Solar water heating
Solar water heating is the conversion of sunlight into heat for water heating using a solar thermal collector. A variety of configurations are available at varying cost to provide solutions in different climates and latitudes. SWHs are used for residential and some industrial applications. A sun-facing collector heats a working fluid that passes into a storage system for use. SWH are passive, they use both water and a working fluid. They are heated directly or via light-concentrating mirrors, they operate independently or as hybrids with electric or gas heaters. In large-scale installations, mirrors may concentrate sunlight into a smaller collector; the global solar thermal market is dominated by China, Europe and India, although Israel was one of the first countries to mandate installation of SWH in 1980, leading to a flourishing industry. Records of solar collectors in the U. S. date to involving a black-painted tank mounted on a roof. In 1896 Clarence Kemp of Baltimore enclosed a tank in a wooden box, thus creating the first'batch water heater' as they are known today.
Frank Shuman built the world’s first solar thermal power station in Maadi, using parabolic troughs to power a 60-70 horsepower engine that pumped 6,000 gallons of water per minute from the Nile River to adjacent cotton fields. Flat-plate collectors for solar water heating were used in Florida and Southern California in the 1920s. Interest grew in North America after 1960, but after the 1973 oil crisis. Solar power is in use in Australia, China, India, Japan, Romania, the United Kingdom and the United States. Israel and Greece are the per capita leaders in the use of solar water heating systems supporting 30%–40% of homes. Flat plate solar systems were used on a large scale in Israel. In the 1950s a fuel shortage led the government to forbid heating water between 6 am. Levi Yissar built the first prototype Israeli solar water heater and in 1953 he launched the NerYah Company, Israel's first commercial manufacturer of solar water heating. Solar water heaters were used by 20% of the population by 1967.
Following the energy crisis in the 1970s, in 1980 Israel required the installation of solar water heaters in all new homes. As a result, Israel became the world leader in the use of solar energy per capita with 85% of households using solar thermal systems, estimated to save the country 2 million barrels of oil a year. In 2005, Spain became the world's first country to require the installation of photovoltaic electricity generation in new buildings, the second to require the installation of solar water heating systems, in 2006. After 1960, systems were marketed in Japan. Australia has a variety of national and state and regulations for solar thermal starting with MRET in 1997. Solar water heating systems are popular in China, where basic models start at around 1,500 yuan, around 80% less than in Western countries for a given collector size. At least 30 million Chinese households have one; the popularity is due to efficient evacuated tubes that allow the heaters to function under gray skies and at temperatures well below freezing.
The type and size of a solar water heating system is determined by: Changes in ambient temperature and solar radiation between summer and winter Changes in ambient temperature during the day-night cycle Possibility of the potable water or collector fluid overheating or freezingThe minimum requirements of the system are determined by the amount or temperature of hot water required during winter, when a system's output and incoming water temperature are at their lowest. The maximum output of the system is determined by the need to prevent the water in the system from becoming too hot. Freeze protection measures prevent damage to the system due to the expansion of freezing transfer fluid. Drainback systems drain the transfer fluid from the system. Many indirect systems use antifreeze in the heat transfer fluid. In some direct systems, collectors can be manually drained; this approach is common in climates where freezing temperatures do not occur but can be less reliable than an automatic system as it relies on an operator.
A third type of freeze protection is freeze-tolerance, where low pressure water pipes made of silicone rubber expand on freezing. One such collector now has European Solar Keymark accreditation; when no hot water has been used for a day or two, the fluid in the collectors and storage can reach high temperatures in all non-drainback systems. When the storage tank in a drainback system reaches its desired temperature, the pumps stop, ending the heating process and thus preventing the storage tank from overheating; some active systems deliberately cool the water in the storage tank by circulating hot water through the collector at times when there is little sunlight or at night, losing heat. This is most effective in direct or thermal store plumbing and is ineffective in systems that use evacuated tube collectors, due to their superior insulation. Any collector type may still overheat. High pressure, sealed solar thermal systems rely on the operation of temperature and pressure relief valves. Low pressure, open vented heaters have simpler, more reliable safety controls an open vent.
Simple designs include a simple glass-topped insulated box with a flat solar absorber made of sheet metal, attached to copper heat exchanger pipes and dark-colored, or a set of metal tubes surrounded by an evacuated glass c
The Sierra Club is an environmental organization in the United States. It was founded on May 28, 1892, in San Francisco, California, by the Scottish-American preservationist John Muir, who became its first president; the Sierra Club operates in the United States. Traditionally associated with the progressive movement, the club was one of the first large-scale environmental preservation organizations in the world, engages in lobbying politicians to promote environmentalist policies. Recent focuses of the club include promoting sustainable energy, mitigating global warming, opposing the use of coal; the club is known for its political endorsements, which are sought after by candidates in local elections. The Sierra Club is organized on both a local level; the club is divided into large chapters representing large geographic areas, some of which have tens of thousands of members. These chapters are divided into regional groups, special interest sections and task forces. While much activity is coordinated at a local level, the Club is a unified organization.
In addition to political advocacy, the Sierra Club organizes outdoor recreation activities, has been a notable organization for mountaineering and rock climbing in the United States. Members of the Sierra Club pioneered the Yosemite Decimal System of climbing, were responsible for a substantial amount of the early development of climbing. Much of this activity occurred in the group's namesake Sierra Nevada; the Sierra Club does not set standards for or regulate alpinism, but it organizes wilderness courses and occasional alpine expeditions for members. In California, the club, through its outdoor recreation groups, is considered the state's analogue to other state mountaineering clubs such as Mazamas or the Colorado Mountain Club; the Sierra Club's stated mission is "To explore and protect the wild places of the earth. Each year, five directors are elected to three-year terms, all club members are eligible to vote. A president is elected annually by the Board from among its members; the Executive Director runs the day-to-day operations of the group.
Michael Brune of Rainforest Action Network, has served as the organization's executive director since 2010. Brune succeeded Carl Pope. Pope stepped down amid discontent. Sierra Club members belong to local groups. National and local special-interest sections and task forces address particular issues; the national Sierra Club sets overarching rules. The club is known for engaging in two main activities: promoting and guiding outdoor recreational activities, done throughout the United States but in California, political activism to promote environmental causes. Richard M. Skinner of the Brookings Institution describes the Sierra Club as one of the United States' "leading environmental organizations"; the Sierra Club makes endorsements of individual candidates for elected office, which has substantial weight given the club's reputation and large membership. Journalist Robert Underwood Johnson had worked with John Muir on the successful campaign to create a large Yosemite National Park surrounding the much smaller state park, created in 1864.
This campaign succeeded in 1890. As early as 1889, Johnson had encouraged Muir to form an "association" to help protect the Sierra Nevada, preliminary meetings were held to plan the group. Others involved in the early planning included artist William Keith, Willis Linn Jepson, Willard Drake Johnson, Joseph LeConte and David Starr Jordan. In May 1892, a group of professors from the University of California and Stanford University helped Muir and attorney Warren Olney launch the new organization modeled after the eastern Appalachian Mountain Club; the Sierra Club's charter members elected Muir president, an office he held until his death in 1914. The Club's first goals included establishing Glacier and Mount Rainier national parks, convincing the California legislature to give Yosemite Valley to the U. S. federal government, preserving California's coastal redwoods. Muir escorted President Theodore Roosevelt through Yosemite in 1903, two years the California legislature ceded Yosemite Valley and Mariposa Grove to the federal government.
The Sierra Club won its first lobbying victory with the creation of the country's second national park, after Yellowstone in 1872. In the first decade of the 1900s, the Sierra Club became embroiled in the Hetch Hetchy Reservoir controversy that divided preservationists from "resource management" conservationists. In the late 19th century, the city of San Francisco was outgrowing its limited water supply, which depended on intermittent local springs and streams. In 1890, San Francisco mayor James D. Phelan proposed to build a dam and aqueduct on the Tuolumne River, one of the largest southern Sierra rivers, as a way to increase and stabilize the city's water supply. Gifford Pinchot, a progressive supporter of public utilities and head of the US Forest Service, which had jurisdiction over the national parks, supported the creation of the Hetch
Orange is the colour between yellow and red on the spectrum of visible light. Human eyes perceive orange when observing light with a dominant wavelength between 585 and 620 nanometres. In painting and traditional colour theory, it is a secondary colour of pigments, created by mixing yellow and red, it is named after the fruit of the same name. The orange colour of carrots, sweet potatoes and many other fruits and vegetables comes from carotenes, a type of photosynthetic pigment; these pigments convert the light energy that the plants absorb from the sun into chemical energy for the plants' growth. The hues of autumn leaves are from the same pigment after chlorophyll is removed. In Europe and America, surveys show that orange is the colour most associated with amusement, the unconventional, warmth, energy, danger and aroma, the autumn and Allhallowtide seasons, as well as having long been the national colour of the Netherlands and the House of Orange, it serves as the political colour of Christian democracy political ideology and most Christian democratic political parties.
In Asia it is an important symbolic colour of Hinduism. The colour orange is named after the appearance of the ripe orange fruit; the word comes from the Old French orange, from the old term for the fruit, pomme d'orange. The French word, in turn, comes from the Italian arancia, based on Arabic nāranj, derived from the Sanskrit naranga; the first recorded use of orange as a colour name in English was in 1512, in a will now filed with the Public Record Office. Prior to this word being introduced to the English-speaking world, saffron existed in the English language. Crog referred to the saffron colour, so that orange was referred to as ġeolurēad for reddish orange, or ġeolucrog for yellowish orange. Alternatively, orange things were sometimes described as red such as red deer, red hair, the Red Planet and robin redbreast. In ancient Egypt, artists used an orange mineral pigment called realgar for tomb paintings, as well as other uses, it was used by Medieval artists for the colouring of manuscripts.
Pigments were made in ancient times from a mineral known as orpiment. Orpiment was an important item of trade in the Roman Empire and was used as a medicine in China although it contains arsenic and is toxic, it was used as a fly poison and to poison arrows. Because of its yellow-orange colour, it was a favourite with alchemists searching for a way to make gold, in both China and the West. Before the late 15th century, the colour orange without the name. Portuguese merchants brought the first orange trees to Europe from Asia in the late 15th and early 16th century, along with the Sanskrit naranga, which became part of several European languages: "naranja" in Spanish, "laranja" in Portuguese, "orange" in English; the House of Orange-Nassau was one of the most influential royal houses in Europe in the 16th and 17th centuries. It originated in 1163 the tiny Principality of Orange, a feudal state of 108 square miles north of Avignon in southern France; the Principality of Orange took its name not from the fruit, but from a Roman-Celtic settlement on the site, founded in 36 or 35 BC and was named Arausio, after a Celtic water god.
The family of the Prince of Orange adopted the name and the colour orange in the 1570s. The colour came to be associated with Protestantism, due to participation by the House of Orange on the Protestant side in the French Wars of Religion. One member of the house, William I of Orange, organised the Dutch resistance against Spain, a war that lasted for eighty years, until the Netherlands won its independence; the House's arguably most prominent member, William III of Orange, became King of England in 1689, after the downfall of the Catholic James II. Due to William III, orange became an important political colour in Europe. William was a Protestant, as such he defended the Protestant minority of Ireland against the majority Roman Catholic population; as a result, the Protestants of Ireland were known as Orangemen. Orange became one of the colours of the Irish flag, symbolising the Protestant heritage, his rebel flag became the forerunner of The Netherland's modern flag. When the Dutch settlers of South Africa rebelled against the British in the late 19th century, they organised what they called the Orange Free State.
In the United States, the flag of the City of New York has an orange stripe, to remember the Dutch colonists who founded the city. William of Orange is remembered as the founder of the College of William & Mary, Nassau County in New York is named after the House of Orange-Nassau. In the 18th century orange was sometimes used to depict the robes of Pomona, the goddess of fruitful abundance. Oranges themselves became more common in northern Europe, thanks to the 17th century invention of the heated greenhouse, a building type which became known as an orangerie; the French artist Jean-Honoré Fragonard depicted an allegorical figure of "inspiration" dressed in orange. In 1797 a French scientist Louis Vauquelin discovered the mineral crocoite, or lead chromate, which led in 1809 to the invention of the synthetic pigment chrome orange. Other synthetic pigments, cobalt red, cobalt yellow, cobalt orange, the last made from cadmium sulfide plus cadmium selenide, soon followed; these new pigments, plus the invention of the
Northland International University
For the liberal arts college, see Northland College in Ashland, WisconsinNorthland International University Northland Baptist Bible College, was a Baptist college in Dunbar, Wisconsin. The school was founded in 1976 by Paul Patz, its stated mission was " to glorify God by providing an educational environment for developing servant-leaders in honesty, obedience and service to love Jesus Christ with all their heart and mind and by teaching students to live by the principles of God's Word, to walk with God as His faithful laborers, to serve in local churches for revival, world evangelization, the discipling of future generations for the cause of Jesus Christ." The university's purpose statement was "Preparing the next generation of servant-leaders for Great Commission living."On April 30, 2015, Northland announced its closing, effective at the end of the 2014–2015 school year. Northland Mission Camp was founded on December 31, 1958 by Paul and Mamie Patz and Rev. Harold and Arlene Sailer. Rev. Sailer and his wife both graduated from Northwestern Bible College.
Property for the 1,500-acre facility in northeast Wisconsin was purchased in 1960. In 1976, Northland Bible Institute was started; the following year, it changed its name to Northland Baptist Bible College. On April 7, 2009, the school created the name Northland International University as a canopy name for its four entities: Northland Baptist Bible College, Northland Graduate Studies, Northland Center for Global Opportunities, Northland Online. Northland Camp and Conference Center and Northland International University are branches of Northland Mission, Inc. For much of its history, Northland operated without accreditation, which meant that its students were not eligible for government financial assistance. In 2004, Northland obtained provisional accreditation from the Transnational Association of Christian Colleges and Schools, making its students eligible for federal funds. TRACS granted full accreditation in 2008. In 2009, Northland requested inclusion in the Wisconsin Tuition Grant Program, so that undergraduate students from Wisconsin attending Northland could receive state financial assistance.
In August 2009, the Wisconsin Higher Education Aids Board determined that Northland students were not eligible for state financial aid because the college's accreditation was not from a regional accreditation organization. Northland appealed the ruling to agency's board. A decision was expected in the fall of 2009, but students were not eligible for state aid for the 2009-2010 school year. Northland was approved for participation in Wisconsin Tuition Grant program for the 2011-12 school year; the program was renamed the Wisconsin Grant program beginning with the 2014-15 school year. Northland students eligible for the grant received it through the end of the 2014-15 school year, when the college ceased academic operations. On April 29, 2013, then-President Matthew Olson announced to faculty and students that he had been removed as president by the board. On May 8, the four board members that were not members of the founding family resigned; the remaining three board members voted to bring Olson back on as President, on May 22, 2013 voted to install Daniel Patz as the new chairman of the board.
A month On June 13, 2013, President Olson announced to faculty and staff that he had resigned. He indicated that this would give the board the best opportunity to succeed. On June 17 and 18 a Board Advisory Council convened, Mr. Daniel Patz was appointed as the university's fourth president. On May 10, 2013, Northland announced that it was provisionally replacing its articles of faith with the New Hampshire Baptist Confession of Faith of 1853, while developing a new set of articles of faith that would be specific to Northland; the new revision of the statement was completed in the fall of 2013. In October 2014, Northland announced that the board of trustees of The Southern Baptist Theological Seminary had decided to accept the university's assets and campus as a gift and to establish an extension of Southern's Boyce college at the campus. However, on April 22, 2015 President Patz announced that The Southern Baptist Theological Seminary had reversed their previous decision and no longer intended to acquire Northland's campus.
Following a meeting of the Northland Board of Trustees, President Patz communicated the board's decision to close both the graduate and undergraduate schools of the university following the end of the 2014-2015 school year. Although the education branches of Northland Mission were closed, the Camp and Conference Center remain open, offering a variety of summer camps, various youth and ministerial retreats during the school year. Northland International University ceased academic operations in 2015. Lancaster Bible College became the custodian of student academic records. Several recordings made by the Northland Baptist Bible College Choir, such as A Heart to Praise and Holy is He, remain available. Northland's 1500 acre campus is located 6 miles southeast of Dunbar, Wisconsin; the main classroom buildings are the Founder's Center, named in honor of the school's founder, Paul Patz. The Founder's Center housed the administrative offices, registrar's office, business office of the university; the University library, which houses over 50,000 volumes, is located in the JEC.
The campus has a Fine Arts Center where music classes and performances were held. Northland's intercollegiate sports mascot was the Pioneer; the school was a Division II member of the Natio
United States Fish and Wildlife Service
The United States Fish and Wildlife Service is an agency of the US Federal Government within the US Department of the Interior dedicated to the management of fish and natural habitats. The mission of the agency is "working with others to conserve and enhance fish, wildlife and their habitats for the continuing benefit of the American people." Aurelia Skipwith is Trump's nominee. Among the responsibilities of the FWS are enforcing federal wildlife laws. Sub-units of the FWS include: National Wildlife Refuge System—560 National Wildlife Refuges and thousands of small wetlands and other special management areas covering over 150 million acres Division of Migratory Bird Management Federal Duck Stamp National Fish Hatchery System—70 National Fish Hatcheries and 65 Fish and Wildlife Conservation Offices Endangered Species program—86 Ecological Services Field Stations International Affairs Program National Conservation Training Center USFWS Office of Law Enforcement Clark R. Bavin National Fish and Wildlife Forensic Laboratory Landscape Conservation CooperativesThe vast majority of fish and wildlife habitat is on non-federal state or private land.
Therefore, the FWS works with private groups such as Partners in Flight and Sport Fishing and Boating Partnership Council to promote voluntary habitat conservation and restoration. The FWS employs 9,000 people and is organized into a central administrative office in Falls Church, eight regional offices, nearly 700 field offices distributed throughout the United States; the FWS originated in 1871 as the United States Commission on Fish and Fisheries, more referred to as the United States Fish Commission, created by the United States Congress with the purpose of studying and recommending solutions to a noted decline in the stocks of food fish. Spencer Fullerton Baird was appointed its first commissioner. In 1903, the Fish Commission was reorganized as the United States Bureau of Fisheries. In 1885–1886, the Division of Economic Ornithology and Mammalogy was established within the United States Department of Agriculture. In 1896 it became the Division of Biological Survey, its early work focused on the effect of birds in controlling agricultural pests and mapping the geographical distribution of plants and animals in the United States.
Clinton Hart Merriam headed the Bureau for 25 years and became a national figure for improving the scientific understanding of birds and mammals in the United States. Jay Norwood Darling was appointed Chief of the new Bureau of Biological Survey in 1934. Under Darling's guidance, the Bureau began an ongoing legacy of protecting vital natural habitat throughout the country; the FWS was created in 1940, when the Bureaus of Fisheries and Biological Survey were combined after being moved to the Department of the Interior. In 1959, the methods used by FWS's Animal Damage Control Program were featured in the Tom Lehrer song "Poisoning Pigeons in the Park"; the FWS governs six US National Monuments: Hanford Reach National Monument in Washington state. Pursuant to the eagle feather law, Title 50, Part 22 of the Code of Federal Regulations, the Bald and Golden Eagle Protection Act, the US Fish and Wildlife Service administers the National Eagle Repository and the permit system for Native American religious use of eagle feathers.
These exceptions only apply to Native Americans that are registered with the federal government and are enrolled with a federally recognized tribe. In the late 1990s and early 2000s, the FWS began to incorporate the research of tribal scientists into conservation decisions; this came on the heels of Native American traditional ecological knowledge gaining acceptance in the scientific community as a reasonable and respectable way to gain knowledge of managing the natural world. Additionally, other natural resource agencies within the United States government, such as the USDA, have taken steps to be more inclusive of tribes, native people, tribal rights; this has marked a transition to a relationship of more co-operation rather than the tension between tribes and government agencies seen historically. Today, these agencies work with tribal governments to ensure the best conservation decisions are made and that tribes retain their sovereignty. Federal law enforcement in the United States Atlantic Coastal Cooperative Statistics Program National Fish and Wildlife Forensics Laboratory National Oceanic and Atmospheric Admini
Environmentally friendly or environment-friendly, are sustainability and marketing terms referring to goods and services, laws and policies that claim reduced, minimal, or no harm upon ecosystems or the environment. Companies use these ambiguous terms to promote goods and services, sometimes with additional, more specific certifications, such as ecolabels, their overuse can be referred to as greenwashing. The International Organization for Standardization has developed ISO 14020 and ISO 14024 to establish principles and procedures for environmental labels and declarations that certifiers and eco-labellers should follow. In particular, these standards relate to the avoidance of financial conflicts of interest, the use of sound scientific methods and accepted test procedures, openness and transparency in the setting of standards. Products located in members of the European Union can use the EU's Eco-label pending the EU's approval. EMAS is another EU label that signifies whether an organization management is green as opposed to the product.
Germany uses the Blue Angel, based on Germany's standard. In the United States, environmental marketing claims require caution. Ambiguous titles such as environmentally friendly can be confusing without a specific definition; the United States Environmental Protection Agency has deemed some ecolabels misleading in determining whether a product is "green". In Canada, one label is that of the Environmental Choice Program. Created in 1988, only products approved by the program are allowed to display the label; the Energy Rating Label is a Type III label that provides information on "energy service per unit of energy consumption". It was first created in 1986, but negotiations led to a redesign in 2000; the environmentally friendly trends are marketed with a different color association, using the color blue for clean air and clean water, as opposed to green in western cultures. Japanese and Korean built hybrid vehicles use the color blue instead of green all throughout the vehicle, use the word "blue" indiscriminately.
Energy Star is a program with a primary goal of increasing energy efficiency and indirectly decreasing greenhouse gas emissions. Energy Star has different sections for different nations or areas, including the United States, the European Union and Australia; the program, founded in the United States exists in Canada, New Zealand, Taiwan
Congregational churches are Protestant churches in the Reformed tradition practicing congregationalist church governance, in which each congregation independently and autonomously runs its own affairs. Congregationalism, as defined by the Pew Research Center, is estimated to represent 0.5 per cent of the worldwide Protestant population. The report defines it narrowly, encompassing denominations in the United States and the United Kingdom, which can trace their history back to nonconforming Protestants, Separatists, English religious groups coming out of the English Civil War, other English dissenters not satisfied with the degree to which the Church of England had been reformed. Congregationalist tradition has a presence in the United States, the United Kingdom, Canada, South Africa, New Zealand, various island nations in the Pacific region, it has been introduced either by immigrant dissenter Protestants or by missionary organization such as the London Missionary Society. A number of evangelical Congregational churches are members of the World Evangelical Congregational Fellowship.
In the United Kingdom, many Congregational churches claim their descent from Protestant denominations formed on a theory of union published by the theologian and English separatist Robert Browne in 1582. Ideas of nonconforming Protestants during the Puritan Reformation of the Church of England laid foundation for these churches. In England, the early Congregationalists were called Separatists or Independents to distinguish them from the Calvinistic Presbyterians, whose churches embrace a polity based on the governance of elders. Congregationalists differed with the Reformed churches using episcopalian church governance, led by a bishop. Congregationalism in the United States traces its origins to the Puritans of New England, who wrote the Cambridge Platform of 1648 to describe the autonomy of the church and its association with others. Within the United States, the model of Congregational churches was carried by migrating settlers from New England into New York into the Old North West, further.
With their insistence on independent local bodies, they became important in many social reform movements, including abolitionism and women's suffrage. Modern Congregationalism in the United States is split into three bodies: the United Church of Christ, the National Association of Congregational Christian Churches and the Conservative Congregational Christian Conference, the most theologically conservative. Congregationalists believe their model of church governance fulfills the description of the early church and allows people the most direct relationship with God. Congregationalism is more identified as a movement than a single denomination, given its distinguishing commitment to the complete autonomy of the local congregation; the idea that each distinct congregation constitutes the visible Body of the church can, however, be traced to John Wycliffe and the Lollard movement, which followed Wycliffe's removal from teaching authority in the Roman Catholic Church. The early Congregationalists shared with Anabaptist theology the ideal of a pure church.
They believed the adult conversion experience was necessary for an individual to become a full member in the church, unlike other Reformed churches. As such, the Congregationalists were a reciprocal influence on the Baptists, they differed in counting the children of believers in some sense members of the church. On the other hand, the Baptists required each member followed by baptism. King Henry VIII made himself Supreme Head of the Church without allowing a change in doctrine or liturgy during his lifetime, he was not excommunicated but broke with Rome to legitimize his marriage to Anne Boleyn in 1533 after trying unsuccessfully to have his marriage with his wife, Catherine of Aragon annulled. Henry forced Parliament to approve the Act of Supremacy in 1534 which made him "the only supreme head on earth of the Church in England"; the title was changed to Supreme Governor of the Church of England in 1559. Still in effect; the Church of England ceased to be subject to the Church of Rome. However, it continued as before with the same episcopal ecclesiastical structure, Canon Law, Apostolic Succession.
It saw itself as the continuing Church in England without break. However its worship life was changed." The whole story of the English Reformation which produced the Church of England is a tale of retreat from the Protestant advance of 1550..." Pope Saint Pius V regretfully excommunicated Queen Elizabeth I. From the beginning of her reign a small but vocal party of radical Reformers Calvinists who represented less than 10% of the population pressed for the abolition of episcopacy - the 3-fold order of bishop priest and deacon - church music, the old canon law and liturgical and doctrinal practices they regarded as hangovers from Catholicism, they got nowhere. The persistence of the government's religious program and time had defeated them: England 80% Catholic in 1558 with a Catholic clergy evolved under Elizabeth. By 1600 the country was 20 % Catholic, 70 % Protestant C of 10 % Radicals; the great majority of Catholics had gone over to the Settlement as the Catholic-trained clergy ministered to them in the early years "with the vestments and movements of the old mass," Christopher Haigh, English Reformations p. 289, were replaced over four decades by new clergy weaned on the Prayer Book.
Frustrated at these leftovers from an earlier Ag