The Webley Revolver was, in various marks, a standard issue service pistol for the armed forces of the United Kingdom, the British Empire and Commonwealth, from 1887 until 1963. The Webley is a top-break revolver and breaking the revolver operates the extractor, which removes cartridges from the cylinder; the Webley Mk I service revolver was adopted in 1887 and the Mk IV rose to prominence during the Boer War of 1899–1902. The Mk VI, introduced in 1915 during the First World War, is the best-known model. Firing large.455 Webley cartridges, Webley service revolvers are among the most powerful top-break revolvers produced. The.455 calibre Webley is no longer in military service but the.38/200 Webley Mk IV variant is still in use as a police sidearm in a number of countries. With a modified, "shaved" cylinder and the use of a half moon clip, the Webley Mk VI can fire the.45 ACP cartridge, although standard pressure.45 ACP cartridges exceed Webley proof loads and should not be used. The British company Webley & Scott produced a range of revolvers from the mid 19th to late 20th centuries.
As early as 1853 P. Webley and J. Webley began production of their first patented single action cap and ball revolvers. Under the trade name of P. Webley and Son, manufacturing included their own.44-caliber rim-fire solid frame revolver as well as licensed copies of Smith & Wesson's Tip up break action revolvers. The quintessential hinged frame, centre-fire revolvers for which the Webley name is best known first began production/development in the early 1870s most notably with the Webley-Pryse and Webley-Kaufman models; the W. G. or Webley-Government models produced from 1885 through to the early 1900s, are the most popular of the commercial top break revolvers and many were the private purchase choice of English military officers and target shooters in the period, coming in a.476/.455 calibre. However other short-barrel solid-frame revolvers, including the Webley RIC model and the British Bulldog revolver, designed to be carried in a coat pocket for self-defence were far more commonplace during the period.
Today, undoubtedly best-known are the range of military revolvers, which were in service use across two World Wars and numerous colonial conflicts. In 1887, the British Army was searching for a revolver to replace the unsatisfactory.476 Enfield Mk I & Mk II Revolvers, the Enfield having only replaced the solid frame Adams.450 revolver, a late 1860s conversion of the cap and ball Beaumont–Adams revolver in 1880. Webley & Scott, who were very well known makers of quality guns and had sold many pistols on a commercial basis to military officers and civilians alike, tendered the.455 calibre Webley Self-Extracting Revolver for trials. The military was suitably impressed with the revolver, it was adopted on 8 November 1887 as the "Pistol, Webley, Mk I"; the initial contract called for 10,000 Webley revolvers, at a price of £3/1/1 each, with at least 2,000 revolvers to be supplied within eight months. The Webley revolver went through a number of changes, culminating in the Mk VI, in production between 1915 and 1923.
The large.455 Webley revolvers were retired in 1947, although the Webley Mk IV.38/200 remained in service until 1963 alongside the Enfield No. 2 Mk I revolver. Commercial versions of all Webley service revolvers were sold on the civilian market, along with a number of similar designs that were not adopted for service, but were nonetheless purchased by military officers; the Webley records show the last Mk VI being sold from the factory being in 1957 with "Nigeria" noted against the entry. The Webley Mk IV, chambered in.455 Webley, was introduced in 1899 and soon became known as the "Boer War Model", on account of the large numbers of officers and non-commissioned officers who purchased it on their way to take part in the conflict. The Webley Mk IV served alongside a large number of other handguns, including the Mauser C96 "Broomhandle", earlier Beaumont–Adams cartridge revolvers, other top-break revolvers manufactured by gunmakers such as William Tranter, Kynoch; the standard-issue Webley revolver at the outbreak of the First World War was the Webley Mk V, but there were more Mk IV revolvers in service in 1914, as the initial order for 20,000 Mk V revolvers had not been completed when hostilities began.
On 24 May 1915, the Webley Mk VI was adopted as the standard sidearm for British and Commonwealth troops and remained so for the duration of the First World War, being issued first to officers and range takers, to airmen, naval crews, boarding parties, trench raiders, machine-gun teams, tank crews. The Mk VI proved to be a reliable and hardy weapon, well suited to the mud and adverse conditions of trench warfare, several accessories were developed for the Mk VI, including a bayonet, speedloader devices, a stock allowing for the revolver to be converted into a carbine. Demand exceeded production, behind as the war began; this forced the British government to buy substitute weapons chambered in.455 Webley from neutral countries. America provided the Wesson 2nd Model "Hand Ejector" and Colt New Service Revolvers. Spani
The Blacker Bombard known as the 29mm Spigot Mortar, was an infantry anti-tank weapon devised by Lieutenant-Colonel Stewart Blacker in the early years of the Second World War. Intended as a means to equip Home Guard units with an anti-tank weapon in case of German invasion, at a time of grave shortage of weapons, it was accepted only after the intervention of Churchill. Although there were doubts about the effectiveness of the Bombard, many were issued. Few, if any, saw combat. With the end of the Battle of France and the evacuation of the British Expeditionary Force from the port of Dunkirk between 26 May and 4 June 1940, a German invasion of Great Britain seemed likely. However, the British Army was not well-equipped to defend the country in such an event; the Army was short of anti-tank guns, 840 of, left behind in France, only 167 were available in Britain. Given these shortcomings, those modern weapons that were available were allocated to the British Army, the Home Guard was forced to supplement the meagre amount of outdated weapons and ammunition they had with ad hoc weapons.
One of these was the Blacker Bombard, designed by Lieutenant Colonel Stewart Blacker, the origins of which went back to the 1930s. During the early part of the 1930s, Blacker became interested in the concept of the spigot mortar. Unlike conventional mortars the spigot mortar did not possess a barrel, instead there was a steel rod known as a'spigot' fixed to a baseplate; when the mortar was to be fired, the bomb was pushed down onto the spigot, which exploded the propellant charge and blew the bomb into the air. Blacker began to experiment with the concept in the hopes of creating a platoon mortar, lighter in weight than the one used by the British Army at the time; this evolved into the Arbalest, which he submitted to the Army but was rejected for a Spanish design. Undeterred by this rejection, Blacker went back to the design and came up with the idea of an anti-tank weapon, although he was stymied in his attempts to design one because the spigot design failed to generate the required velocity to penetrate armour.
However he was successful in creating an anti-tank mortar, which he named the Blacker Bombard. When the Second World War began, Blacker was a lieutenant-colonel in the Territorial Army, he had offered his Bombard to the War Office for two years without success but was introduced to the government department of Military Intelligence Research known as MD1, given the task of developing and delivering weapons for use by guerilla and resistance groups in Occupied Europe. Blacker showed his list of ideas to the head of MD1, Major Millis Jefferis, taken with the design for the Bombard, he argued that it could serve in an anti-tank and artillery capability, claimed that it would have similar anti-tank properties to the 2 pounder anti-tank gun coupled with the same range as the 3 inch mortar. Objections were raised by the Director of Artillery and other government officials, but on 18 August 1940 the Prime Minister, Winston Churchill, attended a demonstration of the weapon. Churchill ordered it into full production.
It would act as a temporary anti-tank weapon for the Home Guard until more 2 pounders could be supplied to them. It was decided by General Headquarters Home Forces that Bombards would be useful as an anti-tank weapon for use by regular forces, as well as the Home Guard. General Alan Brooke entertained doubts about the weapon's effectiveness, but believed that its simplicity would allow it to be used by younger soldiers. In Southern Command, 14,000 were ordered for use by forces in that area. However, RAF personnel were forbidden from using the weapons, a restriction, extended to the RAF Regiment when it was formed in 1942; the Bombard was a 29mm spigot mortar, weighing between 112 and 360 lb, placed on top of a swivel or pivot. It was able to fire a 20 lb high-explosive bomb to a range of 100 yards, it was served by a crew of between three and five men The Bombard was considered to be most effective at short range, with targets being engaged with'considerable success' at a range of between 75–100 yards.
It was a muzzle-loaded weapon and therefore had a slow rate of fire, averaging between six and twelve rounds per minute. Two types of ammunition were provided for the weapon – a 20 lb anti-tank bomb and a lighter 14 lb anti-personnel bomb, with each weapon being issued with 150 rounds of the former and 100 of the latter; the anti-tank rounds were found to possess several problems. They had insensitive fuzes, which meant that they would pass through an unarmoured target without detonating, when they did explode fragments were thrown back at the crew; the Bombard was either affixed to a large cruciform platform, or an immobile concrete pedestal. It seems that there was a preference for the Bombard to be used i
Smith & Wesson Model 10
The Smith & Wesson Model 10 known as the Smith & Wesson.38 Hand Ejector Model of 1899, the Smith & Wesson Military & Police or the Smith & Wesson Victory Model, is a revolver of worldwide popularity. In production since 1899, the Model 10 is a six-shot.38 Special, double-action revolver with fixed sights. Over its long production run it has been available with barrel lengths of 2 in, 3 in, 4 in, 5 in, 6 in. Barrels of 2.5 inches are known to have been made for special contracts. Some 6,000,000 of the type have been produced over the years, making it the most popular handgun of the 20th century. In 1899, the United States Army and Navy placed orders with Smith & Wesson for two to three thousand Model 1899 Hand Ejector revolvers chambered for the M1892.38 Long Colt U. S. Service Cartridge. With this order, the Hand Ejector Model became known as the.38 Military and Police model. That same year, in response to reports from military sources serving in the Philippines on the relative ineffectiveness of the new cartridge, Smith & Wesson began offering the Military & Police in a new chambering.38 S&W Special, a elongated version of the.38 Long Colt cartridge with greater bullet weight and powder charge increased from 18 to 21 grains of gunpowder.
In 1902 the.38 Military & Police was introduced. These included major modification and simplification of the internal lockwork and the addition of a locking underlug on the barrel to engage the free-standing ejector rod. Barrel lengths were 4-, 5-, 6-, 6.5-inches with a rounded butt. Serial numbers for the Military & Police ranged from number 1 in the series to 20,975. Most of the early M&P revolvers chambered in.38 Special appear to have been sold to the civilian market. By 1904, S&W was offering the.38 M&P with a rounded or square butt, 4-, 5-, 6.5-inch barrels. The.38 S&W Military & Police Model of 1905 4th Change, introduced 1915, incorporated a passive hammer block and enlarged service sights that became a standard across the service revolver segment of the industry. The M&P revolver was issued in large numbers during World War I, where it proved itself to be a reliable and accurate weapon. Although WWI saw the rise of semi-automatic pistols, revolvers such as the M&P were the weapon of choice, as they were considered more reliable and easier to use than automatic pistols.
After the War, the M&P would become the standard issue police sidearm for the next 70 years. It would become popular with civilian shooters, with several new models being made, including the first snubnosed 2-, 2.5- and 3-barrel models being made in 1936. The S&W M&P military revolvers produced from 1942 to 1944 had serial numbers with a "V" prefix, were known as the Smith & Wesson Victory Model, it is noteworthy. During World War II over 570,000 of these pistols were supplied to the United Kingdom, Australia, New Zealand, South Africa under the Lend-Lease program, chambered in the British.38/200 caliber in use in the Enfield No 2 Mk I Revolver and the Webley Mk IV Revolver. Most Victory Models sent to Britain were fitted with 4-inch or 5-inch barrels, although a few early versions had 6-inch barrels; the Victory Model was used by United States forces during World War II, being chambered in the well-known and popular.38 Special cartridge. The Victory Model was a standard-issue sidearm for United States Navy and Marine Corps aircrews, was used by security guards at factories and defense installations throughout the United States during the war.
Some of these revolvers remained in service well into the 1990s with units of the United States Armed Forces, including the United States Air Force and the Coast Guard. Until the introduction of the Beretta M9 9mm pistol in 1990, U. S. Army helicopter crew members and female military police officers were equipped with.38 caliber Victory Model revolvers. Criminal Investigation Division agents were issued.38 caliber revolvers with two inch barrels. The Victory Model remained in use with Air National Guard tanker and transport crews as late as Operation Desert Storm in 1991, with United States Navy security personnel until 1995; some Lend-Lease Victory Model revolvers chambered for the British.38/200 were returned to the United States and rechambered to fire the more popular and more powerful.38 Special ammunition, such revolvers are so marked on their barrels. Rechambering of.38-200 cylinders to.38 Special results in oversized chambers, which may cause problems. Lee Harvey Oswald was carrying a re-chambered Victory Model when he was apprehended on November 22, 1963.
The finish on Victory Models was a sandblasted and parkerized finish, noticeably different from the higher-quality blue or nickel/chrome finishes found on commercial M&P/Model 10 revolvers. Other distinguishing features of the Victory Model revolver are the lanyard loop at the bottom of the grip frame, the use of smooth walnut grip panels; however some early models did use a checkered grip, most notably the pre-1942 manufacture. After World War II, Smith & Wesson returned to manufacturing the M&P series. Along with cosmetic changes and replacement of the frame fitting grip with the Magna stocks, the spring-loaded hammer block safety gave way to a cam-actuated hammer block that rode in a channel in the side plate. In 1957, Smith & Wesson adopted the convention of using numeric designations to distinguish their various models of handguns, the M&P was renamed the Model 10; the M&P/Model 10 has been available in both blued steel finish and nickel finish for mos
Gun laying is the process of aiming an artillery piece, such as a gun, howitzer, or mortar, on land or at sea, against surface or air targets. It may be laying for direct fire, where the gun is aimed to a rifle, or indirect fire, where firing data is calculated and applied to the sights; the term includes automated aiming using, for example, radar-derived target data and computer-controlled guns. Gun laying means moving the axis of the bore of the barrel in two planes and vertical. A gun is "traversed" to align it with the target, "elevated" to range it to the target. Gun laying is a set of actions to align the axis of a gun barrel so that it points in the required direction; this alignment is in vertical planes. Gun laying may be for direct fire, where the layer sees the target, or indirect fire, where the target may not be visible from the gun. Gun laying has sometimes been called "training the gun". Laying in the vertical plane uses data derived from trials or empirical experience. For any given gun and projectile types, it reflects the distance to the target and the size of the propellant charge.
It incorporates any differences in height between gun and target. With indirect fire, it may allow for other variables as well. With direct fire, laying in the horizontal plane is the line of sight to the target, although the layer may make allowance for the wind, with rifled guns the sights may compensate for projectile "drift". With indirect fire the horizontal angle is relative to something the gun's aiming point, although with modern electronic sights it may be a north-seeking gyro. Depending on the gun mount, there is a choice of two trajectories; the dividing angle between the trajectories is about 45 degrees, it varies due to gun dependent factors. Below 45 degrees the trajectory is called "low angle", above 45 degrees is "high angle"; the differences are that low angle fire has a shorter time of flight, a lower vertex and flatter angle of descent. All guns have mountings that support the barrel assembly. Early guns could only be traversed by moving their entire carriage or mounting, this lasted with heavy artillery into World War II.
Mountings could be fitted into traversing turrets on coast defences or tanks. From circa 1900 field artillery carriages provided traverse without moving trail; the carriage, or mounting enabled the barrel to be set at the required elevation angle. With some gun mounts it is possible to depress the gun, i.e. move it in the vertical plane to point it below the horizon. Some guns require a near-horizontal elevation for loading. An essential capability for any elevation mechanism is to prevent the weight of the barrel forcing its heavier end downward; this is helped by having trunnions at the centre of gravity, although a counterbalance mechanism can be used. It means the elevation gear has to be strong enough to resist considerable downward pressure but still be easy for the gun layer to use; until recoil systems were invented in the late 19th century and integrated into the gun carriage or mount, guns moved backwards when they fired, had to be moved forward before they could be laid. However, where the recoil forces were transferred directly into the ground, did not always require such movement.
With the adoption of recoil systems for field artillery, it became normal to pivot the saddle on the lower carriage this "top traverse" was only a few degrees but soon offered a full circle for anti-aircraft guns. The introduction of recoil systems was an important milestone; the earliest guns were loaded from the muzzle. They were little more than bare barrels moved in wagons and placed on the ground for firing wooden frames and beds were introduced. Horizontal alignment with the target was by eye, while vertical laying was done by raising the muzzle with timber or digging a hole for the closed end. Gun carriages were introduced in the 15th century. Two large-diameter wheels, axle-tree and a trail became the standard pattern for field use; the barrel was mounted in a wooden cradle with trunnions to mount it on the carriage. As technology improved, the trunnions became part of the cradle was abandoned, they were large and heavy. Horizontal alignment was a matter of moving the trail. To achieve the required elevation angle, various arrangements were used.
At the simplest, it was wedges or quoins between the breech and the trail, but wooden quadrants, or simple scaffolds mounted on the trail, were used to support the breech and provided larger choice of elevation angle. Screw elevation devices were used as early as the 16th century; however and some fortress carriages and mounting evolved differently. Field mobility was not required, so large wheels and trails were irrelevant. Headspace below decks was low; this led to compact carriages on four small wheels. Large horizontal traverses were more difficult, but such things were unnecessary when shooting broadside. However, in fortresses wider traverse was required. One solution was slide mountings. Wide traverse was useful on some shipmounted guns. Laying required sights. At its simplest, this means nothing more than aiming the guns in the right direction. However, various aids emerged. Horizontal aiming involved sighting along the barrel, this was enhanced by a notch made in the ring around the barrel at th
Prime Minister of the United Kingdom
The Prime Minister of the United Kingdom is the head of government of the United Kingdom. The Prime Minister directs both the executive and the legislature, together with their Cabinet are collectively accountable for their policies and actions to the Monarch, to Parliament, to their political party and to the electorate; the office of Prime Minister is one of the Great Offices of State. The current holder of the office, Theresa May, leader of the Conservative Party, was appointed by the Queen on 13 July 2016; the office is not established by any statute or constitutional document but exists only by long-established convention, which stipulates that the monarch must appoint as Prime Minister the person most to command the confidence of the House of Commons. The position of Prime Minister was not created; the office is therefore best understood from a historical perspective. The origins of the position are found in constitutional changes that occurred during the Revolutionary Settlement and the resulting shift of political power from the Sovereign to Parliament.
Although the Sovereign was not stripped of the ancient prerogative powers and remained the head of government, politically it became necessary for him or her to govern through a Prime Minister who could command a majority in Parliament. By the 1830s the Westminster system of government had emerged; the political position of Prime Minister was enhanced by the development of modern political parties, the introduction of mass communication, photography. By the start of the 20th century the modern premiership had emerged. Prior to 1902, the Prime Minister sometimes came from the House of Lords, provided that his government could form a majority in the Commons; however as the power of the aristocracy waned during the 19th century the convention developed that the Prime Minister should always sit in the lower house. As leader of the House of Commons, the Prime Minister's authority was further enhanced by the Parliament Act 1911 which marginalised the influence of the House of Lords in the law-making process.
The Prime Minister is ex officio First Lord of the Treasury and Minister for the Civil Service. Certain privileges, such as residency of 10 Downing Street, are accorded to Prime Ministers by virtue of their position as First Lord of the Treasury; the status of the position as Prime Minister means that the incumbent is ranked as one of the most powerful and influential people in the world. The Prime Minister is the head of the United Kingdom government; as such, the modern Prime Minister leads the Cabinet. In addition, the Prime Minister leads a major political party and commands a majority in the House of Commons; the incumbent wields both significant legislative and executive powers. Under the British system, there is a unity of powers rather than separation. In the House of Commons, the Prime Minister guides the law-making process with the goal of enacting the legislative agenda of their political party. In an executive capacity, the Prime Minister appoints all other Cabinet members and ministers, co-ordinates the policies and activities of all government departments, the staff of the Civil Service.
The Prime Minister acts as the public "face" and "voice" of Her Majesty's Government, both at home and abroad. Upon the advice of the Prime Minister, the Sovereign exercises many statutory and prerogative powers, including high judicial, political and Church of England ecclesiastical appointments; the British system of government is based on an uncodified constitution, meaning that it is not set out in any single document. The British constitution consists of many documents and most for the evolution of the Office of the Prime Minister, it is based on customs known as constitutional conventions that became accepted practice. In 1928, Prime Minister H. H. Asquith described this characteristic of the British constitution in his memoirs:In this country we live... under an unwritten Constitution. It is true that we have on the Statute-book great instruments like Magna Carta, the Petition of Right, the Bill of Rights which define and secure many of our rights and privileges, they rest on usage, convention of slow growth in their early stages, not always uniform, but which in the course of time received universal observance and respect.
The relationships between the Prime Minister and the Sovereign and Cabinet are defined by these unwritten conventions of the constitution. Many of the Prime Minister's executive and legislative powers are royal prerogatives which are still formally vested in the Sovereign, who remains the head of state. Despite its growing
The Korean War was a war between North Korea and South Korea. The war began on 25 June 1950 when North Korea invaded South Korea following a series of clashes along the border; as a product of the Cold War between the Soviet Union and the United States, Korea had been split into two sovereign states in 1948. A socialist state was established in the north under the communist leadership of Kim Il-sung and a capitalist state in the south under the anti-communist leadership of Syngman Rhee. Both governments of the two new Korean states claimed to be the sole legitimate government of all of Korea, neither accepted the border as permanent; the conflict escalated into warfare when North Korean military forces—supported by the Soviet Union and China—crossed the border and advanced south into South Korea on 25 June 1950. The United Nations Security Council authorized the formation and dispatch of UN forces to Korea to repel what was recognized as a North Korean invasion. Twenty-one countries of the United Nations contributed to the UN force, with the United States providing around 90% of the military personnel.
After the first two months of war, South Korean and U. S. forces dispatched to Korea were on the point of defeat, forced back to a small area in the south known as the Pusan Perimeter. In September 1950, an amphibious UN counter-offensive was launched at Incheon, cut off many North Korean troops; those who escaped envelopment and capture were forced back north. UN forces approached the Yalu River—the border with China—but in October 1950, mass Chinese forces crossed the Yalu and entered the war; the surprise Chinese intervention triggered a retreat of UN forces which continued until mid-1951. In these reversals of fortune, Seoul changed hands four times, the last two years of fighting became a war of attrition, with the front line close to the 38th parallel; the war in the air, was never a stalemate. North Korea was subject to a massive bombing campaign. Jet fighters confronted each other in air-to-air combat for the first time in history, Soviet pilots covertly flew in defense of their communist allies.
The fighting ended on 27 July 1953. The agreement created the Korean Demilitarized Zone to separate North and South Korea, allowed the return of prisoners. However, no peace treaty was signed, according to some sources the two Koreas are technically still at war, engaged in a frozen conflict. In April 2018, the leaders of North and South Korea met at the demilitarized zone and agreed to work towards a treaty to formally end the Korean War. In South Korea, the war is referred to as "625" or the "6–2–5 Upheaval", reflecting the date of its commencement on June 25. In North Korea, the war is referred to as the "Fatherland Liberation War" or alternatively the "Chosǒn War". In China, the war is called the "War to Resist America and Aid Korea", although the term "Chaoxian War" is used in unofficial contexts, along with the term "Hán War" more used in regions such as Hong Kong and Macau. In the U. S. the war was described by President Harry S. Truman as a "police action" as the United States never formally declared war on its opponents and the operation was conducted under the auspices of the United Nations.
It has been referred to in the English-speaking world as "The Forgotten War" or "The Unknown War" because of the lack of public attention it received both during and after the war, in relation to the global scale of World War II, which preceded it, the subsequent angst of the Vietnam War, which succeeded it. Imperial Japan destroyed the influence of China over Korea in the First Sino-Japanese War, ushering in the short-lived Korean Empire. A decade after defeating Imperial Russia in the Russo-Japanese War, Japan made Korea its protectorate with the Eulsa Treaty in 1905 annexed it with the Japan–Korea Annexation Treaty in 1910. Many Korean nationalists fled the country; the Provisional Government of the Republic of Korea was founded in 1919 in Nationalist China. It failed to achieve international recognition, failed to unite nationalist groups, had a fractious relationship with its U. S.-based founding president, Syngman Rhee. From 1919 to 1925 and beyond, Korean communists led internal and external warfare against the Japanese.
In China, the Nationalist National Revolutionary Army and the communist People's Liberation Army helped organize Korean refugees against the Japanese military, which had occupied parts of China. The Nationalist-backed Koreans, led by Yi Pom-Sok, fought in the Burma Campaign; the communists, led by Kim Il-sung among others, fought the Japanese in Manchuria. At the Cairo Conference in November 1943, the United Kingdom, the United States all decided that "in due course Korea shall become free and independent". At the Tehran Conference in November 1943 and the Yalta Conference in February 1945, the Soviet Union promised to join its allies in the Pacific War within three months of the victory in Europe. Accordingly, it declared war o