the Republic of India is the Head of State of India and the Commander-in-chief of the Indian Armed Forces. The oath of the President is taken in the presence of the Chief Justice of India, the President resides in an estate known as the Rashtrapati Bhavan situated in Raisina Hill in New Delhi. The presidential retreats are The Retreat in Chharabra and Rashtrapati Nilayam in Hyderabad, the 13th and current President is Pranab Mukherjee, who was elected on 22 July 2012, and sworn in on 25 July 2012. He is the first Bengali to be elected as President, India achieved independence from the British on 15 August 1947, initially as a Dominion within the Commonwealth of Nations with George VI as king, represented in the country by a governor-general. Still, following this, the Constituent Assembly of India, under the leadership of Dr. B. R. Ambedkar, the Constitution of India was eventually enacted on 26 November 1949 and came into force on 26 January 1950, making India a republic. The offices of monarch and governor-general were replaced by the new office of President of India, the constitution of the Republic of India gave the President the responsibility and authority to defend and protect the constitution of India and its rule of law.
Invariably, any action taken by the executive or legislature entities of the constitution shall become law only after Presidents assent, the president shall not accept any actions of the executive or legislature which are unconstitutional. The president is the foremost, most empowered and prompt defender of the constitution, the primary duty of the President is to preserve and defend the constitution and the law of India as made part of his oath. The President is the head of all independent constitutional entities. All his actions and supervisory powers over the executive and legislative entities of India shall be used in accordance to uphold the constitution, there is no bar on the actions of the President to contest in the court of law. Legislative power is vested by the Parliament of India of which the president is the head. The President of the Republic summons both the Houses of the Parliament and prorogues them and he can dissolve the Lok Sabha. The President inaugurates Parliament by addressing it after the general elections, the Presidential address on these occasions is generally meant to outline the new policies of the government.
All bills passed by the Parliament can become laws only after receiving the assent of the President per Article 111, after a bill is presented to him, the President shall declare either that he assents to the Bill, or that he withholds his assent from it. As a third option, he can return a bill to Parliament, if it is not a money bill, after reconsideration, the bill is passed accordingly and presented to the President, with or without amendments, the President cannot withhold his assent from it. Article 143 gave power to the president to consult the Supreme Court about the validity of any issue. These are in the nature of interim or temporary legislation and their continuance is subject to parliamentary approval, ordinances remain valid for no more than six weeks from the date the Parliament is convened unless approved by it earlier. Re-promulgation of ordinances after failing to get approval within stipulated time of the houses of parliament is unconstitutional act by the President